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Lec An2 Sem2 Trantescu

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CONTENTS FOREWORD ..................................................................................................... INTRODUCTION TO DESCRIPTIVE ENGLISH SYNTAX ..................... UNIT 1. CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES ........... 1. Criteria of Classification .............................................................. 2. Compound Sentences .................................................................... 3. Complex Sentences ........................................................................ UNIT 2. NOMINAL CLAUSES .................................................................... 1. Subject Clauses ............................................................................ 2. Predicative Clauses ...................................................................... 3. Object Clauses ............................................................................ UNIT 3. RELATIVE ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES ....... 1. Restrictive/Defining Relative Clauses .... 2. Non-Restrictive/Non-Defining Relative Clauses .... 3. Appositive Attributive Clauses ........ 4. Introductory Emphatic Sentences (Cleft Sentences) ..... 5 7 9 9 12 16 23 23 27 28 40 40 45 46 47

UNIT. 4. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES I ...... 51 1. Adverbial Clauses of Time ..... 51 2. Adverbial Clauses of Place .... 54 3. Adverbial Clauses of Manner 55 4. Adverbial Clauses of Comparison 57 UNIT 5. ADSVERBIAL CLAUSES II ... 63 1. Adverbial Clauses of Cause/Reason .. 63 2. Adverbial Clauses of Concession ...... 65 3. Adverbial Clauses of Purpose 67 4. Adverbial Clauses of Result ... 69 5. Adverbial Clauses of Condition 71 6. Adverbial Clauses of Exception . 77 7. Adverbial Clauses of Relation .. 78 UNIT 6. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH .. 1. Changes in the deictic categories .... 2. Syntactic changes ................................. 3. Free Indirect Speech ................ 85 85 89 93




English Syntax..Compound and Complex Sentences has a double purpose: 1. It is primarily designed as a course book and a reference grammar for second-year, second term, Long Distance Learning university students. 2. The authors of this grammar book have also included a number of exercises which can be used as a classroom textbook or for self-study by students. The exercises provided at the end of each chapter are varied in form, purpose as well as the degree of difficulty.



Introduction to Descriptive English Syntax

The purpose of a descriptive syntax of the English language is to identify and present the main patterns and structures of expression in contemporary English. Syntax is that branch of linguistics which describes the phenomena of the contemporary language in point of relations between words and their correct arrangement in units of expression apt to reflect logical units and patterns. Therefore, while morphology studies words and their changes in various situations and contexts, syntax describes the situations and contexts themselves, the relations between words, deriving the principles, the rules and the patterns governing the arrangement of morphological elements as part of independent or connected sense-units. As these units are meant not only for writing but also (or rather mainly) for oral expression, it is but natural for syntax to go hand in hand with some aspects of suprasegmental phonetics such as sentence stress rhythm, emphasis and intonation. As a matter of fact, given the progress of the sciences connected with communication and of the interdisciplinary subjects, the term syntax has come to be used together with the term grammar in order to indicate the rules for the specific arrangement of elements in various arts: poetry, prose, stylistics. Thus, syntax can be seen as a set of principles, rules and indications governing the best arrangement of elements in the structure of communication. Among the various disciplines and branches of linguistics, syntax aims at offering the most adequate structures for the communication of peoples thoughts. That is why, many of the notions and terms employed in syntax (as part of the grammar of a language or of all languages) are so closely connected with logic and philosophy; some of them are not only the counterparts of notions and terms in those sciences but even identical with them. Since linguistics and psycholinguistics have proved that human thoughts are not articulate that is, they do not take a definite form until they are embodied in words (even before they are uttered aloud or set down on paper), the concatenation between thinking and its materialized forms no longer requires demonstration. Hence the interpenetration between logic (as the set of rules governing correct thinking and reasoning) and grammar (or rather syntax, which recommends the best models for the arrangements of words we may say ordinance in such a way as to facilitate the best expression of thoughts). Since the basic syntactical units are called sentences, the syntactical subunits are necessarily called parts of the simple sentence (or clauses in the case of compound or complex sentences).


Naturally, classification attaches much importance to criteria of form, but content preserves its importance in syntax too, as it is the essence of the communication which matters and that is what syntactical relations indicate (also with assistance from phonetics and punctuation). Grammarians who analyse the deep structure of the communication have proved that it may be expressed aloud or in writing in different and sometimes dissimilar surface structures. That is why the same trend of the communication may appear in the form of a declarative, of an apparently exclamation, the most obvious example being that of requests or invitations which are most politely formulated as questions.


UNIT 1. Classification of Sentences 1. Criteria of Classification 2. Compound Sentences 3. Complex Sentences Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili : 1. S enumere criteriile de clasificare. 2. S identifice tipurile de coordonare. 3. S recunoasc elementele ce introduc o propoziie subordonat. 4. S identifice criteriile de clasificare ale propoziiilor subordonate. Timp de studiu : 3 ore. 1. Criteria of Classification Since speech and writing are the expression of articulate thinking, utterances and written sentences will be the materialized forms of thoughts. Articulate thoughts (in the field of logic) find their expression in sentences or propositions (terms which have their origin in the same field of logic) and take the oral form of utterances (in suprasegmental phonetics). Language and its component elements (phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, grammatical rules, structures, patterns, etc.) are the materials and means employed by human beings in order to embody their thoughts. The oral and written expressions of human thoughts are part and parcel of communication and may express different trends or purposes of communication, and on the other hand may assume a variety of forms. That is why the traditional manner of classifying notions in point of content and in point of form assumes the following aspects when we differentiate the linguistic expressions of thoughts: Classification in point of trend or purpose of communication (therefore a matter of content); Classification in point of structure (of communication) or of composition (therefore a matter of form); Classification in point of status or grammatical dependence. The first classification proceeds from the trend or essence or content of communication because it is more general than the other classifications. The discrimination of sentences according to the purpose/ intention/ attitude of the speaker or writer is essential and can apply to all the subdivisions separated under the incidence of the other classifications. Long, extended, elliptical etc. sentences or clauses are all declarative or exclamatory, etc. From the point of view of trend or purpose of communication which means semantic as well as logical and psychological content sentences are normally divided into: Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamatory. 9

So, it is a matter of the fundamental attitude which the speaker/writer adopts towards his/her communication. R. Quirk et al (1972: 387), as well as other linguists, consider that any communication even statements (Declarative Sentences) does reflect or reveal an attitude or modality. The second classification, the formal one, refers to the way thoughts are expressed, whether destined for utterance or for writing. The classification in point of structure/composition/form distinguishes three main types of sentences: The Simple Sentence which expresses just one thought at a time, by means of one predicate between two punctuation marks that are destined for separating thoughts or between two conclusive pauses in the speech chain, indicating the beginning of a new utterance and its end. The Compound Sentence (the word compound is employed in the sense of homogeneity/ similarity/ coordination/ equality) that is a thought which includes more units than one, placed on an equal footing. In syntactical terms, the English compound sentence corresponds to the notion of fraz (compus) prin coordonare that is a sentence made up of two or more clauses (= propoziii coordonate), which discharge the same function and are connected between them with or without the help of coordinating conjunctions. The Complex Sentence involves the notion of "complex" in the sense of diversity/non-homogeneousness/inequality/ subordination of the various component elements. In purely syntactical terms, it corresponds to the Romanian fraz (compus) prin subordonare that is a unit of thinking made up of one ore more main/principal clauses (= propoziii principale) and one or more subordinate clauses (= propoziii secundare/subordonate). Sentences can also be classified in accordance with their status (of dependence or independence) or in point of grammatical dependence, that is in terms of their position as regards other syntactical units. This classification is rather intricate, because it brings into play all three types of sentences classified in point of structure, or rather simple sentences as such (or independent clauses, as part of a compound sentence) and the non-homogeneous components of a complex sentence: the subordinator(s) and the subordinated. It is in fact a matter of government, of equality or of juxtaposition and the difficulties increase when it comes to equating the various classes in other languages (cf. in this respect the points on terminology in the table below). In point of status or degree of grammatical dependence, sentences are classified into: Independent Sentences (isolated); Independent Clauses (as part of a compound sentence); Main/principal/head Clauses (in complex sentences); Governing Clauses (as part of a complex sentence, in case there are two or more levels of subordination); Subordinate/Secondary Clauses (as part of Complex sentences). 10

