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Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051 Founding Editors Gerhard Goos Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany Juris Hartmanis Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Editorial Board Members Elisa Bertino Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Wen Gao Peking University, Beijing, China Bernhard Steffen TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany Gerhard Woeginger RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany Moti Yung Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

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Page 1: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

Founding Editors

Gerhard GoosKarlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany

Juris HartmanisCornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Editorial Board Members

Elisa BertinoPurdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Wen GaoPeking University, Beijing, China

Bernhard SteffenTU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany

Gerhard WoegingerRWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany

Moti YungColumbia University, New York, NY, USA

Page 2: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

More information about this subseries at http://www.springer.com/series/7412

Page 3: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

Halimah Badioze Zaman · Alan F. Smeaton ·Timothy K. Shih · Sergio Velastin ·Tada Terutoshi · Bo Nørregaard Jørgensen ·Hazleen Aris · Nazrita Ibrahim (Eds.)

Advances inVisual Informatics7th International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2021Kajang, Malaysia, November 23–25, 2021Proceedings

Page 4: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

EditorsHalimah Badioze ZamanUniversiti Tenaga NasionalSelangor, Malaysia

Timothy K. ShihNational Central UniversityJhongli, Taiwan

Tada TerutoshiToyo UniversityTokyo, Japan

Hazleen ArisUniversiti Tenaga NasionalSelangor, Malaysia

Alan F. SmeatonDublin City UniversityDublin, Ireland

Sergio VelastinQueen Mary University of LondonLondon, UK

Bo Nørregaard JørgensenUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense, Denmark

Nazrita IbrahimUniversiti Tenaga NasionalSelangor, Malaysia

ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349 (electronic)Lecture Notes in Computer ScienceISBN 978-3-030-90234-6 ISBN 978-3-030-90235-3 (eBook)https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90235-3

LNCS Sublibrary: SL6 – Image Processing, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition, and Graphics

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of thematerial is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation,broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or informationstorage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology nowknown or hereafter developed.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publicationdoes not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevantprotective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book arebelieved to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editorsgive a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors oromissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims inpublished maps and institutional affiliations.

This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AGThe registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Page 5: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

Preface

Visual informatics – a multidisciplinary field of computer science, informationtechnology, and engineering is dynamic and ever-enriching, in a world that is experienc-ing tremendous challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, security,unemployment, low education standards, and corruption. Despite all these challenges,the world, including the developing countries, is making brave strides towards becominga digital economy and a digital society. The pandemic has opened the eyes of policymakers, regulators, businesses, and the population at large to the advantages of digitallyenabling a wide range of economic activities that would help reinvent organizations andnations. With the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) being at the cusp and the adventof the fifth industrial revolution (5IR) already being discussed, the researchers of thismultidisciplinary field were excited when it was again time to organize this conference.Emphasizing its multidisciplinary nature, this year the International Visual InformaticsConference, which has its new home at the Malaysian Information Technology Society(MITS), was hosted for the first time by the Institute of Informatics and Computingin Energy (IICE) at Universiti Tenaga Nasional or The Energy University (UNITEN),Malaysia. IICE is a center of excellence in energy informatics but has visual informat-ics as one of its research areas integrated into the energy domain. IICE and the otherinstitutional partners of this conference conduct research in various specialized areas ofvisual informatics which are integrated into their fundamental domains. We have seenthese areas of visual informatics grow since the conference first began in 2009 through2021. We are grateful to all our partners, locally and internationally, for making the 7thInternational Visual Informatics Conference (IVIC 2021) possible.

IVIC 2021 was conducted at an unprecedented time (due to the COVID-19 pan-demic) which did not allow participants to meet face to face. For the first time, theconference was conducted virtually on a platform which allowed members to still inter-act with each other but through an online forum and chats. They also met at the virtualexhibition space to look at posters as well as a special exhibition related to the themeof the conference. As usual, the main objective of the conference was to bring togetherexperts to discuss and share new knowledge, ideas, and innovations in this researcharea so that more concerted efforts can be undertaken nationally and globally. Like theprevious IVIC conferences, this year’s conference was organized collaboratively by thevisual informatics community from various public and private universities, professionalinstitutions, and industry players from various parts of the world (their names are listedin the proceedings).

