Lesson 1.7 - Knowledge and Values

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    Part 1.7

    Knowledge & ValuesBy: Rohaizan Baharuddin

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    Learning Objectives

    1.7 Knowledge and Value

    (epistemology and axiology)

    a) Definition

    b) Types and Hierarchy

    c) Sources

    d) Reflection

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    Definition

    1) Knowledge / Epistemology

    - Derives from two Greek words:

    a) Episteme means knowledge

    b) Logos means theory

    - It gives inspiration in the heart and guides our action,

    and contributes towards betterment of society, not only

    supplies information

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    Definition

    2) Value / Axiology

    - Derives from two Greek words:

    I a) Axios means value/worth

    b) Logos means theory

    - An element that can measure human behavior whetherthe action is liking or disliking (subjective)

    - Decides on the movement, action and behavior of

    human under certain values at a particular time and ata particular place.

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    Learning Objectives

    1.7 Knowledge and Value

    (epistemology and axiology)

    a) Definition

    b) Types and Hierarchy

    c) Sources

    d) Reflection

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    Types of Knowledge According to Hierarchy

    a) Revealed Knowledge

    b) Inspirational Knowledge

    c) Rational Knowledge

    d) Empirical Knowledge

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    Types of Knowledge According to Hierarchy

    a) Revealed Knowledge

    Knowledge about al-Quran, tafsir, hadith, fiqh, usul, etc. Also known as Syariah, religious, and naqli knowledge.

    All this knowledge is fardhu ain.

    The truth in this knowledge is an absolute truth

    Highest level and sometimes beyond the human mind or senses.

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    Types of Knowledge According to Hierarchy

    b) Inspirational Knowledge

    Only certain people are able to attain it.

    Usually, human possesses it with pure heart or deep

    attachment and interest on something.

    Known as knowledge ofladunni.

    Must be integrated with revealed knowledge.

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    Types of Knowledge According to Hierarchy

    c) Rational Knowledge

    Based on mental capacity and ability

    Limited in nature

    Support revealed knowledge and need to be guided

    by it

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    Types of Knowledge According to Hierarchy

    d) Empirical/Sensor Knowledge

    It can be obtained by human senses

    Knowledge is something that can be proven through senses and

    supported by rational knowledge

    In Islam, empirical knowledge must be obtained with the guidance of

    revealed knowledge

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    Types of Islamic Values

    According to Hierarchy

    a) Mahmudah / Maruf

    b) Makruhah

    c) Mazmumah / Munkar

    Mubah/permisible Sunat/Recommended Fardhu/Wajib/Obligatory

    Makruh/Discouraged

    Haram/Bad/Prohibited

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    1) Mahmudah /Good Valuesa) Fardhu/compulsory

    - Things that must be done by a Muslim.

    - Do what has been asked to do and dont do what isforbidden.

    - Muslims are rewarded if they do right thing and punishedfor wrong thing.

    b) Sunnah/recommended

    - Doers will be rewarded and no punishment for those

    who do not.

    c)Mubah/Permissible

    - Muslims are free to choose whether he wants to do it or

    not. If he performs it, no reward will be given. And if he

    doesnt, no punishment for that.

    Types of Values According to Hierarchy

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    2) Makruhah /Discouraged Values

    a) Makruh or discouraged

    - Things or actions those are discouraged by Islam.

    - If we execute it, no punishment for that.

    - But if we dont execute it, reward will be given.

    3) Mazmumah /Bad Values

    a) Haram or prohibited

    - Things or actions that are totally forbidden by Islam.

    - If we do it, we will be punished. If we dont, we will be

    rewarded.

    Types of Values According to Hierarchy

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    Learning Objectives

    1.7 Knowledge and Value

    (epistemology and axiology)

    a) Definition

    b) Types and Hierarchy

    c) Sources

    d) Reflection

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    Sources of Knowledge

    a) Revealation

    b) Inspiration

    d) Mind

    d) Senses

    c) Intuition

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    Sources

    1) Knowledge / Epistemologya) Revelation

    - Refers to Quran and Sunnah

    - Source of all knowledge

    - Allah

    Prophets

    mankind- Main source for Muslims about God, aqidah, syariahand akhlak

    b) Inspiration (ilham)

    - Only rewarded to extraordinary man who deeply attachedto certain fields

    - Can be obtained through tireless of practices, isolation,pure heart, remembering Allah: zikrand fasting

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    Sources

    c) Intuition / instinct

    - Power of understanding the situations or peoples feelingsand doing something immediately, without hardship /study.

    - Intuition only comes when man has a deep interest on the

    subject or its born by nature

    d) Mind

    - The difference between human and other creatures

    - The thinking and understanding ability of human beings

    differs from one person to another for many reason

    - According to Muslim Scholars, mind is not a total source ofknowledge.

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    Sources

    e) Senses

    - Humans have 5 senses: taste, smell, touch, sight andhearing

    - Information we get is transferred to mind through these 5senses

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    Sources

    2) Values / Aksiology- In every society, religion is the source of moral

    values

    - In Islam, there are 3 main sources of moral values:a) Quran

    b) Sunnah / Hadith

    c) Uruf/ Adah (custom)

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    Question and

    Answer Session

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    Yes

    No

    Seeking knowledge is sunnah/recommended in Islam

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    Yes

    No

    Muslims are abligated to learn both Fardhu Ain and FardhuKifayah knowledge.

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    Revealed knowledge is also known as __________ .

    Fardhu Kifayah knowledge

    Fardhu Ain knowledge

    Quranic knowledge

    Sunnah knowledge

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    Below are the types of Islamic Values except

    Mahmudah

    Makruhah

    Mazmumah

    Mawaddah

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    The followings are the sources of Islamic Values except

    Quran

    Sunnah

    Islamic Law

    Culture

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    Below are not the sources of knowledge except

    books

    internet

    eyes

    head

    Whi h f h f ll i / bj h b

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    Which of the following courses/subjects serves as the bestexample of Fardhu Ain knowledge

    Bahasa Kebangsaan A

    Islamic Studies

    Malaysian Studies

    Moral Education

    Whi h f th t t t b l i t b t h

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    Which of the statement below is correct about humansintellect?

    Humans intellect can hardly be used for

    the sake of religion

    Humans intellect can serve as a limited

    source of knowledge

    Humans intellect is useless and can never

    challenge the revelation

    Humans intellect has the ability to predict

    the future

    Th f All h k i th k l d (Il Al

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    The purpose of Allah keeping the unseen knowledge (Ilm Al-Ghaib) hidden from human beings is to test their _______.

    faith

    power

    weaknesses

    smartness

    A di t th hi h f l i I l h

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    According to the hierarchy of values in Islam, sunnah(recommended) falls under the category of __________.

    munkar

    muhsin

    mahram

    maruf

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    Learning Objectives

    1.7 Knowledge and Value

    (epistemology and axiology)

    a) Definition

    b) Types and Hierarchy

    c) Sources

    d) Reflection

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    Our Education System:A Reflection

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    Islam stresses that the integration between world

    knowledge and eternity knowledge, and the

    assimilation between life values and religious values

    are very important.

    Islam deems that life in this world is a bridge to life in

    eternity.

    The emphasis of revelation as the main source ofknowledge and values in Islam is to show that al-

    Quran and al-Sunnah are the greatest treasure for

    Muslims

    Conclusion