Independent Sentences are in fact simple sentences, their name differing only according to the angle from which they are viewed. It is ten oclock. I have to go to the airport. If linked by conjunctions, independent sentences become (more or less) independent clauses (in case of coordination, as part of a compound sentence e.g.: It is ten oclock and I have to go to the airport), while in the case where they are placed in a hierarchy, they turn into main clauses, subordinate clauses proper or governing clauses e.g.: It is ten oclock and so I have to go to the airport, unless I want to be late again. Independent Clauses are the complete elements or units which are brought together in a closer connection as part of the speech chain, without, however, being dependent upon each other or upon anything else in point of meaning or of grammatical status; their independence can at any time be proved, through replacing commas or coordinating conjunctions by full stops, without their full sense being altered. Main Clauses, also called Principal or Head Clauses, are elements that rank first in the hierarchy established as part of a complex sentence, that is they have in their subordination both secondary/subordinate clauses and governing clauses, in case the latter are present. While subordinate clauses display great variety, main clauses are limited in their variability, being usually statements, although questions, imperatives or, less frequently exclamations occasionally do appear as main clauses. Governing Clauses have the intermediate position, i.e. they have the ambivalent/hybrid nature of governed and governing at the same time, when the stratification within the complex sentence is more diversified. They behave as subordinates to the main clause(s) while governing the subordinate clause(s) proper, e.g. He said that he would return the book when he finished it. Subordinate or Secondary Clauses are an indispensable element of complex sentences: the very notions of "complex sentence" (= heterogeneous, unequal) and of main clauses are impossible without the existence of subordinate elements. Their government by main or governing clauses is the principal area where the rules of sequence of tenses manifest themselves. The comparison with Romanian, inevitably requires a perfect understanding of the equivalence of terms presented in the following table. This summarizes in fact all the above1: Romanian propoziie independent/simpl English independent/simple sentence


Andrei Banta, Descriptive English Syntax, p. 89.


propoziie independent coordonat (n cadrul unei fraze compuse prin coordonare) propoziie principal (n cadrul unei fraze compuse prin subordonare) propoziie secundar/subordonat (idem) propoziie regent (idem) fraz (compus) prin coordonare fraz (compus) prin subordonare locuiune gramatical Expresie

coordinated independent clause (as part of a compound sentence) main/principal/head clause (as part of a complex sentence) subordinate/secondary clause (idem) governing clause (idem) compound sentence complex sentence grammatical phrase Idiom, idiomatic phrase

2. Compound Sentences Just as a phrase may be simple or complex, depending on whether it is composed of one word or more than one, a sentence may be simple (i.e. consists of a simple clause) or complex, the complex sentence consisting of more than one clause. The relationships between the clauses of a sentence are of two kinds: a) coordination, b) subordination. Coordination (or conjoining) is the process of forming compound sentences by joining or uniting two or more sentences of equal rank. In most cases, coordination is achieved by means of coordinating conjunctions, or coordinators (sometimes called syndetic coordination), but in some cases the conjunctions may be absent altogether (asyndetic coordination). From the point of view of the logical relations between two clauses forming a compound sentence, coordination can be subdivided into: copulative, disjunctive, adversative, consecutive, causative. Copulative coordination is achieved by means of the following conjunctions: and, as well as, nor, neither, not only...but also, both...and, neither...nor. When two or more clauses are coordinated, repeated elements, which are therefore redundant, are ellipted (deleted) from all but one of the clauses: - if two ore more coordinated sentences have identical subjects, the subject of the second (third, etc.) sentence is usually deleted, e.g. He1 went into the shop (he1) bought a tie and (he1) paid for it at the cash desk. - if the predicates in the coordinated sentence contain the same auxiliary, it is deleted (ellipsis is usually anaphoric, with realized items in the first of a series of clauses). e.g. They were married in 1960, (they were) divorced in 1970, and (they were) reconciled in 1972. 12

Ive been waiting and (Ive been) wondering where you are. - an identical head verb of a VP can be deleted e.g. John has written a poem and Bob (has written) a novel. - the compound sentence may be reduced to only one sentence with a compound constituent, e.g. John will come later and Mary will come later John and Mary will come later. The conjunction and coordinates sentences as well as their constituent parts. As well as linking two main clauses, and can link subordinate clauses. e.g. He asked to be transferred because he was unhappy and (because) conditions were far better at the other office. The conjunction and denotes merely a relation between the clauses, the second clause being a pure addition to the first. e.g. John was tired and hungry. However, the conjunction has certain other semantic implications: - adversative (and = but), e.g. I could have helped him and I didnt. He promised to come and he didnt. - the second clause is a consequence or result of the first. This entails that the order of the clauses also reflects chronological sequence (and = therefore), e.g. He heard an explosion and phoned the police. She was talking too much and we left. - the second clause is chronologically sequent to the first but without any implication of a cause-result relationship (and = then) e.g. She washed the dishes and (she) dried them. I wrote the letter and he posted it. - the first clause is a condition of the second (and = if) e.g. Give me some money and Ill help you escape. Work hard and youll win the contest. (= If you work hard, youll win.) The other coordinating conjunctions give variety or the right emphasis to copulative coordination: Both...and is used for the coordination of two sentences having the same subject or for the coordination of two subjects having the same predicate, e.g. He both speaks and writes three foreign languages. Both Peter and Ann have won prizes. Not only...but (also): the correlative not only can be found either in noninitial or in initial position. When not only is placed in initial position the subjectauxiliary inversion is obligatory. e.g. They not only broke into his office and stole his books but (also) tore up his manuscripts. Not only did they break into his office and steal his books but also tore up his manuscripts. 13

Not only did he deny his responsibility, but he also had the cheek to lay the blame on us. Neither...nor raises a very interesting problem since it formally resembles the disjunctive either...or, while semantically it negates the conjunction, meaning both (not-x)...and (not-y) e.g. She didnt eat and she didnt drink She neither ate nor drank anything. The correlative conjunction neither...nor behaves in colloquial speech like and as regards concord. Thus, Neither he nor his wife have arrived is more natural in colloquial speech than Neither he nor his wife has arrived, the form recommended by traditional grammars. As R. Quirk and his colleagues point out, this preference reflects notional concord in that logical neither x nor y can be interpreted as a union of negatives: both (not-x) and (not-y) (R. Quirk et al, 1972: 384). The correlative nor is usually followed by subject-auxiliary inversion when both subject and auxiliary are present. e.g. Mary was neither happy nor was she sad. Neither Peter wanted the responsibility nor did his wife. (though if the predicates in the two clauses are identical, the more usual form would be Neither Peter nor his wife wanted the responsibility). Nor and neither can be used without being a correlative pair. They are used when the first sentence is negative and require subject-auxiliary inversion. e.g. He did not come to the symposium, neither/nor did he send in the paper. He did not know, nor could he guess the reason for her absence. The role of copulative coordination can be achieved by some other connectors such as: in addition, moreover, furthermore, likewise, besides, again, then. They imply that the addition is something emphatic or important. Stylistically, they are characteristic of a more formal, written style. e.g. I did not like the house, moreover it was too high-priced. First I visited my friend, then I left the town. The house is almost new; again/ besides/ furthermore/ likewise/ moreover, it is in excellent condition. He came late; in addition he hadnt done his homework. The parts of a compound sentence may also be joined asyndentically i.e. without any conjunction. Asydentic coordination is always marked by a comma or a semicolon. The copulative conjunction and may always be inserted. e.g. The sun was breaking out; the sound of the mill seemed cheery again; the granary doors were wide open. (G.E.) Disjunctive coordination presupposes a choice or an alternative between two clauses. It is achieved by means of the conjunctions or, else, or else, otherwise, either...or.


Or allows ellipsis of the subject if, in the clause it introduces, the subject is co-referential with that of the preceding linked clause: I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. As well as linking two main clauses, or can link subordinate clauses, e.g. I wonder whether you should go and see her or (whether) it is better to write to her. There are some situations when disjunctive coordination links three or even more clauses, the disjunctive relation being less obvious: You may either read a magazine, listen to the records, or watch TV. In addition to indicating an alternative, as in e.g. You can boil yourself an egg or you can make some sandwiches, or may imply a negative condition: e.g. You must be gentle with him (the pony) or youll find him troublesome. (C.D.) (the implication can be paraphrased by the negative conditional clause If you are not gentle with him). The addition of either to the first clause is more explicit in excluding the combination of both alternatives e.g. You can either boil yourself an egg or you can make some sandwiches. Either do it properly or (else) dont do it at all. Either he is a rogue or he is a fool. Adversative coordination combines two opposing or contrasting statements. It is achieved mainly through the conjunctions but, yet, whereas, while, nevertheless, only, still, however, all the same, none the less or nonetheless, on the other hand. e.g. The engine is very old; still it works very well. She speaks highly about him; all the same I dont trust him. Reading is easy; on the other hand writing is difficult. Ive ordered the beer but it hasnt come. Tom was good at arithmetic, yet he was never given full marks. One of the statues was of marble, whereas the other was a wood carving. Some people waste food, while others havent enough. It may rain, nevertheless we will start on the trip. He makes good resolutions only he never keeps them. Consecutive coordination introduces an inference, conclusion, consequence, result of the previous part. It is achieved mainly with the help of the conjunctions so, therefore, hence, thus. There was no one there, so I went away. I forgot to return the magazine, hence his displeasure. But this is not to be a regular autobiography, therefore I now pass a space of eight years in silence. (C.B.)


