Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Chapter 15 Genetic Engineering 15.1 Selective Breeding 15.1 Selective Breeding

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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Chapter 15 Genetic Engineering 15.1 Selective Breeding 15.1 Selective Breeding
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Selective Breeding only organisms with characteristics reproduce. Two Types o
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Hybridization Hybridization - crossing individuals to mix best of both. Hybrids are often than the parents. Ex: Crossing disease-resistant plants with productive plants. Ex: Horse + donkey = mule
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall - breeding individuals with characteristics. Adv: characteristics Disadv: Increases chances for genetic. Inbreeding
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Increasing Variation using technological processes on living organisms. breeding is one form of biotechnology important in agriculture and medicine, but there are many others.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Increasing Variation Breeders can increase genetic variation by introducing. Ex: Oil-digesting bacteria (sets of chromosomes) plants are larger and stronger than their diploid relatives. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges 15.1 Review 1.What are the two types of selective breeding? 2.What is the difference between the two types? 3.What are two ways to increase variation? 4.What does polyploidy mean?
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Chapter 15 Genetic Engineering 15.2 Recombinant DNA 15.2 Recombinant DNA
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges THINK ABOUT IT Suppose you have an electronic game you want to change. Knowing that the game depends on a coded program in a computer microchip, youd need a way to get the existing program out of the microchip, read the program, make the changes you want, and put the modified code back into the microchip. What does this scenario have to do with genetic engineering? Just about everything.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Copying DNA 1. Extract DNA. 2. enzymes Cut DNA into fragments. 3. chain reaction ( ) used to copy DNA fragments.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Polymerase Chain Reaction 1. DNA strands. 2.Add DNA to make DNA copies. 3.Use copies to make more copies.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Combining DNA Fragments It can be beneficial to DNA from different organisms. A gene from one organism that is combined with the DNA of another organism.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Plasmids and Genetic Markers We can transform bacteria using. Plasmids - circular molecules in bacteria.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Plasmids and Genetic Markers marker a gene used to only desired bacteria.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Transgenic Organisms organism containing genes from. - An organism with recombinant DNA
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Cloning - a identical copy First clone - In 1997, Ian Wilmut cloned a sheep called Dolly.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges Cloning Animal cloning uses a procedure called nuclear transplantation. 1. Nucleus of egg is. 2. Egg is with cell. 3. Egg is placed in foster.
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges 15.2 Review 1.What do restriction enzymes do? 2.What is the process of copying DNA (abbrv.)? 3.When DNA from two different organisms is combined, what is it called? 4.If we wanted to isolate specific bacteria, what would we use?
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  • Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Meeting Ecological Challenges 15.1/15.2 Review Each group must pick one of the following to explain. One person in each group must explain their topic: A.What is selective breeding? What are the two types (and give examples). B.What are two ways breeders increase variation? Explain them. C.What are the three steps of copying DNA? D.What are the three steps of PCR? E.What are the three steps of cloning? F.What is the difference between the terms recombinant and transgenic?
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  • Chapter 15: Genetic Engineering Section 15-3: Applications of Genetic Engineering
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  • Agriculture and Industry Genetic engineering could give us: expensive food nutritious food manufacturing
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  • GM Crops Crops resistance to herbicides, rot, and spoilage GM Animals milk, more meat, and leaner meat. Clone to endangered species.
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  • Treating Disease Use DNA to make proteins Insulin, blood-clotting factor, cancer-fighting proteins changing a gene to treat a medical disease.
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  • Treating Disease Very Need a more way to insert working genes Make sure its not
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  • DNA Microarray Not gene is active the time DNA measures activity level of genes Colored tags label source of DNA Red spots = more cancer mRNA Green spots = more normal mRNA Yellow spots = both
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  • Personal Identification analyzes sections of DNA with little/no function, but that vary widely.
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  • Forensic Science = study of crime scene evidence Uses DNA fingerprinting to crimes, overturn convictions
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  • 15.3 Review 1. What does GM stand for? Name benefits. 2. What is gene therapy? 3. What measures gene activity? 4. What does DNA fingerprinting look at? 5. Why does DNA fingerprinting work?
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  • Lesson Overview 16.1 Darwins Voyage of Discovery
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  • Darwins Epic Journey Developed scientific theory explaining how organisms evolved over long periods of through descent from ancestors
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  • Darwins Epic Journey (cont.) -Three distinctive patterns of diversity: (1) Species vary (2) Species vary (3) Species vary.
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  • Species Vary Globally -Different but species live in habitats around the globe. Rhea of SA Emu of Australia Ostrich of Africa
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  • Species Vary Locally -Different, yet related, species occupy different within a area. -Ex: Galapagos Islands which are close together but have different ecological conditions which lead to very distinct giant tortoises.
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  • Species Vary Locally (cont.) Ex. Darwins Finches structure varied depending on their.
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  • Species Vary Over Time - - preserved remains of ancient organisms. -Some fossils were to species.
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  • Putting the Pieces of the Puzzle Together -The evidence suggested species could by process.
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  • Review 16.1 1.What theory states organisms evolved over time from a common ancestor? 2.What were three ways Darwin found species vary? 3.Species can change by ________________ processes.
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  • Lesson Overview 16.2 Ideas That Shaped Darwins Thinking
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  • An Ancient, Changing Earth Uniformitarianism - Processes that changed Earth in the continue to operate in the.
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  • Lamarcks Evolutionary Hypotheses proposed organisms change during their lifetimes by parts of their bodies. Acquired characteristics. Suggested these traits could be on to offspring Inheritance of acquired characteristics
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  • Evaluating Lamarcks Hypotheses Lamarcks hypotheses were. Evolution species becomes Acquired traits be passed on to offspring.
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  • Artificial Selection selection - nature provides variations, but humans to pass on. Breeders do this for animals and plants. Recognized variation provided raw materials for evolution.
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  • Review 16.2 1.The process that changes Earth both in the past and present is called 2.Whos ideas about evolution were incorrect? 3.Why were his ideas incorrect? 4.What is artificial selection?
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  • Lesson Overview 16.3 Darwin Presents His Case
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  • When does natural selection occur? for existence Variation and Survival of the
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  • The Struggle for Existence When more individuals are than can survive, members must to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life.
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  • Variation and Adaptation - Characteristic that ability to survive. Ex: Camouflage, sharper claws, efficiency, behaviors
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  • Survival of the Fittest ability to