Lesson 1: Introduction to Seabirds - ... Lesson 1: Introduction to Seabirds Lesson 1 Presentation Content

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  • Lesson 1: Introduction to Seabirds

  • Lesson 1 Presentation Content

    – What is a seabird? – Wingspan Activity – Life Cycle & Adaptations – Marine Food Webs – Albatross Adaptations

    Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate

  • Engage What is a Seabird?

  • Black-footed Albatross Soars Above the Waves

    Presenter Presentation Notes Birds, like the Black-footed Albatross, that spend most of their lives at sea are known as seabirds. Discuss with students what it must be like for these animals, which spend the large majority of their lives at sea.

  • Seabirds live in many ocean habitats, from the Tropics…

    Presenter Presentation Notes Seabirds live in all the oceans – Sophie Webb painted a congregation of seabirds, tuna and dolphins targeting a school of flying fish in the Tropical Pacific.

  • …to the Arctic

    Presenter Presentation Notes Seabirds live in all the oceans – Sophie Webb painted a congregation of shearwaters, diving alcid seabirds, and humpback whales feeding in Bering Sea waters where prey fish are often found in great densities.

  • Even when nesting on land, seabirds spend most of their time at sea

    Presenter Presentation Notes Brown Booby incubating eggs. All seabirds return to land to breed, except the Emperor Penguins that only need frozen ocean. But even when nesting on land, seabirds spend most of their time at sea. Discuss with students why seabirds do not spend much time on land, and the activities in which they engage while out at sea, e.g., feeding, flying, swimming, etc.

  • Seabird Biodiversity

    Presenter Presentation Notes Some of these species are very familiar—others are not. They come in many “shapes and sizes,” but seabirds share their dependence on the ocean for meeting their needs.

    Brown Pelican – photo by David Gardner on Año Nuevo Island Emperor and Adelie Penguin – photo by Noah Stryker at Cape Crozier, Antarctica Atlantic Puffin – photo by Henrick Thorburn in Iceland Western Gull – photo by David Gardner on Año Nuevo Island

  • Ambassador Species

    Laysan Albatross

    mōlī

    Black-Footed Albatross

    kaʻupu

    Presenter Presentation Notes This lesson will focus on these two species, which spend their time traversing the Pacific Ocean (common English and Hawaiian names).

  • I now belong to a higher cult of mortals, for I have seen the albatross!

    - Robert Cushman Murphy

    Presenter Presentation Notes Robert Cushman Murphy (April 29, 1887-March 20, 1973) was an American ornithologist and curator of birds for the American Museum of Natural History in New York – and a lover of poetry.

    Image: A Wandering Albatross, one of the largest seabirds in the world, catches an updraft from the MV Ushuaia research vessel in the Drake Passage. Photo by Kenin Turner.

  • Ocean Wanderers

    Presenter Presentation Notes Explain to students that these black dots represent the locations of 47 Black-footed Albatross tracked by satellites during summers. In Lesson 2, students will learn more about satellite tracking and mapping the routes of real albatross.

  • Where do they go?

    Presenter Presentation Notes The different color “spaghetti tracks” show the paths of 13 individual albatross that started from three locations: Kure Atoll, Tern Island, and Cordell Bank. These birds were tracked for only 3 months of their lives in the summer time. Satellite transmitters fall off when birds molt, or stop working for other reasons. Imagine if scientists could follow them for an entire year!

  • Zubenelgenubi

    Presenter Presentation Notes A Black-footed Albatross, named after a bright star called Zubenelgenubi, flew all the way across the Pacific Ocean in less than 2 months – from California to Japan.

  • Explore Wingspan Activity

  • Laysan Albatross Shows Off Its Wingspan

    Presenter Presentation Notes The wingspan of a bird is described as the distance from the tip of one wing to the tip of the other when outstretched.

  • What is your ‘wingspan’?

    Presenter Presentation Notes Art at the Royal Albatross Visitors Center in Dunedin, New Zealand. North Pacific Albatrosses are relatively small compared to albatrosses in the southern hemisphere around New Zealand. For example the Wandering and Royal albatross have wingspans over 11 feet!