Other connectors with consecutive meaning are: then, consequently, accordingly. e.g. Singapore lies very near to the equator, consequently the weather is very hot. They broke the rules; so/ therefore/ accordingly/ consequently they were punished. Causal / Explanatory coordination adds an independent clause explaining the preceding statement. It is represented only by the conjunction for. The causative meaning is not felt as strong as that of its subordinating counterparts (because, etc.). e.g. The days were short for it was September. You should ask more of him for he can do more. They left in a hurry, for it was already late. You had better close the window, for it is rather cold. 3. Complex Sentences One of the main devices for linking clauses together within the same sentence is that of coordination, already discussed in Chapter II. The second major device, that of subordination will be the main concern of this chapter. While coordination is the linking together of two or more elements of equivalent status (rank) and function, subordination is a non-symmetrical relation, holding between two clauses x and y, in such a way that y is a constituent or part of x. Diagrammatically, the difference is as in x x y I like John and John likes me I like John y because John likes me coordination subordination A second difference is that a coordinate relationship may have more than two members, while only two members enter into the relationship of subordination: we may call them the superordinate/ main clause, e.g. x in the diagram, and the subordinate/dependent/ embedded clause, e.g. y in the diagram. A main clause is one that can stand alone, i.e. is not dependent on another clause. A clause can be subordinate by being able to replace an NP or an adverbial in the main clause, taking over its syntactic functions: it can function as subject, object, or adverbial of the main clause. Thus, complex sentences are formed by letting one sentence function as a part, as a constituent of another. The device of subordination enables us to organize multiple clause structures. Each subordinate clause may itself be superordinate to one or more other clauses, so that a hierarchy of clauses, one within another may be built up, sometimes resulting in sentences of great complexity.


Subordinate clauses may be recognized by one or more of the following characteristics: a) they are optional elements, e.g. they can be deleted: e.g. Jane was preparing breakfast while her husband slept. b) they can precede or follow the main clause or be inserted in it: e.g. They trudged on, although they were overcome by fatigue. When night fell, they collapsed into an exhausted heap. These men, who had eaten nothing all day, were angered by their leaders inefficiency. c) they are marked by certain introductory elements: conjunctions, wh-elements; d) they may contain non-finite verb forms. Subordinate clauses may suffer important modifications of form: as a consequence of embedding, their sentential status is destroyed to a lesser or greater extent, so that a formerly independent sentence tends to become more and more 'nouny' in its structure and properties: a) That Tom gave the letter to Ann surprised us all. b) For Tom to have given the letter to Ann surprised us all. c) Tom giving the letter to Ann surprised us all. d) Toms giving the letter to Ann surprised us all. e) Toms giving/ gift of the letter to Ann surprised us all. As we move down from that-clauses (example a) to deverbal nominals proper (ex. e), the constituents lose their sentential features and acquire nominal features instead: such a scale is called a squish. Choice of the dependent type whether the subordinate clause is a that-clause, an infinitive or a gerund largely depends on the syntactic and sometimes semantic features of the matrix predicate (the term predicate is here used as a cover term for verbs and predicative adjectives). Formal indicators of subordination On the whole, subordination is marked by some signal contained in the subordinate clause. Such a signal may be of a number of different kinds: a) subordinating conjunctions (subordinators) are perhaps the most important formal devices of subordination: - simple subordinators: after, although, as, because, before, if, however, like, once, since, that, till, until, when(ever), where, wherever, whereas, while; - compound subordinators: in that, so that, in order that, such that, except that, for all that; In some cases of compound subordinators, that is optional. Subordinators ending with optional that are: now (that), providing (that), provided (that), supposing (that), considering (that), granting (that), seeing (that); - as far as, as long as, as soon as, insofar as, so far as, insomuch as, according as, sooner than, rather than, as if, as though, in case;




c) d)


correlative subordinators: if...then, although...yet/nevertheless, as...so, more/er/less...than, as...as, so...as, such...as, such...that, no sooner...than, whether...or; wh-elements are markers of subordination in interrogative wh-clauses, in relative wh-clauses and in concessive clauses: I dont know who came / when he came. The book which he bought seems interesting. Wherever you may go you wont find a better job. the relative pronoun that is a subordination marker in relative clauses: The book that I bought seems interesting. inversion: subject-auxiliary inversion is a marker of subordination in some conditional clauses where the operator is had, were, should: e.g. Had I known more I should have refused the job. Should you see him tell him about the meeting. the absence of a finite verb form is effectively an indication of subordinate status, since non-finite and verbless clauses occur only in subordinate clauses: Being tired he went to bed early. = As he was tired went to bed early.

Classification of subordinate clauses Subordinate clauses may be classified according to two criteria: Structural type, i.e. in terms of the elements they themselves contain; Function, i.e. the position they have within the complex sentence. Structural classification Analyzing clauses according to their structural type we arrive at two types of clauses: a) Finite clauses i.e. clauses containing a finite verb e.g. Ill come when I am ready. When I opened the door I saw the postman. b) Non-finite clauses i.e. clauses containing a non-finite form e.g. Opening the door I saw the postman. The finite clause always contains a subject as well as a predicate. In contrast, the non-finite clause always has the ability to do without a subject, although in many kinds of non-finite clauses a subject is optional. The three classes of non-finite verbal construction serve to distinguish three classes of nonfinite clauses: i. infinitive: - without subject: e.g. The best thing would be to tell everybody; - with subject: e.g. The best thing would be for you to tell everybody. ii. -ing participle: - without subject: e.g. Leaving the room he tripped over the mat; 18

- with subject: e.g. His aunt having left the room, Tom declared his love for Celia. iii. -ed participle: - without subject: e.g. Covered with confusion, I left the room; - with subject, e.g. The job finished, we left the room. When the subject of participial clauses is expressed, it is often introduced by the preposition with, e.g. With the tree growing/grown tall, we get more shade. The absence of the finite verb from non-finite clauses means that they have no distinction of person, number or modal auxiliary. That subject and finite verb form can be omitted is a hint that their meaning should be recoverable from the context. It is possible to postulate certain missing forms, normally a form of the verb BE, and a pronoun subject having the same reference as a noun or pronoun in the same sentence. Consider the following non-finite clause: Once appointed commander, he took the measures expected of him. One might insert a pronoun subject and a form of the verb be: Once (he had been) appointed commander, he took the measures expected of him. When no referential link can be discovered with a nominal in the context, an indefinite subject somebody/something may be supplied: To be an administrator is to have the worst job in the world. ("For someone to be...") A non-finite clause in which the subordinating conjunction is retained is called an abbreviated clause. c) Verbless clauses are clauses containing no verbal element at all but nevertheless capable of being analyzed in terms of subject, object, predicative or adverbial. A verbless clause, apart from being verbless, is also (like the non-finite clause) commonly subjectless; it therefore takes the ellipsis of clause elements one stage further than the non-finite clause. Once again, the omitted finite verb can generally be assumed to be a form of the verb BE, and the subject, when omitted, can be treated as recoverable from the context, e.g. Whether right or wrong, he always comes off worst in argument (= whether he is right...). Verbless clauses can also, on occasion, be treated as reductions of non-finite clauses, e.g. Too nervous to reply, he stared at the floor (= Being too nervous to reply...) Functional classification Subordinate clauses may perform any syntactic function within the complex sentence: they may function as subject, object, predicative or adverbial of the main clause. On the basis of these functions, there emerges a classification 19

similar in some ways to the functional classification of smaller units (words and phrases) as noun phrases, adverbials etc. Thus, the functional organization of the complex sentence parallels that of the simple sentence: simple and complex sentences are isomorphic. But, although the functions of subordinate clauses are similar to those of the parts of the sentence, subordinate clauses cannot be identified with these parts of the sentence. By means of subordinate clauses we may express our thoughts in a more complete, detailed manner. Compare the following: He was exhausted for want to sleep. He was exhausted because he had not slept the whole night. Summing up: Subordination and coordination are ways of deepening and broadening grammar. Subordinate clauses are embedded as part of another clause. Subordination is signaled by an overt link (such as a subordinator) or by a non-finite verb phrase. Coordinate clauses are joined, with each having equal status. Coordination can also be used to join phrases. Despite prescriptive rules, coordinators are commonly used at the beginning of a turn in conversation, and at the start of a new sentence in writing. Ellipsis is a way of simplifying grammatical structure through omission. Ellipsis is common in a wide range of contexts. The missing words can usually be reconstructed from the preceding text or from the situation. Pronouns and other pro-forms can also reduce the length and complexity of clauses. Dependent clauses are subdivided into finite and non-finite clauses (whereas independent clauses are usually finite). Finite dependent clauses include complement, adverbial and relative clauses. Non-finite dependent clauses include infinitive clauses, ing-clauses, edclauses and verbless clauses. In certain circumstances, dependent clauses are used as separate units, like independent clauses.