The theme of the conference, ‘Digital Innovation, Transformation, and SustainableTechnology inReinventingNations’, reflects the importance of the need for organizationsand nations to transform and reinvent themselves tomeet digitalization innovation needs,to ensure security, to improve governance, and to fight against corruption and globalchallenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. A human-centric future society (Society5.0) requires new, secure digital innovations driven by artificial intelligence (AI), smarttechnology, andbigdata analytics; it also requires digital transformation through strategic

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vi Preface

digital adoption and sustainable technologies for better economic growth. Thus, thetheme of the conference was relevant, apt, and timely.

IVIC2021 tookplace duringNovember 23–25, 2021.The conference focusedon fourtracks: Visualization, Engineering, Cyber Security and Machine Learning, and EnergyInformatics, and it endedwith six half-dayworkshops that ran concurrently: Innovation inEducational Technology for Online Teaching and Learning Environment; Introductionto Multi-criteria Decision Making Models (MCDM); Holistic Energy Modeling forBuilding Performance Improvement; Neural Networks andDeepLearningUsing Pythonand PyTorch; Data Visualization with Tableau; and Munch Big Data with Apache Sparkand Python. There were five keynote speakers and 60 paper presentations based on topicscovered by the four main tracks. The reviewing of the papers was conducted by expertswho represented the Program Committee locally and internationally. Each paper wasreviewed by three reviewers and the acceptance rate was 51%. The reviewing processwas managed using the system EasyChair. The conference also included an exhibitionentitled “Transformation through Digital Energy Comfort” shown in the form of videoart, to showhow scientific and technological research can have aesthetic value and impacton public awareness on the beauty of the convergence of knowledge to solve problemsrelated to humanity.

On behalf of the organizers and Program Committee of IVIC 2021, we thank allauthors for their submissions and camera-ready copies of papers, and all participantsfor their thought-provoking ideas and active participation in the conference. We alsothank the vice-chancellor of UNITEN (the host university) and the vice-chancellorsand deans of all IT faculties of the Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning for theirsupport in organizing this conference.Wealso acknowledge the sponsors,members of theorganizing committees, ProgramCommitteemembers, and other supporting committeesand individuals who gave their continuous help and support in making the conferencea success. We believe that IVIC will grow from strength to strength and will one daybe hosted by not only different institutions in Malaysia but also in different countries inAsia and the rest of the world.

November 2021 Halimah Badioze ZamanAlan F. SmeatonTimothy K. ShihSergio VelastinTada Terutoshi

Bo Nørregaard JørgensenHazleen Aris

Nazrita Ibrahim

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Organization

The 7th International Visual Informatics Conference (IVIC 2021) was organized by theMalaysian Information Technology Society (MITS) and the Institute of Informatics andComputing in Energy (IICE), Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), in collaborationwith local public and private universities in Malaysia.

Local Executive Committee

General Chair

Halimah Badioze Zaman UNITEN/MITS, Malaysia

Deputy Chairs

Hazleen Aris UNITEN, MalaysiaAzlina Ahmad MITS, Malaysia

Secretaries

Nazrita Ibrahim (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaFaridah Hani Mohamed Salleh UNITEN, MalaysiaUmmul Hanan Mohamad UKM/MITS, MalaysiaNor Hidayah Bukhari UNITEN, Malaysia

Treasurers

Naziffa Raha Md Nasir (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaAzimah Abdul Ghapar UNITEN, MalaysiaRabiah Abdul Kadir UKM/MITS, Malaysia

Program Committee

Program Co-chairs

Halimah Badioze Zaman UNITEN/MITS, MalaysiaAlan F. Smeaton Dublin City University, IrelandBo Nørregaard Jørgensen University of Southern Denmark, DenmarkSergio A. Velastin Queen Mary University of London, UKTada Terutoshi Toyo University, JapanTimothy K. Shih National Central University, Taiwan

