Lecture 9: Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Groupware

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Lecture 9: Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Groupware. Dr. Xiangyu WANG Acknowledgement: Figen Gul for partial notes. Agenda Today. 2:00-3:00 Lecture 3:00-3:45 Group 1-5 work on Workstation design in Secondlife with Taiwan Student for ONLY 30 minutes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Lecture 9: Computer Supported Cooperative Work &GroupwareDr. Xiangyu WANGAcknowledgement: Figen Gul for partial notes

  • Agenda Today2:00-3:00 Lecture3:00-3:45 Group 1-5 work on Workstation design in Secondlife with Taiwan Student for ONLY 30 minutes3:45-4:30 Group 6-10 work on Workstation design in Secondlife with Taiwan Student for ONLY 30 minutesNote: each student should give AUD $5.7 to Irene NOW for the use of Secondlife

  • What is CSCW?In its most general form, CSCW examines the possibilities and effects of technological support for humans involved in collaborative group communication and work processes. (Bowers, J. and S. Benford 1991)

    Greif defines CSCW as computer-assisted coordinated activity such as communication and problem solving carried out by a group of collaborating individuals (Greif 1988).

  • What is CSCW?What is CSCWThe field was coined in the 1980th by researchers from computer science, information science and social science.Interdisciplinary field where researchers are from various fields contribute with different perspectives and methodologies for acquiring knowledge of group work and for suggesting how the groups work could be supported. E.g., computer scientists, social scientists, psychologist, cognitive scientists, etc.Two sides of CSCW: Group work and social phenomena. The technology and computer hardware and software

  • CSCWCSCW should be conceived as an endeavor to understand the nature and characteristics of cooperative work with the objective of designing adequate computer-based technologies. CSCW is a research area addressing questions like the following: What are the specific characteristics of cooperative work as opposed to work performed by individuals in seclusion? How can computer-based technology be applied to enhance cooperative work relations? How should designers approach the complex and delicate problems of designing systems that will shape social relationships? And so forth. The focus is to understand, so as to better support, cooperative work.

  • GroupwareDefinition (Ellis et al. 1991)Groupware are computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in a common task (or goal) and that provide an interface to a shared environment.

  • GroupwareGroupware can support different activitiesDirect interpersonal communicationIdeas generation and decision makingSharing computer objects

  • CSCW v.s. GroupwareCSCW v.s. GroupwareGroupware is the product (program) resulting from the research done in the CSCW field.CSCW as a research field will persist, because it addresses larger questions about the design and refinement of groupware.

  • CSCW v.s. GroupwareCSCW:Focus onworkplace activities,organizational impact of technology,co-evolution of the technology and the groups using it,Interdisciplinary: Social scientists and technologists.Groupware:Focus oncomputer systems,the design of the computer systems,Mainly a technical discipline: technologists

  • Groupware classificationClassification by support functions 3C model

  • Design of GroupwareImportant design aspectsSociologicalEffect of the computer support on position and evaluation of team members.PsychologicalEffect of the computer support on individual behavior

  • Classifying Groupware Time/Space matrixWhen and where the participants are working

    People-Artifact FrameworkThe function it performs for cooperative work

  • More taxonomyBaecker, Grudin, Buxton, & Greenberg, 1995, p.742

  • Group Decision RoomsSupport decision making processdedicated computer-based conference facility real time large group support (5-50)embeds a structured meeting process

    Typical functionexplore unstructured problemsbrainstorm ideasgenerate ideasvoting

    The COLAB meeting room, Xerox PARC http://www2.parc.com/istl/members/stefik/colab.htm

  • Shared Table / Wall Displaysdevice characteristicssocial affordances of tables/wallInteracTable and Dynawall, From the GMD Darmstadt web site on I-Land

  • From the GMD Darmstadt web site on I-Landcomputer-augmented room elementsintegrated desk/wall displays for collaborationInter-operation between devices

    Roomware

  • More taxonomyBaecker, Grudin, Buxton, & Greenberg, 1995, p.742

  • Video / Audio conferencingDesktop conferencingbandwidth/latency issuesFrom Saul Greenberg

  • Instant messengersCasual interactionawareness to light-weight conversations

  • Space for meeting and interacting with peopleChat rooms/MUDS/Virtual worlds

  • More taxonomyBaecker, Grudin, Buxton, & Greenberg, 1995, p.742

  • from Multimedia Fliers, Churchill, Nelson, Denoue, Communites and Technoligies 2003Post information from various sources to public place

    Community Bulletin Boards

  • More taxonomyBaecker, Grudin, Buxton, & Greenberg, 1995, p.742

  • Common calendarhttp://www.americusglobal.com/images/groupcalender.gifEmail

    common calendarmeeting schedulingresource use

  • WikisUsing wikis

  • More taxonomyBaecker, Grudin, Buxton, & Greenberg, 1995, p.742

  • Meeting RoomsVeterinary Report Vol 26, 1 Winter 2002 http://www.cvm.uiuc.edu/vetreport/winter2002/technology.htmlMeeting roomsSupport face to face groups

  • People-Artifact FrameworkCooperative work involves:Participants (P) who are workingArtefacts (A) upon which they work

    Dix, Finlay, Abowd & Beale Human Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall. 1998

  • What interactions does a tool support?

  • People-Artifact FrameworkMeeting and DecisionCommunicationShare artefacts

  • Meeting and decision support systemsParticipants must establish a common understanding about the task they perform and generate ideas.

  • Computer-mediated communicationUsing blog for communication

  • Computer-mediated Communication and shared/artefacts

  • Computer-mediated Communication and shared/artefactsSynchronous remotecommunication Video-based systems

  • Computer-mediated Communication and shared/artefactsShared drawing surfaces

    synchronous remote design meetings

  • Shared applications and artefactsThe focus of sharing is the participants work domain itself Include the computers people are usingApplications on those computersThe documents they are working with

  • Shared Screens/WindowsShare unaltered single user applications

    Richardson, T., Stafford-Fraser, Q., Wood, K. and Hopper, A.Virtual Network Computing. IEEE Internet Computing. Vol. 2, No. 1. p33-39. January/February, 1998.

  • Shared applications and artefactsShared applicationsSecond LifeDesign WorldSharing a design object

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