  • Explain Life Cycle and Adaptations

  • Nesting sites in the middle of the Pacific

    Presenter Presentation Notes This is a map of the Hawaiian Islands. The green islands are the Main Hawaiian Islands. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are a series of atolls, sandy islands formed around coral reefs. The black line is the border of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument established to protect the ecosystems and cultural heritage.

    Learn how to pronounce here: http://www.papahanaumokuakea.gov/about/pronounce.mp3

  • The Albatross Reproductive Cycle

    • Adults usually breed for the first time between ages 6 – 12 and can breeding every other year for their entire lifetime, which can last 60 years or more!

    • Mates return to the colony in late October and females lay a single

    egg in November or December. Both parents incubate the egg. • Chicks hatch January to February, after about 66 days of incubation. • The chick is attended continuously for about 20 days, guarded for

    another 10 days, and then visited by the parents only briefly to be fed until late June.

    Presenter Presentation Notes This slide describes the albatross reproductive cycle. Encourage students to creatively represent this cycle.

  • Albatross Gather in Colonies to Lay Their Eggs

    Presenter Presentation Notes Midway Atoll, an island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, is a World War II battle site. Many thousands of Laysan Albatross raise their young here among the runways and military buildings.

  • Adult Albatross Perform Mating Dances

    Presenter Presentation Notes Two Laysan Albatross adults doing a courtship or mating dance – the many poses include “sky pointing” as seen here.

  • Different Dances for Different Species

    Video provided on website

    Presenter Presentation Notes The Black-footed Albatross perform a different dance sequence specific to their species.

    Video of dancing albatross provided for download or online viewing at http://www.DownloadWinged Ambassadors.org.

  • Video provided on website for download

    Albatross Dancing and Mating

    Presenter Presentation Notes Video “Nesting Hawaiian Albatross” includes albatross dancing provided for download or online viewing: http://www.DownloadWingedAmbassadors.org

  • Albatross Egg

    Presenter Presentation Notes Female albatross breeding in the Pacific lay a single large egg in November or December. Two eggs in a nest usually means the pair bond is between two females. Pair bonds can last a lifetime or until one of the birds dies or disappears.

  • Laysan Albatross on the Nest

    Presenter Presentation Notes Albatross parents take turns incubating the egg for about 2-3 months.

  • Newly Hatched Laysan Albatross Chick

    Presenter Presentation Notes For the first few weeks when chicks are little, they require constant protection to survive the heat, wind and rain. If the island has predators, such as rats, they especially need protection until they are big enough to fend for themselves in the nest.

    Note the purple plastic band on the parent’s leg with a unique number engraved on it. Biologists band albatross to follow individuals and learn about their lives.

    Video “Nesting Hawaiian Albatross” includes a chick hatching out of an egg provided for download or online viewing: http://www.DownloadWingedAmbassadors.org

  • Albatross Chicks Get Much Larger Prior to Fledging

    Presenter Presentation Notes As they grow, adult feathers replace the fluffy down.

  • Adult Albatross Feeding Large Chick

    Presenter Presentation Notes The parents feed chicks by regurgitating food and nutritious oil into their throats.

  • Video provided on website for download

    Albatross Feeding

    Presenter Presentation Notes Video “Nesting Hawaiian Albatross” includes parents feeding their chicks provided for download or online viewing: http://www.DownloadWingedAmbassadors.org

  • Albatross Chicks Exercise Their Wings and Practice Flying Before Fledging

    Presenter Presentation Notes When their wing feathers are fully grown, they often exercise and practice flying by flapping and hopping, especially in the wind and rain.

  • Video provided on website for download

    Albatross Exercising their Wings

    Presenter Presentation Notes Video “Nesting Hawaiian Albatross” includes chicks exercising their wings and practicing flying provided for download or online viewing: http://www.DownloadWingedAmbassadors.org

    Students will also enjoy a video clip with music from Chris Jordan’s Midway Journey film – Enter the Heroes: http://vimeo.com/groups/120490/videos/36745838

  • Adaptation