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viii Organization

Technical Program Chairs

Salman Yussof (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaAzlina Ahmad UKM, MalaysiaFatimah Dato Ahmad UPNM, MalaysiaHazleen Aris UNITEN, MalaysiaMoamin A. Mahmoud UNITEN, Malaysia

Publicity Committee

Hazleen Aris (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaAbbas M. Al-Ghaili UNITEN, MalaysiaAng Mei Choo UKM, MalaysiaAzlan Yusof UNITEN, MalaysiaDahlan Abdul Gani UniKL, MalaysiaHafizhah Suzana Hussien UKM, MalaysiaHawa Shamsudin UNITEN, MalaysiaIskandar Shah Mohd Zawawi UiTM, MalaysiaMohammed Najah Mahdi UNITEN, MalaysiaNora Annuar UNITEN, MalaysiaNoramiza Hashim MMU, MalaysiaNorma Hassan UNITEN, MalaysiaNur Azlida Ahmad UNITEN, MalaysiaNurshariah Wahab UPNM, MalaysiaSumayyah Dzulkifly UPSI, Malaysia

Sponsorship Committee

Azlina Ahmad (Head) UKM, MalaysiaHalimah Badioze Zaman UNITEN/MITS, MalaysiaNoor Afiza Mat Razali UPNM, MalaysiaSaraswathy Shamini Gunasekaran UNITEN, MalaysiaWan Fatimah Wan Ahmad UTP, Malaysia

Logistic Committee

Sunarti Abdullah (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaAziah Ali MMU, MalaysiaAzreen Azman UPM, MalaysiaFadzlin Md Yunus UNITEN, MalaysiaIsmail Bin Azmi UNITEN, MalaysiaMohamad Taha Ijab UKM, MalaysiaMohd Faizam Bin Hilmy UNITEN, MalaysiaNadri bin Ahmad UNITEN, MalaysiaNoor Ashikin Abdullah UNITEN, MalaysiaSiti Noor Farahzawanni Che Omar UNITEN, MalaysiaSuhaina Bte Abd. Sukor UNITEN, MalaysiaSyed Nasir Alsagoff bin Syed Zakaria UPNM, Malaysia

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Organization ix

Exhibition Committee

Ahmad Hanif Ahmad Baharin (Head) UKM, MalaysiaDahlan Abdul Ghani UniKL, MalaysiaSuzaimah Ramli UPNM, Malaysia

Workshop Committee

Juhana Salim (Head) MITS, MalaysiaDhanapal Durai Dominic P. UTP, MalaysiaEsmadi Abu Abu Seman UMS, MalaysiaKasturi Dewi Varathan UM, MalaysiaNur Hanani Binti Azami UNITEN, MalaysiaWong Seng Yue UM, Malaysia

Conference System Committee

Sera Syarmila Binti Sameon (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaEly Salwana Mat Surin UKM, MalaysiaEszleen Sies UNITEN, MalaysiaNorshita Mat Nayan UKM, MalaysiaNor Zaity Zakaria UNITEN, MalaysiaNor Zakiah Gorment UNITEN, MalaysiaNur Aimi Syaqilah Binti Aziz UNITEN, Malaysia

Special Task Committee

Eddren Law Yi Feng (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaBavani Ramayah University of Nottingham, MalayLow Loi Ming UNITEN, MalaysiaNorshita Mat Nayan UKM, MalaysiaSiti Norazimah Bt Ahmat UKM, Malaysia

Tour/Virtual Visit Committee

Prasanna A./P. Ramakrishnan UiTM, Malaysia

Virtual Platform Committee

Rajeshkumar A./L. Sugu (Head) UNITEN, MalaysiaAhmad Ikhsan Bin Abd. Aziz UNITEN, Malaysia

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x Organization

Technical Program Committee

International

Alan Smeaton Dublin City University, IrelandAisha Umair University of Southern Denmark, DenmarkAndino Maseleno Gadjah Mada University, IndonesiaCho Cô Nguyê. t Hanoi University, VietnamDhiraj Shrestha Kathmandu University, NepalEhab Alsammak Directorate General of Education of Karbala,

