LESSON 17 TEACHER’S GUIDE Innovations from Ancient China 17 TEACHER’S GUIDE Innovations from Ancient China ... include facts about ancient China. ... The Great Wall of China is

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    L E S S O N 1 7 T E A C H E R S G U I D E

    Innovations from Ancient Chinaby Ira Shull

    Fountas-Pinnell Level YInformational TextSelection SummaryFrom fi reworks to wheelbarrowsancient China is responsible for these and many of the innovations that we use today. This book takes readers through the history of ancient China and how their innovative inventors helped shaped the world we live in.

    Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

    All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Permission is hereby granted to individual teachers using the corresponding (discipline) Leveled Readers to photocopy student worksheets from this publication in classroom quantities for instructional use and not for resale. Requests for information on other matters regarding duplication of this work should be addressed to Houghton Miffl in Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Contracts, Copyrights, and Licensing, 9400 SouthPark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida 32819. Printed in the U.S.A. 978-0-547-30849-4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0940 15 14 13 12 11 10 09

    If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Miffl in Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited.

    Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

    Characteristics of the Text Genre Informational Text

    Text Structure Third-person narrative with some direct address to the reader Introduction followed by 8 chapters with headings Events in chronological order

    Content Early Chinese dynasties Trading goods and ideas Inventions and innovations: gun powder, paper, seismograph

    Themes and Ideas The innovations of the Chinese were ahead of their time. Philosophical ideas shaped the society. Many devices that we use today are a direct result of ancient Chinese innovations.

    Language and Literary Features

    Parenthetical pronunciation guides for Chinese names Dates for dynasties and innovations

    Sentence Complexity A mixture of simple and complex sentences Mid-sentence phrases enclosed by commas Multiple items in a series

    Vocabulary Many names of ancient Chinese dynasties: Shang, Zhou, Qin Challenging words such as lodestone defi ned in context

    Words Many multisyllable words: innovations, excavated, philosophy, archaeologicalIllustrations Illustrations, maps, and photos

    Book and Print Features Fifteen pages of text Glossary of terms, sidebars

    2006. Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H.

    6_308494_AL_LRTG_L17_innovations.indd 1 1/9/10 4:53:18 PM

  • Expand Your Vocabulary

    alchemy an early form of chemistry that attempted to change base metals into other forms, p. 10

    calligraphy the art of beautiful handwriting, p. 12

    concoction a creation that is made by mixing several different things together, p. 10

    pictographs pictures used as a symbol in ancient writing systems, p. 12

    seismograph an instrument that detects earthquakes and measures their power, p. 13

    Innovations from Ancient China by Ira ShullBuild BackgroundHelp students use their knowledge of different inventions to visualize the selection. Build interest by asking questions such as the following: Have you ever thought about how common tools such as the compass, the wheelbarrow, and paper came to be? How many years ago do you think these things were invented? Read the title and author and talk about the cover photograph. Tell students that this selection is informational, so it will include facts about ancient China.

    Introduce the TextGuide students through the text, noting important ideas, and helping with unfamiliar language and vocabulary so they can read the text successfully. Here are some suggestions:

    Page 2: Have students look at the table of contents. Point out the word dynasty. Suggested language: The word dynasty is important in the history of ancient China. When a country is ruled by a dynasty, power is passed down from one generation to the next in the same family. How do you think being ruled by a dynasty would affect a country and its people?

    Pages 45: Direct students attention to the map on page 4. Read the fi rst sentence of the second paragraph on page 5. Ask: What geographic obstacles would make it diffi cult to unite ancient China?

    Page 8: Have students look at the photograph of the Great Wall and read the caption. Ask: Does it surprise you that the Great Wall iseven in our daythe largest human-made structure in the world? Why or why not?

    Page 13: Have students read the heading on page 13. Ask: What kind of event makes the earth shake, rattle, and roll? Scientists today still have trouble predicting earthquakes, but the ancient Chinese tried to do just that. They invented a seismograph. How do you think it worked?

    Now turn back to the beginning of the selection and read to fi nd out about the innovations of the ancient Chinese people.

    2 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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  • ReadHave students read silently while you listen to individual students read aloud. Support their understanding of the text as needed.

    Remind students to use the Question Strategy and to ask questions about a selection before they read, as they read, and after they read.

    Discuss and Revisit the TextPersonal ResponseInvite students to share their personal responses to the selection. Suggested language: What inventions created by the ancient Chinese people do you use today?

    Ways of ThinkingAs you discuss the text, help students understand these points:

    Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text

    The rulers of ancient China passed power down through their families.

    Scientists and researchers have learned many things about ancient Chinese dynasties.

    The Chinese began trade with India along the Silk Road, a trade route that would eventually stretch into Europe.

    The philosophy and beliefs of a powerful ruler shape the way the government runs.

    Many of the devices that we use today are a direct result of ancient Chinese inventions.

    Trade with China is still important to the rest of the world.

    The maps help the reader to visualize the areas of China that are mentioned in the text.

    The glossary of terms provides meanings to important vocabulary in the text.

    The author uses additional sidebars to provide extra information for the reader.

    2006. Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, N.H.

    Choices for Further Support Fluency Invite students to choose a passage from the text to read aloud. Remind

    students to slow down when they come to words or phrases that might be unfamiliar or more challenging.

    Comprehension Based on your observations of the students reading and discussion, revisit parts of the text to clarify or extend comprehension. Remind students to go back to the text to support their ideas.

    Phonics/Word Work Provide practice as needed with words and word parts, using examples from the text. Remind students that many words have different forms with related but different meanings. For instance, the noun alchemy names an old kind of science. A person who practiced alchemy was called an alchemist. Have students identify the word that names people who work in the fi eld of archaeology.

