Lesson 3 | Case Study: Biodiesel from Microalgae Study A. Biodiesel from Microalgae 1. Scientists have been exploring the use of protists to produce . 2. Biodiesel is a(n) made mostly

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Text of Lesson 3 | Case Study: Biodiesel from Microalgae Study A. Biodiesel from Microalgae 1. Scientists...

  • 38 Scientific Explanations

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    Student Labs and Activities Page

    Content Vocabulary 39

    Lesson Outline 40

    Content Practice A 42

    Content Practice B 43

    Language Arts Support 44

    School to Home 45

    Key Concept Builders 46

    Enrichment 50

    Challenge 51

    Lab A 54

    Lab B 57

    Lab C 60

    Chapter Key Concepts Builder 61

    Lesson 3 | Case Study: Biodiesel from Microalgae

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  • Scientific Explanations 39

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    Case Study: Biodiesel from MicroalgaeDirections: Study the Venn diagrams below. For each term, write its definition. Where circles overlap, explain the relationship between the terms. Write your answers on the lines provided.

    Content Vocabulary LESSON 3

    constants variable

    1. 3. 2.

    4. 6. 5.

    dependent variable

    independent variable

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  • 40 Scientific Explanations

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    Case StudyA. Biodiesel from Microalgae

    1. Scientists have been exploring the use of protists to

    produce .

    2. Biodiesel is a(n) made mostly from living organisms.

    B. Designing a Controlled Experiment

    1. A type of scientific investigation that tests how one variable affects another variable

    is called a(n) experiment.

    2. In a controlled experiment, the group contains the same factors as the experimental group, but the independent variable does not change.

    C. Biodiesel

    1. Rudolph Diesel invented the engine.

    2. Replacing food crops with crops is not a good solution because there is a shortage of food in many parts of the world.

    D. Aquatic Species Program

    1. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) initially studied possible ways that microalgae

    could capture excess in the air.

    2. ASP project leaders noticed that some microalgae strains produced large amounts

    of .

    E. Which Microalgae?

    1. Microscopic organisms that live in marine or freshwater environments

    are called .

    2. During , microalgae produce that can be converted into biodiesel.

    F. Oil Production in Microalgae

    1. Starving microalgae of nutrients, such as nitrogen, increases the amount of

    they produced.

    2. Starving the microalgae also caused their size to , resulting in no overall increase in oil production.

    Lesson Outline LESSON 3

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    G. Outdoor Testing v. Bioreactors

    1. Growing microalgae in open can be challenging but might be less expensive than other methods.

    2. Some researchers are now growing algae under controlled conditions in closed glass

    containers called .

    H. Why So Many Hypotheses?

    1. Dr. Richard Sayre, a biofuel researcher, said that all the ASP research was based

    on forming .

    2. According to Dr. Sayre, to get research support, a scientist has to develop

    a(n) and propose some .

    I. Increasing Oil Yield

    1. Microalgae use energy, water, and carbon dioxide to make sugar.

    2. Scientists from a biofuel company wondered whether microalgae oil yields could be

    by distributing light to all microalgae.

    J. Bringing Light to Microalgae

    1. Researchers and engineers used to feed artificial light to

    microalgae in a(n) .

    2. continuously rotate microalgae to the surface so the organisms are exposed to more light.

    K. Why Grow Microalgae?

    1. Power plants that burn release carbon dioxide into the

    , which contributes to .

    2. Microalgae use carbon dioxide during and produce sugar, which can then be converted to oil.

    L. Are microalgae the future?

    1. The costs of growing microalgae are currently too high to compete

    with -based diesel.

    2. -based biodiesel might one day become an affordable reality in the United States.

    Lesson Outline continued

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  • 42 Scientific Explanations

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    Case Study: Biodiesel from Microalgae Directions: On the line before each statement, write T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false. If the statement is false, change the underlined word(s) to make it true. Write your changes on the lines provided.

    1. Biodiesel is fuel made primarily from fossil fuels.

    2. During the past few decades, scientists have explored the use of protists to

    produce biodiesel.

    3. Rudolph Diesel, who invented the diesel engine, used soybean oil to

    demonstrate how the engine worked.

    4. Some studies suggest that giving microalgae large amounts of nitrogen could

    increase the amount of oil they produced.

    5. Microalgae can be grown in controlled conditions in bioreactors, but these

    containers are more expensive than open ponds.

    6. Light rods can be used to increase microalgae growth and biodiesel

    production.

    7. Paddlewheels can be used to make sure the microalgaes environment

    does not change.

    8. Microalgae can remove pollutants from the air.

    9. Scientists currently face few challenges in their quest to produce biodiesel from

    microalgae.

    Content Practice A LESSON 3

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    Case Study: Biodiesel from Microalgae Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement in the space provided.

    Question Answer

    1. What source of energy is used by most people for industry and transportation?

    2. What problems are associated with using these kinds of fuels?

    3. What is biodiesel?

    4. What are protists?

    5. Identify one challenge scientists have faced as they attempt to make biodiesel from microalgae.

    6. Describe how scientists have addressed this challenge.

    7. What are some benefits of cultivating microalgae?

    Content Practice B LESSON 3

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    Text-Analysis Activity: Identifying Variables and ConstantsA controlled experiment tests how one variable affects another variable. The variable that is being changed is called the independent variable. The variable that is being measured or observed is the dependent variable. Constants are factors that remain the same.

    Directions: Read each scenario below. Then answer each question on the lines provided.

    A group of scientists conducted an experiment to determine the temperature at which a certain species of microalgae grow most rapidly. They set up 25 closed glass containers, or bioreactors. Each bioreactor held 25 L of water, equal amounts of dissolved nutrients, and equal starting populations of algae and were exposed to 12 hours of light each day. Each bioreactor was held at a different temperature. Bioreactor 1 was set at 5C. Each subsequent bioreactor was set one degree higher, with Bioreactor 25 set at 29C. After seven days, the scientists measured the size of the algae population in each bioreactor.

    1. In this experiment, what is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable?

    2. What are two variables that are held constant in the experiment above?

    Tila and Jabal want to attract hummingbirds to their school garden by hanging hummingbird feeders that contain sugar water. They did some research to find out how much sugar they should put in the water. One source said to add 1,000 g to 1 L of water. Another source