IraqEmanuele Trucco University of Dundee, UKFarrukh Zeshan COMSATS University Islamabad, PakistanHuy Nguyen Vietnam National University, VietnamIrum Inayat FAST National University, PakistanLi Kuan-Ching Providence University, TaiwanMalcolm Munro Durham University, UKMarta Fairén Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, SpainMohammed Subhi Al Hikma University College, IraqMuhyiddine Jradi University of Southern Denmark, DenmarkNeil Gordon University of Hull, UKNick Holliman Newcastle University, UKQais Saif Qassim Ibri College of Technology, OmanQingde Li University of Hull, UKSergio Velastin Queen Mary University of London, UKShree Raj Shakya Tribhuvan University, NepalTheng Yin Leng NanyangTechnologicalUniversity, SingaporeTimothy K. Shih National Central University, TaiwanTony Pridmore University of Nottingham, UKWenyu Liu Huazhong University of Science and

Technology, ChinaYunis Ali Simad University, Somalia

Local

Afida Jemat UNITEN, MalaysiaAhmad Sufril Azlan Mohamed USM, MalaysiaAmelia Ritahani Ismail IIUM, MalaysiaAnusha A./P. Achuthan USM, MalaysiaBahari Belaton USM, MalaysiaDayang Rohaya Awang Rambli UTP, MalaysiaEly Salwana Mat Surin UKM, MalaysiaFatimah Dato Ahmad UPNM, MalaysiaJ. Joshua Thomas KDU Penang University College, MalaysiaKher Hui (Marina) Ng University of Nottingham, Malaysia

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Organization xi

Mohd Hafiz Faizal Mohamad Kamil UniKL, MalaysiaMohd Khairul Azmi Bin Hassan IIUM, MalaysiaMohd Nadhir Ab Wahab USM, MalaysiaMohammad Nazir Ahmad UKM, MalaysiaNazlena Mohamad Ali UKM, MalaysiaNor Hidayati Zakaria UTM, MalaysiaNur Intan Raihana Ruhaiyem USM, MalaysiaNurul Amelina Binti Nasharuddin UPM, MalaysiaPuteri Nor Ellyza Nohuddin UKM, MalaysiaRosalina Abdul Salam USIM, MalaysiaSiti Nur Hidayah Ab Malek UNITEN, MalaysiaSuhaidi Hassan UUM, MalaysiaSuraya Hamid UM, MalaysiaSuraya Yaácob UTM, MalaysiaSuziah Sulaiman UTP, MalaysiaWan Mohd Nazmee Wan Zainon USM, MalaysiaZainab Abu Bakar MEDIU, MalaysiaZuraini Zainol UPNM, Malaysia

Additional Reviewers

Abdul Syafiq Abdull Sukor USM, MalaysiaAbdul Syukor Mohamad Jaya UTEM, MalaysiaAlfian Abdul Halin UPM, MalaysiaAliza Abdul Latif UNITEN, MalaysiaAmmuthavali Ramasamy UNITEN, MalaysiaAmr Ahmed University of Nottingham, MalaysiaAslina Baharum UMS, MalaysiaAsmidar Abu Bakar UNITEN, MalaysiaAzizah Suliman UNITEN, MalaysiaAzrul Hazri Jantan UPM, MalaysiaNurfadhlina Mohd. Sharef UPM, MalaysiaSa’Adah Hassan UPM, MalaysiaAymen Dheyaa UNITEN, MalaysiaAzir Rezha Norizan UniKL, MalaysiaAzleena Mohd Kassim USM, MalaysiaAzlin Sharina Abdul Latef UMK, MalaysiaAzrina Kamaruddin UPM, MalaysiaChia Yi Quah University of Nottingham, MalaysiaFahrul Hakim Huyop UPM, MalaysiaFiza Abdul Rahim UTM, MalaysiaHairoladenan Kasim UNITEN, MalaysiaIntan Soraya Rosdi MMU, MalaysiaNoris Mohd Norowi UPM, MalaysiaShafinah Kamarudin UPM, MalaysiaSulfeeza Md Drus UNITEN, Malaysia