    3 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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  • Writing about ReadingCritical ThinkingHave students complete the Critical Thinking questions on BLM 17.9.

    RespondingHave students complete the activities at the back of the book, using their Readers Notebook. Use the instruction below as needed to reinforce or extend understanding of the comprehension skill.

    Target Comprehension SkillFact and Opinion

    Target Comprehension Skill Remind students that they need to decide whether an

    idea in the text can be proved or is a feeling or belief of the author. Model how to add details to the Graphic Organizer, using a Think Aloud like the one below:

    Think Aloud

    On page 13, the author says, Some ideas are so simple and effective that theres no reason to change them! This is an opinion of the author. It cannot be proved. Include this opinion on the chart. On this same page, the author says that China is near an earthquake zone. This is a fact that can be proved. List this fact in on the chart.

    Practice the SkillHave students share an example of another text that includes facts and opinions.

    Writing Prompt: Thinking Beyond the TextHave students write a response to the prompt on page 6. Remind them that when they think beyond the text, they use their personal knowledge to reach new understandings.

    Assessment Prompts What is the main purpose of this selection?

    What are two innovations from ancient China that we still use today?

    What words on page 12 help you to fi gure out what the word pictographs means?

    4 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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  • Critical ThinkingRead and answer the questions.

    1. Think within the text What is a bureaucracy?

    2. Think within the text How large is the Great Wall of China?

    3. Think beyond the text The Chinese were responsible for developing

    gunpowder, as well as many other innovations. List facts about these

    innovations and your opinion about their importance.

    4. Think about the text The Silk Road connected China to the West.

    Why was that connection important?

    Making Connections What do you think was one of the most important innovations from ancient China? How does it still influence us today?

    Write your answer in your Readers Notebook.

    Name Date

    Critical Thinking Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

    Lesson 17B L A C K L I N E M A S T E R 1 7 . 9

    Innovations from Ancient ChinaCritical Thinking

    11 Grade 6, Unit 4: Treasures of the Ancient World

    A bureaucracy is a type of government arranged into levels.

    The Great Wall of China is about 1,500 miles long and 25 feet high.

    The Chinese also developed fi recrackers and the compass.

    Fireworks entertain us, and the compass has evolved into the

    global positioning system. These innovations have become very

    important and are still used today.

    It allowed for the trading of goods and ideas between the East and

    West.

    Possible responses shown.

    17.09_6_246260RNLEAN_Crtl Thk.in11 11 6/22/09 2:29:02 PM

    English Language DevelopmentReading Support Make sure the text matches the students reading level. Language and content should be accessible with regular teaching support.

    Cognates The selection includes many cognates. Explain the English word and its Spanish cognate: dignifi ed (dignifi cado), elaborate (elaborar), excavate (excavar), lustrous (lustroso), mythical (mtico), precede (preceder), and replica (rplica).

    Oral Language DevelopmentCheck student comprehension, using a dialogue that best matches your students English profi ciency. Speaker 1 is the teacher, Speaker 2 is the student.

    Beginning/Early Intermediate Intermediate Early Advanced/ Advanced

    Speaker 1: Which dynasty was the fi rst to make lasting changes in China?

    Speaker 2: the Shang dynasty

    Speaker 1: Why was the great wall built?

    Speaker 2: to keep invaders out

    Speaker 1: Which dynasty was most infl uenced by the ideas of Confucius?

    Speaker 2: The Han Dynasty was most infl uenced by his ideas.

    Speaker 1: Why have recent Chinese government laws prohibited people from taking bricks from or building near the Great Wall?

    Speaker 2: The Great Wall is starting to show signs of wear and damage, and the government wants to protect its history.

    Speaker 1: In what way did ancient China infl uence the modern world today?

    Speaker 2: The ancient Chinese people are responsible for the creation of paper, roads, monetary systems, fi reworks, the compass, writing systems, and many other inventions we use today.

    5 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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  • Name Date

    Innovations of Ancient ChinaThinking Beyond the Text

    Think about the questions below. Then write your answer in two or three paragraphs.

    Remember that when you think beyond the text, you use your personal knowledge to reach new understandings.

    What kind of invention or innovation do you think the ancient Chinese would develop based on what the world needs now? Imagine and describe something newor an important change to something that already existsthat would make the world a better place for a long time to come.

    6 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

    6_308494_AL_LRTG_L17_innovations.indd 6 11/16/09 4:51:05 PM

  • Critical ThinkingRead and answer the questions.

    1. Think within the text What is a bureaucracy?

    2. Think within the text How large is the Great Wall of China?

    3. Think beyond the text The Chinese were responsible for developing

    gunpowder, as well as many other innovations. List facts about these

    innovations and your opinion about their importance.

    4. Think about the text The Silk Road connected China to the West.

    Why was that connection important?

    Making Connections What do you think was one of the most important innovations from ancient China? How does it still influence us today?

    Write your answer in your Readers Notebook.

    Name Date Lesson 17

    B L A C K L I N E M A S T E R 1 7 . 9

    Innovations from Ancient ChinaCritical Thinking

    7 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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    Student Date Lesson 17

    B L A C K L I N E M A S T E R 1 7 . 1 3

    Innovations from Ancient China LEVEL Y

    Innovations from Ancient China

    Running Record Form

    8 Lesson 17: Innovations from Ancient ChinaGrade 6 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

    Behavior Code Error

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    Omission cat 1

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    Self-corrects cut sccat 0

    Insertion the

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    page Selection Text Errors Self-Corrections

    16 By the 900s, paper had reached India, Egypt, Syria, and

    Morocco. It took almost anothe...