LeadershipChapter 10 Team Leadership
Overview Team Leadership Perspective Team Leadership Model Leadership Decisions Leadership Actions Team Effectiveness Principled LeadershipHow does the Team Leadership Model Work?
Historical Perspective of Team Leadership 1920s-1980s20-30s 40s 50s 60-70s 80s Human Relations movement
Collaborative efforts at work Group dynamics
Social science theory T group
Leaders role in T group Organizational development
Team leader effectiveness Quality teams
Historical Perspective of Team Leadership 1990s 90s Parker 1990 Effectiveness research The use of teams has led to:Greater productivityMore effective use of resourcesBetter decisions & problem solvingBetter-quality products & servicesIncreased innovation & creativity
Team Leadership DescriptionTeam research (Ilgen, Hollenbeck Johnson & Jundt, 2005)Focus on team variablesRole of affective, behavioral & cognitive processes in team successTeam performance & viabilityRole of mediating processes such as:Trusting, bonding, planning, adapting, structuring & learningIssuesDifficult to understand the team process because of its complexityLeader ineffectiveness is major obstacle to overall team effectivenessPerspective
Team Leadership DescriptionCritical factor in success of organizational teams understand role of leadership in teams:Ensure team success & avoid team failureFunctions a leader must performComplexity involved in performing these functionsHow performance of these complex functions relates to actual team performanceTeam leadership capacity Shared or distributed leadershipEncompasses entire teamObjectives
Team Leadership ModelModel provides leader or designated team member with a mental road map to help Diagnose team problems, andTake appropriate action to correct team problemsEffective team performance begins with leaders mental model of the situationMental model reflectsComponents of the problemEnvironmental & organizational contingencies
Team Leadership ModelLeadership behaviorSeen as team-based problem solvingLeader uses discretionWhich problems need interventionMake choices about which solutions are the most appropriateEffective leaders have the ability to determineWhat interventions are needed, if any, to solve team problems
Hills Model for Team Leadership
Continue monitoring the team or take action based on current information Determine the general task or relational function of intervention neededIntervene at internal level (within team) or external level (teams environment)
Leadership Decision 1Leaders can:Diagnose, analyze, or forecast problems (monitoring) or take immediate action to solve a problemFocus on problems within the group (internal) or Which problems need interventionMake choices about which solutions are the most appropriateEffective leaders have the ability to determineWhat interventions are needed, if any, to solve team problems
Should I Monitor the Team or Take Action?
Leadership Decision 1: McGraths critical leadership functions two dimensions of leadership behavior:Monitoring vs. taking actionWe can diagnose, analyze, or forecast problems (monitoring) or take immediate action to solve a problem Internal group issues vs. external group issuesFocus on the problems within the group (internal) or problems outside the group (external)Two dimensions result in 4 types of group leadership functionsShould I Monitor the Team or Take Action?
Leadership Decision 1
Leadership Decision 2Leaders can:Determine if team needs help in dealing with relational issues or task issuesTask functions include:Getting job doneMaking decisionsSolving problemsShould I Intervene to Meet Task or Relational Needs? Adapting to change Making plans Achieving goals
Leadership Decision 2Leaders can:Determine if team needs help in dealing with relational issues or task issuesMaintenance functions include:Developing a positive climate solving interpersonal problemsSatisfying members needsDeveloping cohesionShould I Intervene to Meet Task or Relational Needs?
Leadership Decision 3Leader must:Determine what level of team process needs leadership attention:Internal task or relational team dynamics, if:Conflict between group members Team goals unclearExternal environmental dynamics, if:Organization not providing proper support to teamShould I Intervene Internally or Externally?
Leadership ActionsLeadership Functions performed internally or externally
Leadership Actions Set of skills or actions leader might perform to improve task performance:Goal focusing (clarifying, gaining agreement)Structuring for results (planning, visioning, organizing, clarifying roles, delegating)Facilitating decision making (informing, controlling, coordinating, mediating, synthesizing, issue focusing)Training team members in task skills (educating, developing)Maintaining standards of excellence (assessing team and individual performance, confronting inadequate performance)Internal Task Leadership Actions
Leadership Actions Set of leadership actions leader needs to implement to improve team relationships:Coaching team members in interpersonal skillsCollaborating (including, involving)Managing conflict and power issues (avoiding confrontation, questioning ideas)Internal Relational Leadership Actions
Leadership Actions Set of leadership actions leader needs to implement to improve team relationships, contd.:Building commitment and esprit de corps (being optimistic, innovating, envisioning, socializing, rewarding, recognizing)Satisfying individual member needs (trusting, supporting, advocating)Modeling ethical and principled practices (fair, consistent, normative)Internal Relational Leadership Actions
Leadership Actions Set of skills or behaviors leader needs to implement to improve environmental interface with team:Networking and forming alliances in environment (gather information, increase influence)Advocating and representing team to environmentNegotiating upward to secure necessary resources, support, and recognition for teamExternal Environmental Leadership Actions
Leadership Actions Set of skills or behaviors leader needs to implement to improve environmental interface with team:Buffering team members from environmental distractionsAssessing environmental indicators of teams effectiveness (surveys, evaluations, performance indicators)Sharing relevant environmental information with teamExternal Environmental Leadership Actions
Team effectiveness the desired outcome of teamwork Team Performance task accomplishmentsTeam Development maintenance of the teamResearchers studied organizational work teams & developed Standard of effectivenessCriteria of excellence
Team EffectivenessClear, Elevating GoalClear so that one can tell if performance objective has been metIs motivating or involving so that members believe it is worthwhile and important
Results-Driven StructureNeed to find the best structure to achieve goalsClear team member roles Good communication systemMethods to assess individual performanceAn emphasis on fact-based judgments
Unified CommitmentTeams need a carefully designed and developed sense of unity or identification (team spirit) Collaborative ClimateTrust based on openness, honesty, consistency, and respectIntegration of individual actionsLeaders facilitate a collaborative climate by:Making communication safeDemanding and rewarding collaborative behaviorGuiding the teams problem-solving effortsManaging ones own control needs
Standards of ExcellenceRegulated PerformanceFacilitates task completion and coordinated actionStimulates a positive pressure for members to perform at highest levels How AccomplishedRequiring results (clear expectations)Reviewing results (feedback/resolve issues)Rewarding results (acknowledge superior performance)
External Support and RecognitionRegulated PerformanceTeams supported by external resources are:Given the material resources needed to do their jobsRecognized for team accomplishmentsRewarded by tying those rewards to team members performance, not individual achievement
Team EffectivenessPrincipled LeadershipInfluences team effectiveness through four sets of processes (Zaccaro et al., 2001)Cognitive - Facilitates teams understanding of problems confronting themMotivational - Helps team become cohesive & capable by setting high performance standards & helping team to achieve themAffective - Assists team in handling stressful circumstances by providing clear goals, assignments, & strategiesIntegrative - Helps coordinate teams activities through matching member roles, clear performance strategies, feedback, & adapting to environmental changes
How Does the Team Leadership Approach Work? Focus of Team Leadership Strengths Criticisms Application
Team LeadershipModel provides a cognitive map to identify group needs and offers suggestions on appropriate corrective actions
Model assists leader in making sense of the complexity of groups and provides suggested actions to improve group effectivenessFocus
Team LeadershipHow does the model work?1st - Leader engages leader mediation processDecides appropriate action - to monitor or take act