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xii Organization

Fairuz Abdullah UNITEN, MalaysiaFatihah Ramli UNIMAS, MalaysiaFauziah Kasmin UTEM, MalaysiaHusna Sarirah Husin UniKL, MalaysiaIbrahim Ahmad UTEM, MalaysiaIman Liao University of Nottingham, MalaysiaIzzatul Nabila Sarbini UNIMAS, MalaysiaJe Sen The USM, MalaysiaLeong Yeng Weng UNITEN, MalaysiaMad Helmi Ab. Majid UPSI, MalaysiaMohammad Aazam University of Nottingham, MalaysiaMohana Shanmugam UNITEN, MalaysiaMohd Fadhil Harfiez Abdul Muttalib UPSI, MalaysiaMohd Hafeez Osman UPM, MalaysiaMohd Sidek Fadhil Mohd Yunus UPSI, MalaysiaNorziana Jamil UNITEN, MalaysiaNur Faraha Hj. Mohd. Naim UMS, MalaysiaNur Syahela Hussien UniKL, MalaysiaNurdatillah Hasim UniKL, MalaysiaSami Salama Hussen Hajjaj UNITEN, MalaysiaSharifah Mashita Syed Mohamad USM, MalaysiaSharul Azim Sharudin UNITEN, MalaysiaSiti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah UKM, MalaysiaSuhaila Saee UNIMAS, MalaysiaSyahaneim Marzukhi UPNM, MalaysiaYeng Weng Leong UNITEN, MalaysiaZarina Che Embi UNITEN, Malaysia

Collaborators and Sponsoring Institutions

Yayasan Canselor UNITEN (YCU)Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB)Malaysian Information Technology Society (MITS)National Professors’ Council (MPN)Al-Madinah International University (MEDIU)International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)Multimedia Universiti (MMU)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL)Universiti Malaya (UM)Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)University of Nottingham, MalaysiaUniversiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM)Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI)Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

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Organization xiii

Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM)Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP)UOW Malaysia KDU Penang University College

Page 14: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 13051

Contents

Keynote

Computer Vision for Supporting Image Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Alan F. Smeaton

Visualisation and Digital Innovation

Color Aesthetic Enhancement for Categorical Data Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Wei Chuan Lim, Chee Onn Wong, and Lai Kuan Wong

A Preliminary Model of Learning Analytics to Explore Data Visualizationon Educator’s Satisfaction and Academic Performance in Higher Education . . . . 27

Nur Maisarah Shahril Khuzairi and Zaihisma Che Cob

An Analytical Reasoning Framework for Visual Analytics Representation . . . . . 41Suraya Ya’acob, Sharida Mohd Yusof, Doris Wong Hooi Ten,and Norziha Megat Zainuddin

Literature Survey on Aircraft Maintenance Issues with Human Errorsand Skill Set Mismatch Using Document Mining Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

T. Nanthakumaran Thulasy, Puteri N. E. Nohuddin,Norlizawati Abd Rahim, and Astuty Amrin

Interactive Tangible Game for Collaborative Play Between Childrenwith Cerebral Palsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Chloe Hue Tung San and Kher Hui Ng

Establishing Field of Study: Towards Development of a MultilingualModel for Auto-detection of Cyberbullying Using Fuzzy-Crisp Rulesand Internet Crowd Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Marina Md Din, Fiza Abdul Rahim, Rina Md. Anwar,Asmidar Abu Bakar, and Aliza Abdul Latif

Identifying the Presence of Cyberbullying in Tamil-English PhoneticWords Using Browser Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Rina Md. Anwar, Puven Alvin Victor, Fiza Abdul Rahim,Marina Md Din, Asmidar Abu Bakar, and Aliza Abdul Latif

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Visual Learning Application in Mathematics Using Holographic DisplayBased on Multi-touch Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Khoo Shiang Tyng, Halimah Badioze Zaman,Ummul Hanan Mohamad, and Azlina Ahmad

Systematic Review of Common Factors Used to Measure Individuals’Career Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Feninferina Azman, Azimah Abdul Ghapar, Masyura Ahmad Faudzi,Hasventhran Baskaran, and Fiza Abdul Rahim

