Learner and Teacher Readiness for Constructivism in the ... KHELIFI آ  on constructivist principles

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  • People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

    Abu Bekr Belkaid Uiversity -Tlemcen-

    Faculty of Arts and Languages

    Department of Foreign Languages

    Section of English

    Learner and Teacher Readiness for Constructivism in the

    Algerian EFL Classroom: The Case of 3rd Year Literary

    Classrooms in Colonel Abd Elhadi Secondary School

    (Sidi Bel-Abbes)

    Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Foreign Languages as Partial

    Fulfillment for the Degree of “Magister” in Educational Psychology

    Presented by: Supervised by:

    Mr. Khayreddine KHELIFI Dr. Hafida HAMZAOUI

    Board of Examiners:

    Pr. Smail BENMOUSSAT Chairman University of Tlemcen

    Dr. Hafida HAMZAOUI Supervisor University of Tlemcen

    Pr. Fewzia BEDJAOUI External Examiner University of Sidi Bel-Abbes

    Dr. Radia BENYELLES Internal Examiner University of Tlemcen

    Dr. Ali BAICHE Internal Examiner University of Tlemcen

    Academic Year: 2012-2013/1433-1434

  • People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

    Abu Bekr Belkaid Uiversity -Tlemcen-

    Faculty of Arts and Languages

    Department of Foreign Languages

    Section of English

    Learner and Teacher Readiness for Constructivism in the

    Algerian EFL Classroom: The Case of 3rd Year Literary

    Classrooms in Colonel Abd Elhadi Secondary School

    (Sidi Bel-Abbes)

    Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Foreign Languages as Partial

    Fulfillment for the Degree of “Magister” in Educational Psychology

    Presented by: Supervised by:

    Mr. Khayreddine KHELIFI Dr. Hafida HAMZAOUI

    Board of Examiners:

    Pr. Smail BENMOUSSAT Chairman University of Tlemcen

    Dr. Hafida HAMZAOUI Supervisor University of Tlemcen

    Pr. Fewzia BEDJAOUI External Examiner University of Sidi Bel-Abbes

    Dr. Radia BENYELLES Internal Examiner University of Tlemcen

    Dr. Ali BAICHE Internal Examiner University of Tlemcen

    Academic Year: 2012-2013/1433-1434

  • Dedication

    i

  • Acknowledgements

    ii

    First and foremost, I would like to express my deep recognition to Allah, for

    giving me ambition, determination and strength to finish this work.

    Second, I am genuinely indebted to my supervisor Dr. H. HAMZAOUI for

    her guidance, patience and thought-provoking comments.

    My gratitude goes to the board of examiners for accepting to read and

    evaluate this humble work: Pr. S. BENMOUSSAT, Pr. F. BEDJAOUI, Dr. A.

    BAICHE, and Dr. R. BENYELLES.

    My recognition and warm thanks are for all the people who supported me

    during the stages of this work and during the theoretical year: Dr. A. BELMEKKI,

    Dr. R. ZIDANE, Dr. F. SENOUCI, Mrs. S. HALFAOUI, Mss. M. MEZIANE, Dr.

    I. SERIR, and Dr. B. A. NEDDAR.

    Special thanks are recorded to all those who contributed to my work in one

    way or another: Mr. A. KHELIFI, Mr. A. BENZIANE, Mr. O. RAHMOUN, Mrs.

    R. RAOUTI, Mr. M. LABANE, Dr. S. ABID, Mr. Y. TONKOB, Mrs. H.

    BERRAHOUI, Mss. A. KEBIRI, Mrs. W. SEBBAGH, Mss. S. BENMANSOUR,

    Mss. A. BENABDELLAH, and Mss. Y. NEMICHE.

    Though not academically, their contribution was for a lifetime; all my

    gratitude and recognition go to my parents who taught me how to become a man.

  • Abstract

    iii

    Many countries around the world launched reforms in their educational

    systems to meet the ever-evolving challenges and demands of an increasingly

    globalised world. In Algeria, the Competency-Based Approach (CBA) has been

    recently adopted; an approach which draws heavily on the principles of

    constructivism. The purpose of this work was, then, to explore the readiness of EFL

    learners and teachers for this new orientation in education and the extent to which

    this could be achieved in the Algerian EFL classroom. To reach this end, a case

    study research was conducted in Colonel Abd Elhadi Secondary School (Sidi Bel-

    Abbes) relying on a number of sources and research instruments for data collection.

    A questionnaire for learners, another one for teachers, classroom observation, and

    an interview with a general inspector of English were used. The data collected from

    these research instruments were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The

    triangulation of results revealed that Algerian EFL learners did not show readiness

    for autonomous learning and were not prepared to handle their learning process as

    required by constructivism. On the other hand, EFL teachers did not show a reliance

    on constructivist principles in their teaching practices in the EFL classroom which

    was far from being appropriate for creating constructivist learning/teaching

    environments. Accordingly, this work emphasised that understanding in depth the

    theoretical underpinnings of the CBA was crucial to achieve the objectives of the

    Algerian educational reform; preparing learners, teachers and the EFL classroom for

    constructivism was of paramount importance indeed.

  • Table of Contents

    iv

    Dedication ..................................................................................................................... i

    Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... ii

    Abstract ....................................................................................................................... iii

    Table of Contents ........................................................................................................ iv

    List of Tables ............................................................................................................ viii

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................. ix

    Key to Abbreviations and Acronyms .......................................................................... x

    General Introduction ................................................................................................. 1

    Chapter One

    Constructivism: Theoretical Background

    1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 7

    1.2 A Prelude to Constructivism ................................................................................. 7

    1.3 Constructivism and Learning Theory .................................................................... 8

    1.3.1 Behaviourism ............................................................................................... 9

    1.3.2 Information Processing Theory ................................................................. 10

    1.3.3 Constructivism and the Notion of Learning .............................................. 11

    1.4 Dimensions of Constructivism ............................................................................ 13

    1.4.1 Cognitive Constructivism .......................................................................... 14

    1.4.2 Social Constructivism ................................................................................ 16

    1.5 The Constructivist Learner .................................................................................. 18

    1.5.1 Characteristics and Roles of Constructivist Learners ............................... 18

    1.5.2 Constructivism and Learner Autonomy .................................................... 20

    1.6 The Constructivist Teacher .................................................................................. 22

    1.6.1 Re-conceptualising Teaching ..................................................................... 22

    1.6.2 Characteristics and Roles of Constructivist Teachers ............................... 24

  • Table of Contents

    v

    1.7 The Constructivist Learning/Teaching Environment .......................................... 26

    1.7.1 Teaching Methods in the Constructivist Environment .............................. 29

    1.7.3 Assessment in the Constructivist Environment ......................................... 31

    1.7.4 The Constructivist Environment and ICTs integration ............................. 32

    1.7.5 Barriers to Create Constructivist Environments ........................................ 35

    1.8 Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 37

    Chapter Two

    Situation Analysis and Research Design

    2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 39

    2.2 ELT and Reform in the Algerian Education Syste