BIBLIOGRAFIE: Bdescu, A. 1963. Gramatica limbii engleze., Bucureti: Ed. tiinific. Banta, A.1977. Elements of Descriptive English Syntax. Bucureti: TUB. Budai, L.1997 Gramatica engleza, Teorie i exerciii, Bucureti: Editura Teora. 20

Biber, D., Conrad, S., Leech, G. 2005. Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman. Gleanu, G., Comiel, E. 1982. Gramatica limbii engleze. Bucureti: Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic. Murar, I, Trantescu, A., Pisoschi, C. 2008. Descriptive English Syntax. Theory and Practice. Craiova: Editura Universitaria. erban, D. 1982. English Syntax, volume one, Bucureti. tefnescu, I. 1978. Lectures in English Morphology. Bucureti, TUB. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., Swartvick, J. 1972. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman. Thomson, A., Martinet, A.1969. A Practical English Grammar. London: Oxford University Press. AUTOEVALUARE: Exercise 1. Insert the proper conjunctions, conjunctive pronouns, conjunctive adverbs, relative pronouns or relative adverbs: 1. It was almost ten o'clock .. we heard the sounds of wheels. 2. Don't open the door .. the train stops. 3. Hardly had I reached the station ..... the train started. 4. .. I had walked the whole way home, I came home late. 5. The man raised the lantern a little higher, . he might see the stranger's face. 6. Close the window ..... the child should catch cold. 7. You speak so fast ... it is difficult to follow you. 8. We talked .. we talked in old days. 9. A body will never change its place .. moved, and .. once started will move ... stopped. 10. ... you see him tell him to ring me up. 11. We have both changed ... we left school. 12. Please, write . I dictate. 13. .. you ask me, I will tell you. 14. This boy is taller .. you are. 15.. breakfast was completed, there was a knock at the door. 16. .... you go past the post, will you drop these letters in ? 17. What have you been doing .. I saw you last? 18. I shall not forget that summer ... I live. 19. There is not a man alive ... could do it half so well as you. 20. The paradox ... made everybody laugh belongs to G. B. Shaw. 21. Take such measures ... seem to you necessary. 22. The thought ... he may have fallen ill worries me. 23. They did nothing .. he came. 24. Can you tell me ... road leads to the station? 25. I've forgotten .. she gave it to. 26. I wonder ... she married. 27. Tell him ... you think it is necessary for him to know. 28. .. you can't type any better than this, you had better not type at all. 29. Don't go away ... I come back. Then you can go ... you like. 30. We must go, .. it is late. 31. He acted ... he were displeased with our offer. 32. .. the supplies arrive in time, all will go well. 33. ..... the river were not so deep, we could cross it. 34. The night was .. dark .. we lost our way. 35. ... she is late, shall we wait for her? 36. ... the night was pitch dark, we continued our way. 37. I saw you yesterday ... you were one block away.


Exercise 2. Join the sentences which make up a pair. Use both coordinating and subordinating relative words: 1. I did not recognize the hotel where I found accommodation. I asked a policeman. 2. I spoke very clearly. I didnt speak very carefully. 3. The teacher explained the theory several times. At last we could understand. 4. A fief broke into the house. He stole some money. The lady of the house caught him. did he give back the money paid for the window he had broken. 5. She advised him to go away for a week. He fell ill before the departure. 6. We will ask John to carry out his job. John couldnt have cared less. 7. The pupil was idle about his exam preparation. He seemed not to want to pass it. 8. We had our car repaired last month. Now it doesnt work. 9. He wants things to remain like that for some time. We should keep everything secret. 10. Have them accept the wages. We can negotiate some bonuses. 11. The prosecution intended to have him convicted for murder. The judge found him not guilty. Exercise 3. Built sentences of your own with where and when introducing: Subject Clauses, Predicative Clauses, Object Clauses, Attributive Clauses, Adverbial Clauses of Place, and Adverbial Clauses of Time. Exercise 4. Finish these sentences with clauses of the kind asked for. Use the necessary conjunctions: 1. You wont manage . (condition) 2. Shes late (reason) 3. They are pleased (concession). 4. (time) you can stay in a hotel. 5. The bank granted him a loan .(purpose). 6. It was such a big surprise for everybody . (result). 7. They returned home ..(comparison).


UNIT 2. Nominal Clauses

1. Subject Clauses 2. Predicative Clauses 3. Object Clauses Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili : 1. S identifice regulile de folosire a modurilor i timpurilor n propoziia subiectiv. 2. S identifice regulile de coresponden a timpurilor n completiva direct. 3. S recunoasc diferenele de folosire ntre indicativ i subjonctiv n propoziiile subiectiv i completiv prepoziional. Timp de studiu : 8 ore. The principles of the functional classification are most clearly exhibited by the category of nominal clauses, or clauses having a function approximating to that of a noun phrase. Just as noun phrases may occur as subject, object, predicative, appositive, so every nominal clause may occur in some or all of these functions: Subject: Whether we need it is another matter. Object: I dont know whether we need it. Predicative: The problem is whether we need it. Appositive: That question, whether we need it, has not yet been considered. 1. Subject Clauses The Subject Clause discharges the same role in the complex sentence as that of a subject in a simple sentence or in a clause, i.e. the subject clause performs the function of a subject of the main clause. Compare: Your talk was interesting. What you said was interesting. 1.1.Introductory elements. The subject clause may be introduced syndetically (by means of formal markers) or asyndetically (no markers) a) syndetically, by means of: - conjunctions: if, that, whether e.g. If I agree with you is another matter. That she is still alive is a consolation. Whether he will come is doubtful. - pronominal wh-elements: who, which, what, whoever, whatever, whichever e.g. Who will do the job is still a question. (who has a definite meaning the person who). 23

What is worth doing is worth doing well. Whoever breaks the law deserves a fine (whoever is used with a universal meaning anyone who). In present-day English whoever has taken over, in many contexts, both universal and definite meanings: Whoever told you that was lying (whoever = the person who, anyone who). - adverbial wh-elements: when, where, why, how e.g. Where he is at present still obsesses me. How the book will sell depends on the author. b) asyndetically e.g. 'Come to see me' is what he told me on his departure. 1.2.The Position of Subject Clauses The subject clause may have initial position (especially in literary style) or non-initial position: e.g. Whether he will come is doubtful. Who her mother was and how she came to die in that forlornness were questions that often pressed on Eppies mind. (G.E.) That he didnt understand was evident. What she loved best in the world just then was riding. (J.G.) The subject clause may undergo extraposition, i.e. it is moved to the end of the sentence. The empty NP position left after extraposition is filled by the introductory pronoun it (which becomes the normal subject of the sentence), e.g. It was evident that he didnt understand. It is doubtful whether he will come. The operation of extraposition generates sets of syntactic synonyms. Sentences with the subject clause in initial position are formal in style, while those with the extraposed subject clause are informal in style and are, by far, the more common and widespread. Unlike subject clauses introduced by that which are more frequent when extraposed, those introduced by what are frequent in initial position. 1.3.Classes of words that trigger a Subject Clause The presence of certain adjectives, nouns, verbs in the main clause requires the use of a subject clause: a) adjectives; most of them are evaluative adjectives expressing some comment of the speaker on the state of affairs given in the clause: amazing, apparent, astonishing, bad, certain, definite, doubtful, essential, evident, funny, good, gratifying, helpful, important, incredible, likely, marvellous, obvious, odd, plain, possible, probable, strange, sure, surprising, uncertain, unlikely. They occur in the pattern: IT+BE / SEEM / APPEAR + Adj. + That-Clause 24

e.g. It is strange that he did so badly. It is unlikely that he will come. That he did not have any chance was clear to anyone. b) nouns, mostly from the same semantic field as the adjectives above: amazement, certainty, doubt, evidence, idea, miracle, mystery, pity, problem, shame, shock, surprise, wonder, etc. They occur in the pattern: IT+ BE / SEEM + Noun +That-clause e.g. Its a pity that you cant join us. Its really a wonder that he didnt cause a traffic accident. Its really a mystery how he managed to raise all that money. That he could do such a thing was a shock for his mother. c) verbs: - intransitive verbs: appear, come about, happen, seem, turn out e.g. It seems that he has changed his mind. It so happens that I am busy throughout the week. - transitive verbs of psychological state: alarm, amaze, anger, annoy, astonish, astound, baffle, bother, charm, comfort, displease, disgust, embarrass, frighten, intrigue, irritate, madden, please, relieve, satisfy, surprise, tempt, etc. The Direct Object is [+ animate] and the whole sentence expresses the reaction of this animate participant to the fact reported in the subject clause. e.g. It intrigues me that nothing better came out of it. 1.4. Constraints upon the moods and tenses in Subject Clauses: a) the Indicative Mood is used in the Subject Clause after the adjectives: apparent, certain, clear, evident, likely, marvelous, obvious, plain, true, and after the nouns: a fact, secret, wonder; - a Present Tense in the main clause is followed by any tense in the Subject Clause: e.g. It is certain that he has been/ was/ will be here. Its true that some of us havent got enough training. Its certain hes working on an experiment. It is likely that they will build a new road. - a Past Tense in the main clause is followed by a Past Tense or a Past Perfect in the Subject Clause: e.g. It was clear that Tom had left earlier. It was obvious that everything had been settled. b) The Subjunctive Mood is used in the Subject Clause after: - the adjectives: appropriate, advisable, compulsory, desirable, essential, fitting, imperative, important, inevitable, natural, necessary, normal, obligatory, right, recommendable, urgent, vital, etc. The verb in the Subject Clause is in the Analytic Subjunctive (with the auxiliary should): e.g. It is absolutely necessary that he should come, too. It is important that they should be announced. 25