Interaction Design for Digital Saron Musical Instruments Using Calland Response System and Rhythmic Emphasis Weighting Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Salsabila Putri Jatiningtyas, Danang Junaedi, and Veronikha Effendy

A User Experience Model for Designing Educational Mobile Application . . . . . 139Kiranjeet Kaur, Khairul Shafee Kalid, and Savita K. Sugathan

Evidence-Based of Interactive Multimedia-Based Nutrition EducationPackage Efficacy on Obesity Outcomes Through Game and VideoIntervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Hafzan Yusoff, Wan Putri Elena Wan Dali,and Nur Intan Raihana Ruhaiyem

Evidence-Based of Improved Electron Tomogram Segmentationand Visualization Through High-Pass Domain Kernel in Bilateral Filter . . . . . . . 163

Nur Intan Raihana Ruhaiyem and Noor Shariah Ismail

VR-Based Relaxation Therapy for Customer Service Staff: A Pilot Study . . . . . . 171Nazrita Ibrahim, Eze Manzura Mohd Mahidin, Azmi Mohd Yusof,Mohd Ezanee Rusli, Nur Suria Iskandar, Farhah Amaliya Zaharuddin,and Imran Mahalil

Fusion Technology and Visualisation to Share STEM Data Using PETSRobots (i-COMEL) for Open Data Readiness Amongst Primary SchoolChildren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Halimah Badioze Zaman, Hanif Baharin, and Azlina Ahmad

Interactive Multimedia Kolb Experiential Learning Model Using LogisticRegression Algorithm to Improve Student Cognitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Azizah Nurul Khoirunnisa, Munir, Rasim, Eka Fitrajaya Rahman,and Laksmi Dewi

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Performance Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for SentimentAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Muhamad Hariz Izzat Ahmad Hapez, Noor Latiffah Adam,and Zaidah Ibrahim

National Sport Institute Case: Automated Data Migration Using TalendOpen Studio with ‘Trickle Approach’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Suzaimah Ramli, Izzuddin Redzuan, Iqbal Hakim Mamood,Norulzahrah Mohd Zainudin, Nor Asiakin Hasbullah, and Muslihah Wook

Engineering and Digital Innovation

Mudahnya BM: A Context-Aware Mobile Cloud Learning ApplicationUsing Semantic-Based Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Sufri Muhammad, Novia Admodisastro, Hafeez Osman,and Norhayati Mohd Ali

Software Redocumentation Using Distributed Data Processing Techniqueto Support Program Understanding for Legacy System: A ProposedApproach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Sugumaran Nallusamy, Hoo Meei Hao, and Farizuwana Akma Zulkifle

System Design and Usability Evaluation of Ghana Music DocumentationSystem Using the System Usability Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Alimatu-Saadia Yussiff, Florian Carl, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad,Simon Mariwah, Otchere Eric Debrah, and Abdul-Lateef Yussiff

Static Indoor Pathfinding with Explicit Group Two-Parameter OverRelaxation Iterative Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

A’qilah Ahmad Dahalan and Azali Saudi

Use of Faceted Search: The Effect on Researchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276Mohammed Najah Mahdi, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, Qais Saif Qassim,and Mohammed Ahmed Subhi

Sustainable Product Innovation Using Patent Mining and TRIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287Chun Kit Chan, Kok Weng Ng, Mei Choo Ang, Chin Yuen Ng,and Ah-Lian Kor

Personalised Smart Mobility Model for Smart Movement DuringPandemic Covid-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Noor Afiza Mat Razali, Nur Atiqah Malizan, Nuraini Shamsaimon,Khairani Abd Majid, Muhammad Narzwan Mohd Puad,Khairul Khalil Ishak, and Muhammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim

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Intelligent Multi-cellular Network Connectivity for Internet of ThingsApplications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

Kisheen Rao Gsangaya, Sami Salama Hussen Hajjaj, Wahidah Hashim,and Rina Azlin Razali

A Performance Study on Emotion Models Detection Accuracyin a Pandemic Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Priyadashini Saravanan, Suvendran Ravindran,Leong Yeng Weng, Khairul Salleh Bin Mohamed Sahari,Adzly Bin Anuar, Muhammad Fairuz Bin Abdul Jalal,Zubaidi Faiesal Bin Mohamad Rafaai,Prashalini Naidu A/P Raventhran, Husni Mohd Radzi, and Salman Yussof

