Latin American Independence Movements Latin American Independence - 19th century

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Slide 2 Latin American Independence Movements Slide 3 Latin American Independence - 19th century Slide 4 French colonies: Revolution in Haiti (Saint Domingue) Slide 5 Toussaint LOuverture (too-SAN loo-vair-TOOR) Former slave, self- educated. Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791 & was successful Napoleon tricked him with peace talks & sent him to a prison in the French Alps. He died 10 months later, April 1803. Slide 6 Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jan 1, 1804 - declared an independent country. Worlds 1 st black republic Haiti = mountainous land in Arawak Haitis 1 st emperor Assassinated in a revolt 1820: Haiti became an independent republic Slide 7 Spanish Colonies Revolutions against Spanish Rule Slide 8 Latin American social classes PeninsularesCreolesMestizos/MulattosNatives/Africans Slide 9 European Background: Napoleon Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808. Removed Spains King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (Napoleons brother) king of Spain. Spanish colonies use the illegitimate monarchy as a reason for revolution. 1810 rebellion across Latin America. 1814, Napoleon defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but independence movements continued. Slide 10 Francisco Goya, Executions of May 3, 1808 Slide 11 Mexico Natives and mestizos, not creoles, played the key role in independence movements Creoles sided with Spain to avoid violence of lower-class rebellions (until 1820) Slide 12 Miguel Hidalgo el Grito de Dolores Slide 13 Jose Maria Morelos Took leadership after Hidalgos defeat Defeated by creoles in 1815 & executed Slide 14 Mexican Independence, 1821 1820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in power Mexican creoles feared loss of influence, so they united against Spain Augustin Iturbide declared himself emperor, but was overthrown 1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic Slide 15 Mexico's Congress writes a constitution Conservatives want a strong central government & Roman Catholicism Liberals want the states to have more control & freedom of religion Compromise in 1824 Republic with a president and a two-house Congress Governors and legislatures heading the states Guadalupe Victoria, a follower of Hidalgo and Morelos, became the first president Slide 16 United Provinces of Central America El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras declare their independence from both Spain and Mexico to create the United Provinces of Central America By 1840, United Provinces of Central America had split into Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua & Costa Rica Slide 17 Simon Bolivar Slide 18 Jose de San Martin Slide 19 Bernardo OHiggins Slide 20 Bolivar San Martin San Martin sailed for Europe and died in France 1850 Dec 9, 1824, Bolivar defeated Spain at Battle of Ayacucho Slide 21 Gran Colombia, 1820-1830 Slide 22 Portugals Pedro I Slide 23 Results of Latin American Independence Movements Political/Social: Continued battles between liberals, conservatives and the military over how to best rule. Tensions between articulate political forces and the separate masses. Economic: Unable to free itself from dependence on Western- controlled economic patterns. Cultural/intelligent: Distinct cultural entity combination of Western styles and values plus its racial diversity, colonial past, and social structure of a semi- colonial economy. Slide 24 Latin American Independence - 19th century Slide 25