Is it necessary that I should answer that question? (T.H.) In American English as well as in the official (juridical, political) and elevated style the Synthetic Subjunctive I (the same form as the short infinitive) is preferred: e.g. It is absolutely necessary that they come too. It is imperative that they send the goods immediately. - after the adjectives likely, possible, probable the verb in the Subject Clause is in the Analytic Subjunctive (may/might + Infinitive) when the sentence is in the affirmative. In the interrogative and negative the auxiliary should is used: e.g. Is it possible that he may/might arrive tomorrow. It is probable that more visitors may visit the exhibition on Sunday. It is likely that it may rain tonight. Is it possible that he should know so little? It is not likely that we should get through our work today. c) After words expressing psychological reactions such as the verbs alarm, amaze, irritate, the adjectives amazing, disgraceful, gratifying, odd, strange, surprising, unthinkable, the nouns pity, shame, surprise, the verb in the Subject Clause is in the Indicative Mood or in the Analytic Subjunctive: the Indicative is used when reference is made to an actually existing state of things; the Subjunctive stresses the subjective reaction, emotional attitude of the speaker (the Subjunctive is used when the idea or the feeling is emphasized). e.g. It is surprising that he is resigning (the resignation itself is an assumed fact). It is surprising that he should resign (the very idea of his resigning is surprising). It is odd that he denies the facts. It is odd that he should deny the facts. 1.5. Reduction of Subject Clauses to Non-finite forms: a) an infinitival phrase: the Subject clause may be reduced to a construction with a to-infinitive or a for-NP-to infinitive (it seems to be used in preference to the that-clause in both British and American English) e.g. It is wise of you to go there (cf. It is wise of you that you should go there). It is important for both drivers and pedestrians to obey the traffic rules. (cf. It is important that both drivers and pedestrians should obey the traffic rules). It is so kind of you to have come. It is the custom for guests to be received with bread and salt in Romania. It is important for you to read the book. For a bridge to collapse like that is unbelievable. 26

When the main clause contains an intransitive verb such as appear, happen, seem, an adjective such as certain, sure, unlikely, the derived nonfinite construction usually assumes the following form: e.g. It seems that Bill has won the prize Bill seems to have won the prize. It is certain that Tom will carry out his intentions Tom is certain to carry out his intentions. The derived sentence is obtained by applying the rule of Raising: this rule moves the subject of the subordinate clause into the main clause where it becomes the subject of the sentence (a Nominative + Infinitive construction). b) a gerundial phrase e.g. Its no use crying over spilt milk. Its no good your bothering about things. It is certainly an awful nuisance having to wait another hour for the train. Living near the office is an advantage for him. 2. Predicative Clauses The predicative clause discharges the same function in the complex sentence as that of the predicative in a simple sentence. The link verb is in the main clause. The predicative clause together with the link verb forms a compound nominal predicate to the subject of the main clause. 2.1. Introductory elements Having the same formal characteristics as subject clauses, predicative clauses usually share the elements that can introduce them. The predicative clause may be introduced: a) syndetically, by means of - conjunctions: that, whether, if, as if e.g. The trouble is that I forgot the address. You look as if you didnt care. (J.G.) - pronominal wh-elements: who, what, which e.g. That was exactly what I thought. - adverbial wh-elements: where, when, why, how e.g. Home is where your friends and family are. That is why I never call on him. b) asyndetically: the predicative clause is separated from the main clause by a comma e.g. The truth is, I have never heard the name before.

2.2. Classes of words that trigger a Predicative Clause 27

The predicative clause is used in sentences when the main clause consists of: a subject expressed by an abstract noun (assumption, claim, fact, idea, problem, question, reason, statement, etc.) + a copulative verb: be, seem, look. e.g. The assumption is that things will improve. The problem is not who will go, but who will stay. She recognized that he had charm and her fear was that he had too much. (J.G.) 2.3. Sequence of tenses in Predicative Clauses A PRESENT TENSE IN THE MAIN CLAUSE IS FOLLOWED BY ANY TENSE IN THE PREDICATIVE CLAUSE, e.g. The question is if they are/ were/ had been at home. A Past Tense in the main clause is followed by: Past Tense (simultaneity). Past Perfect (anteriority), Future in the Past (subsequence), e.g. That was exactly what I thought. The alternative was that they would start at seven. The real problem was that they would show up at four. In clauses introduced by as if Subjunctive II (Past) or III (Perfect) is used: e.g. He knew what suffering was like and this man looked as if he were suffering. (J.G.) The room looked as if it had not been lived in for years. (O.W.) 2.4. Reduction of Predicative Clauses to Non-finite forms: A Predicative clause can be reduced to: a) an infinitival phrase e.g. His intention was to say nothing about it. b) a gerundial phrase e.g. Our main problem was finding time to do the work. 3. Object Clauses The object clause has the function of an object to the predicate of the main clause. There are three types of object clauses: Direct Object Clauses, Indirect Object Clauses, Prepositional Object Clauses. 3.1. Direct Object Clauses The direct object clause discharges a role similar to that of a direct object in the simple sentence, being in fact an extension of the group of words which can normally express the direct object. e.g. They know the facts. They know that the scheme is impracticable. 3.1.1. Introductory elements: Given their function and structure so closely connected with that of other nominal clauses, i.e. subject clauses, Direct Object Clauses may be introduced in practically the same way as subject clauses: a) syndetically, by means of: - conjunctions: that, if, whether 28

e.g. I told him that he was wrong. If and whether can introduce interrogative clauses, the result being an indirect question or a dependent alternative question (with the correlative or). e.g. I dont know if/ whether what shops are open. I dont know whether it will rain or be sunny. I dont care if your car breaks down or not. Only whether can be directly followed by or not, e.g. I dont care whether or not your car breaks down. But not:* I dont care if or not your car breaks down. - pronominal wh-elements: who, which, what, whoever, whatever e.g. The captain decides who shall form the team. I cant imagine what made him do it. When the wh-element is governed by a preposition, there is a choice between constructions with the preposition in initial or final position. e.g. He couldnt remember on which shelf he kept it (formal). He couldnt remember which shelf he kept it on (informal). - adverbial wh-elements: where, when, why, how e.g. I should like to see where you live, Jon. (J.G.) Few people know how difficult the work has been. b) asyndetically: the conjunction that is usually deleted leaving a 'zero thatclause' after verbs such as believe, hear, hope, imagine, know, remember, say, see, suppose, tell, think, understand, that is after verbs frequently used in constructions with object clauses. The deletion of that is normal in informal speech, when the clause is brief, e.g. I know he was wrong. I hear he is leaving. I hope youre feeling better today. In contrast, the need for clarity forbids the omission of that in long or expanded sentences. Any parenthetic material between the verb of the main clause and the subject of the that-clause is likely to block deletion, as in the following sentence: He had hoped, in a moment of optimism, that the committee would look favorably on our case. The conjunction that is never used after I wish, Id sooner, Id rather, e.g. I wish he were here. She wants to fly but Id rather she went by train. 3.1.2. Classes of verbs that trigger a Direct Object Clause The Direct Object clause is required by the following transitive verbs: accept, acknowledge, affirm, announce, answer, appreciate, confess, declare, deduce, demand, deny, desire, discover, doubt, dream, estimate, expect, explain, fancy, feel, figure (out), find, forget, gather, guess, hear, imagine, imply, infer, know, learn, like, love, observe, own, plan, postulate, predict, prefer, presume, profess, 29

pronounce, propose, prove, provide, realize, recall, reckon, recollect, recommend, remark, state, suggest, suppose, teach, testify, think, understand, wonder, write, etc. 3.1.3. The position of Direct Object Clauses Direct Object Clauses are usually placed after the main clause e.g. He did not quite know what she meant. (A.J.C.) Sometimes, for stylistic reasons (to render more emphatic), the Object clause can be found in initial position e.g. I thought I saw something. What it was I dont know. (H.G.W.) After verbs such as consider, find, make, owe, put, take, think, the Direct Object clause is anticipated by the introductory pronoun IT. The construction occurs in three patterns. i. V + IT + Thatclause, e.g. I take it that she gives her consent. ii. V + IT + Adjective + Thatclause, e.g. I think it wrong that he didnt go there. I made it clear that I was dissatisfied. iii. V + IT + PO + Thatclause, e.g. I owe it to him that I am a teacher. 3.1.4. Tenses and Moods in Direct Object Clauses Object Clauses undergo certain changes in their form to show their dependence on the main clause, to show the temporal relation (simultaneity, anteriority, subsequence) holding between the actions of the main and subordinate clause: a) The Present, the Present Perfect in the main clause may be accompanied by any logical tense in the Object Clause. e.g. I wonder where you found it. (H.G.W.) Dont you understand what has happened in the country? (J.Al.) I hope it will not inconvenience you. (C.D.) I have often thought that life is short. (C.D.) Mary thinks her brother came last night. I know she has posted the letter. I suppose he is here. She knows John will come tomorrow. The Future in the main clause may be accompanied by any logical tense (except Future) in the Object Clause. e.g. Ill only tell what I know. I shall try to describe what I saw there. I will tell him that I need his help tomorrow morning. b) The Past Tense in the main clause is accompanied in the Object Clause by: - another Past Tense for simultaneous actions or states, e.g. He did not know what tears were. (O.W.) He thought he saw the curtain move. (C.D.) 30