IoT-Based System for Real-Time Swimming Pool Water QualityMonitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

Afida Jemat, Salman Yussof, Sera Syarmila Sameon,and Nur Adriana Alya Rosnizam

The Preliminary Study of Traffic Impact Analysis for DevelopingCountries in Southeast Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

Anton Budi Dharma and Rabiah Abdul Kadir

Search Operators Based on TRIZ for Optimising PCB Assembly Time . . . . . . . . 350Jian Ching Lim, Kok Weng Ng, and Mei Choo Ang

A Model for Teaching and Learning Programming Subjects in PublicSecondary Schools of Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

Faridah Hani Mohamed Salleh, Deshinta Arrova Dewi,Nurul Azlin Liyana, and Naziffa Raha Md Nasir

GPU-Accelerated Enhanced Marching Cubes 33 for Fast 3DReconstruction of Large Bone Defect CT Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

Daniel Jie Yuan Chin, Ahmad Sufril Azlan Mohamed,Khairul Anuar Shariff, and Kunio Ishikawa

Cyber Security & Machine Learning and Digital Innovation

Malware Classification Based on System Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387Mohamad Redza Izudin Abu Zaharin and Shafiza Mohd Shariff

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A Conceptual Model: Securing Resources Through a DecentralizedAccess Control Using Blockchain Technology for Smart Farming . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

Noor Afiza Mat Razali, Normaizeerah Mohd Noor,Nor Asiakin Hasbullah, Liew Ching Chen, Khairul Khalil Ishak,and Norlisa Francis Nordin

Traffic Flow Prediction Using Long-Short Term Memory Techniquefor Connected Vehicles in Smart Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

Nuraini Shamsaimon, Noor Afiza Mat Razali, Khairani Abd Majid,Suzaimah Ramli, Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran, Khairul Khalil Ishak,and Raslan Ahmad

A Machine Learning Classification Application to Identify InefficientNovice Programmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423

Ijaz Khan, Aysha Al-Mamari, Bashayer Al-Abdulsalam,Fatma Al-Abdulsalam, Maryam Al-Khansuri, Sohail Iqbal Malik,and Abdul Rahim Ahmad

Minimizing Classification Errors in Imbalanced Dataset Using Meansof Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

Ijaz Khan, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, Nafaa Jabeur,and Mohammed Najah Mahdi

The Mediating Role of Cloud Computing and Moderating Influenceof Digital Organizational Culture Towards Enhancing SMEs Performance . . . . . 447

Muhammad Ramzul Abu Bakar, Noor Afiza Mat Razali,Muslihah Wook, Mohd Nazri Ismail, and Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

Arabic Speaker Identification System for Forensic Authentication UsingK-NN Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

Sarah Abdulwahid, Moamin A. Mahmoud, and Nassren Abdulwahid

A Recent Research on Malware Detection Using Machine LearningAlgorithm: Current Challenges and Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

Nor Zakiah Gorment, Ali Selamat, and Ondrej Krejcar

Symptoms-Based Network Intrusion Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482Qais Saif Qassim, Norziana Jamil, and Mohammed Najah Mahdi

Impact Analysis and Correlation Study on the Spread of Fake NewsDuring Pandemic COVID-19 in Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

Ahmad Qayyim Nordin, Norziana Jamil, Zuhaira Muhammad Zain,and Md Nabil Ahmad Zawawi

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Machine Learning Classification for Blood Glucose Performances UsingInsulin Sensitivity and Respiratory Scores in Diabetic ICU Patients . . . . . . . . . . . 508

Athirah Abdul Razak, Radiyati Umi Partan, Normy Norfiza Razak,Asma Abu-Samah, Norliyana Nor Hisham Shah,and Mohd Shahnaz Hasan

Forecasting of Carbon Monoxide Concentration Basedon Sequence-to-Sequence Deep Learning Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518