I supposed he was there. However, the Present instead of the Past Tense is used in the Object Clause if it expresses assertions whose validity exceeds the moment of speaking, that is assertions referring to general or universal truths, e.g. The pupils were taught that the earth is round, or assertions referring to lasting, prolonged situations, e.g. I was told that he is near sighted. I realized that he is a German. - the Past Perfect for previous (anterior) actions or states, e.g. I knew she had posted the letter. Mary thought her brother had come the night before. He flew back and told the prince what he had seen. (O.W.) Harris asked me if Id ever been there (J.K.J.) - the Future in the Past for subsequent actions or states, e.g. Everyone assumed that he would some day return. (J.Al.) She knew John would come the following day. He predicted correctly that there was going to be a stock market crash. He called her up one day and said that he and his wife were coming to New York. But the Future instead of the Future in the Past is used in the Object Clause if it expresses assertions whose validity exceeds the moment of speaking, that is assertions referring to general or universal truths, e.g. We were told that the atomic energy used in science shall change the face of the earth. (general truth) Summing up: Type of action Anteriority Tenses in the main clause Present/ Present Perfect/ Future Past Tense/ Past Perfect Present/ Present Perfect/ Future Past Tense/ Past Perfect Present/ Present Perfect Future Past Tense/ Past Perfect Tenses in the Object Clause Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Tense Past Tense Future Present Tense Future in the Past



There are some other constraints on the moods in the Object clauses: a) When the verb in the main clause expresses a request, recommendation or order, such as agree, arrange, ask, demand, desire, insist, move (= suggest, 31

propose), order, propose, recommend, regret, require, settle, suggest, the Subjunctive mood the Analytic form with should in British English, or the Synthetic form (in American English or in formal style) is employed in the Object Clause e.g. He demands that new solutions should be sought. I insist that you should write more carefully. Mr. Dombey proposed that they should start. (C.D.) The people all over the world demand that nuclear weapons be banned. I move that the meeting adjourn (L.C.) Ivory insisted that he be present. (A.J.C.) He recommended that the article be printed. In colloquial English the verbs propose, recommend, suggest may be followed by the Indicative mood (present or past tense). that Mr. Smith should go (normal) e.g. He proposes that Mr. Smith go (AE or formal style) that Mr. Smith goes (colloquial). b) After the verb wish in the main clause, the verb in the Object clause is in the Subjunctive Mood: - the Synthetic Subjunctive II (coinciding in form with the simple Past Tense) is used to express regret or present unreality: e.g. I wish he were / was here (Im sorry he isnt here). I wish I were ten years younger. I wish Lucy was my sister. (G.E.) The verb wish in the main clause can be put into the Past Tense without changing the form of the Subjunctive in the Object Clause, e.g. He wished he knew (He was sorry he didnt know). - the Subjunctive II Past (coinciding in form with the Past Perfect Tense) is used to express regret for an action not performed in the past. e.g. I wish he hadnt gone (Im sorry he went). How I wish I had been aware. (T.H.) I wish you had not put yourself to so much trouble. (A.J.C.) The verb wish in the main clause can be put into the Past Tense without changing the form of the Subjunctive in the Object Clause: He wished he had taken her advice (He was sorry he hadnt taken it). - the Analytic Subjunctive with the auxiliary would to express desire for a future action or a polite request: e.g. I wish youd come and see us oftener. (J.G.) I wish you would not talk like this, papa. (J.C.) I wish the rain would stop for a moment. (S.M.) I wish you would speak louder. 3.1.5. Reduction of Direct Object Clauses to Non-finite forms 32


An infinitival phrase: the finite verb in an Object Clause can be turned into an infinitive when the subject of the main clause is co-referential with that of the Object Clause e.g. I dont know what I should do I dont know what to do. He was explaining how I / one should start the motor He was explaining how to start the motor. After verbs of mental perception such as believe, consider, feel, find, guess, judge, know, suspect, think the Direct Object clause can be transformed into an Accusative + Infinitive construction: the subject of the subordinate clause is moved, raised into the main sentence where it becomes the Direct Object of the sentence: e.g. I consider that he is a very sensible man. I consider him to be a very sensible man. I thought that he was an excellent choice. - I thought him to be an excellent choice. The choice of the that- clause or the infinitive construction (Accusative + Infinitive) with or without be-deletion depends on semantic factors and to a certain extent on stylistic ones, that- clauses being preferred in informal style and Infinitive constructions in more formal language. e.g. I consider that he is clever I consider him (to be) clever. With verbs of physical perception feel, hear, notice, see, watch the infinitive construction is acceptable only when the verbs refer to immediate physical perception; when they refer to mental perception a that-clause should be used. Compare I saw that he hit the cat I saw him hit the cat. (sawphysical perception) I saw / felt that he disliked the cat *I saw him dislike the cat. (saw - mental perception) For a number of verbs offer, promise, swear, threaten, vow the infinitive constructions are possible only if there is identity of the two subjects. Compare: He1 promised me that he1 would get (me) the money to get the money. He promised me that I would get the money * to get the money In the second pair of sentences *He promised me to get the money the reduction to an infinitive construction is not possible because the subject of the subordinate clause should be co-referential with the subject of the main clause and not with the object of the verb promise. b) a gerundial phrase: e.g. He admitted that he had made the same mistake again He admitted having made the same mistake again. Do you mind my / me making a suggestion? 33

I dont like his ringing us up so often. 3.2. Indirect Object Clauses Indirect Object Clauses are an extension on the plane of the complex sentence of an indirect object in a simple sentence. Indirect object clauses are introduced by relative conjunctive pronouns: who(m), what, whoever, who(m)ever, whatever, whichever governed by the preposition to: e.g. He told the story to whoever would listen. Give the ticket to who(m)ever you like. He gave the wrong interpretation to what(ever) I said. 3.3. Prepositional Object Clauses Prepositional Object Clauses discharge the same function as prepositional objects in simple sentences, therefore occurring after a number of prepositions which are required by certain verbs. 3.3.1. Introductory elements: - conjunctions: that, whether e.g. It all depends on whether he will come or not. - pronominal wh-elements: who/whom, what, whoever/ whomever, whatever, whichever, e.g. They couldnt agree on who should tell him the bad news. They were interested in what he was saying. Think of what you are doing. Dont place too much confidence in whoever flatters you. They all laughed at what she said. - adverbial wh-elements: when, where, why, how e.g. There are many theories as to why the partridge is disappearing. It all depends on how you are feeling. The deletion of the preposition The preposition is always omitted when the clause is introduced by the conjunction that: - intransitive verbs such as admit of, complain of, decide on, depend on, hope for, insist upon, worry about, etc., take a prepositional object in free variation with a that-clause, e.g. He complained of unfair treatment He complained that he had been treated unfairly. The preposition is not deleted if the Object that-clause is anticipated by the empty pronoun it, e.g. Depend upon it that there is some mistake. (J.A.) He insisted upon it that I was wrong. 34

- there is a large group of transitive verbs that combine with a Direct Object (usually expressed by a [+ animate] NP) and a Prepositional Object; the latter alternates with a that-clause: advise NP of, assure NP of, convince NP of, inform NP of, notify NP of, persuade NP of, warn NP of/against, etc. e.g. He informed her of our willingness to help. He informed the manager that he was willing to work overtime. 3.3.2. Tenses and Moods in Prepositional Object Clauses In Prepositional Object Clauses the rules concerning the sequence of tenses are applied that he was right. e.g.We agreed upon it that there had been a misunderstanding. that he would apologize. When the verb in the main clause expresses a psychological state (be sorry/surprised/astonished/amazed/disappointed) the verb in the subordinate clause is either in the Indicative Mood or in the Analytic Subjunctive (with should). The Indicative Mood suggests that the whole sentence is a statement of fact (a report of a reaction or evaluation) while the Subjunctive Mood stresses the subjective reaction of the speaker. e.g. I am surprised that your wife objects. I am surprised that your wife should object. Thus, after these constructions in the present tense, we can have a) Present Indicative or should + Infinitive for simultaneous actions: Im amazed that he comes here in June. that he should come b) Present Perfect/Past Tense or should + Perfect Infinitive to express an anterior action: Im amazed that he has come/came. that he should have come. If the verb in the main clause is in the Past we have in the Prepositional Object Clause: a) Past Tense or should + Infinitive for simultaneity: I was amazed that he came in June. he should come b) Past Perfect or should + Perfect Infinitive for anteriority: I was amazed that he had come in June. he should have come I was sorry she had changed her job. she should have changed In all these cases, the difference between the sentences with the Subjunctive and those with the Indicative is the difference conveyed by the two moods: Subjunctive and Indicative. In the forms with the Subjunctive the very idea is


stressed, the evaluation of a possible event, while in the forms with the Indicative the actual fact is expressed (the description of a real, actual event). 3.3.3. Reduction of Prepositional Object Clauses to Non-finite forms A Prepositional Object Clause may be reduced to a gerundial phrase: - a simple construction when the subject of the main clause is co-referential with that of the Prepositional clause. e.g. I am tired of being treated like a child. He insisted on seeing you. - a complex construction: the subject of the subordinate clause assumes the form of the genitive or the object case (in informal style), e.g. Im surprised at his/ Johns making that mistake. Im surprised at him/ John making that mistake. Summing up: The most common type of that-clause is post-predicate. Its typical function is reporting the thoughts and speech of humans. Each of the other type of that-clauses has particular functions in discourse also. Mental verbs and speech act/communication verbs are the most common type of verb with a that- clause. Subject-position and extraposed that-clauses are much less common than post-predicate that-clauses. For verbs, only be is common controlling extraposed that-clauses. The adjectives that control that-clauses all convey stance. Extraposed that-clauses are far more common than subject thatclauses. Factors associated with the retention or omission of the thatcomplementizer include register, the main clause verb, and certain characteristics of the subjects in the main clause and that-clause.

BIBLIOGRAFIE: Bdescu, A.. 1963. Gramatica limbii engleze., Bucureti : Ed. Stiintifica. Banta, A.1977. Elements of Descriptive English Syntax. Bucureti: TUB. Budai, L.1997 Gramatica engleza, Teorie si exercitii, Bucureti: Editura Teora. Biber,D., Conrad, S., Leech, G. 2005. Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London:Longman. Gleanu, G., Comiel, E. 1982. Gramatica limbii engleze. Bucureti: Ed. Didactic i pedagogic. Murar I, Trantescu A., Pisoschi, C. 2008. Descriptive English Syntax.Theory and Practice. Craiova: Editura Universitaria. erban D. 1982. English Syntax, volume one, Bucureti. 36

tefnescu, I.. 1978. Lectures in English Morphology. Bucureti, TUB. Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Swartvick J. 1972. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman. Thomson A., Martinet A.1969. A Practical English Grammar. London: Oxford University Press.

AUTOEVALUARE: Exercise 1. Identify the subordinate clauses and their grammatical function: 1. She confesses her love story to whoever is about. 2. Their marriage depends on whether their parents are willing to help them. 3. Theyre not sure whether shell be successful with her new part. 4. The team knew that their chances were scanty and God only could still work miracles. 5. Never has she paid attention to whatever he says. 6. The kid always tells lies to whoever he meets on his way back home. 7. She was told that solitude was hard to stand for people like her. 8. Im afraid shes unhappy. 9. That he left town no one knew. 10. He could hardly know what he was talking about. 11. Hes glad shes here. 12. They are such pious people that they give food and money to whoever comes to their place. 13. They were not certain that she would accept their suggestion. 14. His men told us that he was in the hands of a savage tribe. 15. The question is where she made such a deep impression. Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences supplying subject, object or predicative clauses: 1. Id like to know . 2. Im not sure . 3. Tell me where . . 4. She didnt tell me why . . 5. I cant explain how .. . 6. It all depends on how ......... . 7. He suggested that .. . 8. He is certain ....... . 9. I wondered . 10. My friend insisted ................ . 11. I dont care . . 12. The captain ordered ... 13. She was uncertain ... . 14. Im glad . 15. He dreamed . . 16. It seems that ..... . 17. What surprised everybody. 18. Where .. is unknown. 19. We did not realize that . . 20. The question is how .. . 21. How . is what puzzles me more.


Exercise 3. Rewrite each of the following sentences with that clauses starting with the words given: 1. People have completely different opinions about this phenomenon. That is my experience. Its ... 2. We may get there in time. Its certainly possible. Its .. 3. My husband completely forgot about my birthday which upset me. The fact 4. New members have to buy the first round. Its an old tradition. Its .... 5. The new manager would make radical changes. That is what people believed. It .. 6. She still believes in Santa Claus, which I find ridiculous. I find it ..... 7. They will finish in time. That was their answer. Their .... 8. The company runs at a loss. That is the truth. The truth .. Exercise 4. In each group below, cross out any sentences that are not correct: 1. a. Paul gave the impression that he hates pop music. b. That he hates pop music is well known. c. He was talking about that he hates pop music. d. The thing is that he hates pop music. e. She was certain that he hates pop music. f. He explained that he hates pop music. g. The thing that he hates is pop music. 2. a. He explained that he had been held up. b. She excused that she was late. c. That he was late was really inexcusable. d. His excuse that he got lost in the crowded town was not accepted. e. It wasnt that surprising that she was late. f. The fact of the matter was they were both late. g. The fact that neither was on time for the meeting was extremely annoying. Exercise 5. Translate into English: 1. Ne-a spus c trenul va ntrzia cu o jumtate de or din cauza furtunii. 2. tiam c nu este n stare de nimic i nu se poate ntreine singur. 3. Nu cred c va iei curnd din aceast ncurctur n care s-a bgat singur. 4. mi dau seama c am greit mult, avnd ncredere n acei oameni. 5. nc de pe atunci tia c apa fierbe 38

la o sut de grade. 6. Mi-a rspuns c nu este n msur s ne dea nici o explicaie pentru ceea ce s-a ntmplat i a refuzat s fac orice alt comentariu. 7. Insistar ca vasul s fie ncrcat imediat. 8. tiu c nu e un om pe care l poi nela uor. 9. i sugerez s te mai gndeti nainte de a lua o hotrre. 10. Au cerut creterea salariilor i o prim de Crciun. 11. Te sftuiesc s-i pstrezi impresiile pentru tine. 12. Problema era c nu luase n considerare toate detaliile. 13. I-am sugerat s-i gseasc alt slujb dar nu m-a luat n seam. 14. Eram surprins c ei se comport astfel. Exercise 6. Complete the sentences with a noun clause and state the function of the clause you have added. 1. He said that he ............................ . 2. The fact is now generally known. 3. My brother rarely succeeds in achieving what .. . 4. What .. is of a direct concern to everybody. 5. I wanted to discover how ............. . 6. The man told his wife where .... . 7. What .. is less important then what you do. 8. I asked the doctor if ................... 9. The lawyer deplored the fact .......... 10. It is clear that ................ 11. It was generally agreed that ........... 12. His argument is that ......... 13. Your idea that .. will probably prove very unpopular. 14. It seems that .......................................... 15. That . is almost unconceivable. 16. Is it true that ............................... ? 17. Exactly how ............... will never be known. 18. He then remembered why ................. .


UNIT 3. Relative-Attributive Clauses

1. Restrictive/Defining Relative Clauses 2. Non-Restrictive/Non-Defining Relative Clauses 3. Appositive Attributive Clauses 4. Introductory Emphatic Sentences (Cleft Sentences) Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili: 1. S recunoasc elementele introductive ale propoziiilor relative. 2. S recunoasc caracteristicile propoziiilor relative restrictive i descriptive. 3. S reduc o propoziie relativ la o construcie impersonal. Timp de studiu: 4 ore. Relative clauses act as modifiers of NPs. They are therefore functionally parallel to attributive adjectives or phrases. Compare: People who speak English. English speaking people. There are two types of relative clauses: those which are essential to the meaning of the sentence (Restrictive Relative Clauses) and those which merely add some information (Non-restrictive Relative Clauses). 1. Restrictive/ Defining Relative Clauses A Restrictive Relative Clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence because it helps to identify the subject or another nominal part of the sentence the antecedent and, therefore, cannot be omitted without losing the clarity of the sentence. 1.1. Introductory elements: - relative pronouns: who, which, that, as e.g. My brother who lives at Leeds is younger than my brother who lives in London. This is the picture which caused such a sensation. The bus that goes to the station stops at this corner. He gave me the same answer as he had given the day before. - wh-adverbs: where, when, why can replace the relative pronouns, as in the following examples: e.g. The store in which I buy groceries is across the street. The store where I buy groceries is across the street. Sunday is the day on which we usually watch TV. Sunday is the day when we usually watch TV.


The selection of the relative pronoun Relative pronouns are not interchangeable in general; which specific relative pronoun is used depends on several factors: - the selectional features of the antecedent and of the replaced noun; - the syntactic function of the replaced noun; - certain other features such as particular syntactic combinations, euphony. The selectional features of the antecedent The choice of the introductory element (who, which, or that) depends on the following features of the antecedent: [human]: who is selected for [+human] nouns, which stands for [human], while that for [human]. e.g. The man whom / that I knew no longer works here. The car which / that I hired broke down after five miles. [definite]: that is preferred when the antecedent is determined by a superlative, an ordinal numeral or when the antecedent is expressed by an indefinite pronoun (all, everything, nothing, anybody, anything). e.g. It was the hottest place that I had ever been in. (J.K.J.) Was there anybody that they thought would suit? (C.D.) All that glitters is not gold. Which was the first steamship that crossed the Atlantic? The syntactic function Syntactically, who and which can be used for the three functions subject (who, which), object (whom, which), possessive (whose, of which); that can express two functions only: subject and object; it cannot be preceded by a preposition. e.g. This is the man who told us about it (subject). I dont like the people whom you invited to the party (object). The voice that spoke was cold and cruel. (O.W.) (subject) When she sees the damage that you have done she will be furious. He is a man whose judgement you can trust (possessive). The house whose windows are broken is unoccupied. The form whose is extensively used with a possessive value to refer to a [human] antecedent as well. Not all writers are happy about using whose when the antecedent is [human], while the form of which sounds rather formal: The house the windows of which is broken is unoccupied. That is why, some grammarians (see Hornby, A Guide to patterns and Usage in English, p. 170), suggest that in such cases it is preferable to avoid the use of whose and of which and to resort to a prepositional phrase that takes the place of the clause, e.g. The house with broken windows is unoccupied. Euphony Euphony can play a role in the choice of the relative pronouns. Thus, that is preferred after interrogatives and exclamatory who, though not necessarily if the 41