Nur’atiah Zaini, Lee Woen Ean, and Ali Najah Ahmed

Infodemiology Framework for COVID-19 and Future Pandemics UsingArtificial Intelligence to Address Misinformation and Disinformation . . . . . . . . . 530

Mohamad Taha Ijab, Mohamad Syahmi Shahril, and Suraya Hamid

Object Detection Model Training Framework for Very Small DatasetsApplied to Outdoor Industrial Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

M. Z. Baharuddin, D. N. T. How, K. S. M. Sahari, A. Z. Abas,and M. K. Ramlee

A Comparison of ML and DL Approaches for Crowd Analysis on the HajjPilgrimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

Muhammad Nur Hakim Bin Zamri, Junaidi Abdullah, Roman Bhuiyan,Noramiza Hashim, Fahmid Al Farid, Jia Uddin, Mohd Nizam Husen,and Norra Abdullah

Movement Estimation Using Mediapipe BlazePose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562Ainun Syarafana Binti Pauzi, Firdaus Bin Mohd Nazri,Salisu Sani, Ahmad Mwfaq Bataineh, Muhamad Nurul Hisyam,Mohd Hafiidz Jaafar, Mohd Nadhir Ab Wahab,and Ahmad Sufril Azlan Mohamed

Energy Informatics and Digital Innovation

Awareness on Energy Efficient Products as Prediction on Intentionto Subscribe to and Purchase Energy Efficient Services and Products . . . . . . . . . . 575

Husni Mohd Radzi, Farhaniza Ghazali, Nurshuhaida Mohd Shokri,and Hazleen Aris

Algebraic Operations-Based Secret-Key Design for Encryption Algorithm(ASKEA) for Energy Informatics and Smart Internet of Things (IoT)Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587

Abbas M. Al-Ghaili, Hairoladenan Kasim, Ridha Omar,Zainuddin Hassan, Naif M. Al-Hada, and Jihua Wang

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Comparison of Electricity Load Prediction Errors Between LongShort-Term Memory Architecture and Artificial Neural Network on SmartMeter Consumer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600

Nur Shakirah Md Salleh, Azizah Suliman, and Bo Nørregaard Jørgensen

Study on the Contributing Factors in e-hailing Waste ManagementSystems for Mobile Application Adoption and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610

Ozioma Alex Nwaogwugwu and Nazrita Ibrahim

Establishing Valid and Reliable Measures for Residential ConsumerBehaviour Towards New Technology Electricity Appliances:An Exploratory Factor Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623

Nor Salwati Othman, Nor Hamisham Harun, Izzaamirah Ishak,and Nurul Hezlin Mohamed Hariri

Energy Efficiency Through a Wearable Device for the Elderly Basedon the Integrated Smart Neighbourhood Framework of Malaysia 5.0 Model . . . . 642

Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad, and Kien Sin Aw

Investigating the Contributing Factors of Continuance Use of Smart Meterin Melaka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655

Azlina Abdullah, Nor Shafiqah Yusoff, Nurul Wahilah Abdul Latif,Abdul Rahman Zahari, Zeittey Karmilla Kaman, Zurina Ismail,and Wan Hafiizhah Wan Mohamad Norafi

Highlighting the Contributing Factors of Smart Meter Adoption in KlangValley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665

Azlina Abdullah, Wan Hafiizhah Wan Mohamad Norafi,Nurul Wahilah Abdul Latif, Abdul Rahman Zahari,Zeittey Karmilla Kaman, Zurina Ismail, and Nor Shafiqah Yusoff

Virtualization Technology to Support Green Computing Among ITPersonnel in the Public Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676

Mohd Yusri Jusoh, Haryani Haron, and Jasber Kaur

Willingness of Electricity Consumer in Malaysia to Share Electric EnergyConsumption Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689

Salman Yussof, Nurul Nazeera Mohd Zulkefle, Yunus Yusoff,and Asmidar Abu Bakar

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Challenges and Recommendations on the Development of DistributedEnergy Resources (DERs) Datahub for Improved DERs Data Managementin Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701

Ammuthavali Ramasamy, Hazleen Aris, Aliza Abdul Latif,S. Nur Hidayah Malek, Syakir Abdul Latif, and Komal Deep Kaur

Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715