relative is separated from the antecedent. Similarly, the demonstrative pronoun that tends to be followed by which rather than that, e.g. Who that ever came into personal contact with him could help loving him? Who was it now that/ who had done that? I use the word not in the present state but in that which it had in the 17th century. 1.2. Asyndetic Relative Clauses In spoken English many relative clauses are introduced asyndetically, which can be interpreted as an ellipsis of the relative pronoun. Such clauses introduced asyndetically are sometimes called contact or unconnected relative clauses. The deletion of the relative pronoun depends on its function in the sentence. The pronoun can be deleted when it discharges the function of: - direct object, e.g. The lawyer (whom) I consulted gave me some useful advice. The book (which) I lent you belongs to my brother. Thats all I know. The room I shared with lieutenant Rinaldi looked out on the courtyard. (E.H.) I devoured the books they lent me. (C.B.) If there is anything I can do for you Im always at your service.(J.G.) - indirect or prepositional object: deletion is possible if the preposition is moved to the end of the sentence. e.g. Who is the man to whom you are talking? Who is the man you were talking to? This is the book about which I was telling you This is the book I was telling you about. This is the hotel in which I stayed last month. - This is the hotel I stayed in last month. There are cases when it is not possible to move the preposition to the end of the sentence. This is particularly true of the prepositions which are felt as being derived from other parts of speech such as round, during, concerning, regarding, except. e.g. This is the plan regarding which he called her *This is the plan (which) he called her regarding. The preposition cannot be moved to the end of the sentence when the antecedent is expressed by a very abstract noun, such as time, place, manner, e.g. That is the day on which he left *That is the day (which) he left on. Alternatively, if that is used and this is by far more common case the preposition is dropped; the relative pronoun that is also dropped more often than not. e.g. This was the day (that) he left. The sea was very rough the day we crossed the Channel. 42

Thats not the way I do it (cf. The way in which I do). The reason he comes here is unknown (cf. The reason for which he comes here is unknown). Alternatively, words denoting place, time, reason (not manner) can be followed by corresponding relative adverbs (where, when, why). e.g. This was the place where he went. This was the time when he arrived. This was the reason why he did it. After words denoting manner (way) that is used: This was the way that he did it. - the relative pronoun cannot be omitted when it is subject e.g. The man who told me this refused to give his name. Nevertheless, the relative pronoun functioning as subject may be deleted in sentences opening with it is, there is. The ellipsis of the relative pronoun was very frequent in Middle and Early Modern English. Nowadays it is a feature of colloquial and careless speech: e.g. Theres two or three of us () have seen strange sights.(W.S.) Theres somebody wants to see you. This is the only one there is (cf. This is the only one that exists). R.Quirk et al (1972: 867) give a summary of the introductory elements (syndetic and asyndetic) of the Restrictive Relative Clauses: The man who / that stayed in the new hotel. The table that / which stayed in the new hotel. The man whom / that / / I saw. The table that / / which I saw. The man at whom I glanced. The table at which I glanced. The place where / at which / that / I tried out the new car. The time at which / that / / when I tried out the new car. The reason why / that / I tried out the new car. The way that / / in which I tried out the new car. 1.3. Transformations involving Restrictive Relative Clauses Relative Clauses constitute an important source for other modifiers (premodifying and postmodifying constructions): what happens is that finite relative clauses are turned into non-finite clauses or prepositional phrases, going through a process of partial nominalization whereby they obligatorily lose the tense constituent and optionally the aspect constituent.


a) Adjectives: Restrictive Relative Clauses may be condensed through ellipsis to the form of an adjective, e.g. Plays which are controversies Controversial plays. We apply Relative Clause reduction (i.e. the reduction of the relative pronoun + auxiliary), e.g. Plays controversial and then a rule called Modifier Shift, which moves the adjective in pre-nominal position, e.g. Controversial plays. b) Prepositional phrases: Prepositional phrases are derived from Relative Clauses and represent a very common type of NP postmodification. The full range of prepositions is involved: e.g. Passengers who are on board this ship Passengers on board this ship. A man who has a tall hat on. A man with a tall hat on. The girl who is near Fred. The girl near Fred. I asked for the best book on the subject (cf. I asked for the best book that can be found on the subject) c) Non-finite forms: -ing participles: when the verb of the finite Relative Clause is in the continuous aspect, both the relative pronoun and the auxiliary be are omitted: e.g. The man who is waiting in the hall is a friend of mine The man waiting in the hall is a friend of mine. But -ing in postmodifiers is not always a reduction of a continuous form: there are a large number of cases where an -ing postmodifier cannot correspond to a continuous form in the Relative Clause. Thus, stative verbs which cannot have the progressive in the finite verb phrase, can, nevertheless, appear in -ing postmodifiers. e.g. Anyone who wishes to leave early may do so Anyone wishing to leave early may do so. He is talking to a girl resembling Jane (cf. ...who resembles Jane; ... *who is resembling Jane). -ed participles: when the verb in the Relative Clause is in the passive voice the relative pronoun and the finite form of be are usually omitted e.g. The goods that were ordered last month have not arrived yet. - The goods ordered last month have not arrived yet. All the coins (which were) found on this site must be handed to the police. - infinitives: are also obtained from the reduction of a Relative Clause especially when the antecedent is determined by superlatives, ordinal numerals, or when the Relative Clause contains modal verbs, e.g. The last man who left the ship was the skipper The last man to leave the ship was the skipper. The Romans were the first who made coloured glass The Romans were the first to make coloured glass. The procedure which must / should be followed The procedure to be followed. 44

The antecedent need not be the subject of the Relative Clause, it may be its direct or even its prepositional object, so that the infinitive clause has a distinct subject expressed in the surface structure (introduced by for). e.g. A place that we should visit A place for us to visit A place to visit. If the relative pronoun is a prepositional object and the preposition precedes the pronoun, it is possible to retain the relative in the infinitival modifier. e.g. This is a convenient tool with which you can work This is a convenient tool with which to work. This is a convenient tool to work with. 1.4. Sequence of tenses in Restrictive Relative Clauses: Restrictive Relative Clauses allow freedom of general logic to govern the tenses, without any influence of the tense constraints, e.g. For she sang of the Love that dies not in the tomb. (O.W.) But the bolts I had screwed up some days before stopped him. (H.G.W.) Next spring I will bring you back two beautiful jewels in place of those you have given away. (O.W.) 2. Non-restrictive/Non-defining Relative Clauses Non-restrictive (or Non-defining) Relative Clauses are not essential to the meaning of the sentence: the clauses give additional, but not essential information. Unlike Restrictive Relative Clauses, they can be omitted without causing confusion. Also unlike Restrictive Clauses they are placed between commas or dashes. Non-restrictive clauses are far less common than restrictive clauses. They are found in formal writing, but seldom in speech. e.g. Your student, whose name I can never remember, has just come. Given that a Non-restrictive Relative Clause makes an additional assertion, it is plausible to assume that Non-restrictive Relative Clauses are derived from coordinated sentences. The evidence in support of this derivation of Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses is their synonymy with coordinated sentences e.g. Even John, who is a friend of mine, left early Even John left early and he is a friend of mine. 2.1. Introductory elements of Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses Non-restrictive Relative Clauses are introduced by: - relative pronouns: who, which. These pronouns are distributed according to the features of the antecedent: who for [+animate] antecedents, which for [ animate] antecedents. e.g. John, who is going 16, wants to become an actor. The Shannon, which is the largest river in the British Isles, rises in the North of Ireland and flows to the Atlantic.


Syntactically, the pronouns can be used to express the functions of subject (who, which), object (whom, which), possessive (whose, of which), e.g. Jane Austen, whom the English regard as one of their greatest novelists, seldom moved far from her native village. This pen, which I bought two months ago, leaks badly. Mr. Green, whose wife teaches English, is himself a teacher of English. This encyclopedia, of which the second volume (or: the second volume of which) is missing, is out of date. - adverbs: where, when, e.g. Waterloo, where Wellington defeated Napoleon, is a small village near Brussels. In those days, when steam engine was unknown, textile mills were worked by the water of the rivers. Unlike Restrictive Relative Clauses, Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses cannot be introduced asyndetically, i.e. the relative pronoun cannot be omitted. 2.2. Sentential Relative Clauses A Non-Restrictive Relative Clause may refer not to a single noun as antecedent but to a whole clause or sentence. Sentential Relative Clauses are introduced by which (in such cases the relative pronoun may be equivalent to 'and this', 'and it'). e.g. He has to work on Sundays, which (= and this) he does not like. He missed the train, which annoyed him very much. After that things improved, which surprised me. 3. Appositive Attributive Clauses The Appositive Attributive Clause conveys more or less essential information being appended to a non-significant, semantically irrelevant noun such as assumption, belief, doubt, fact, feeling, idea, impressi