LATIN AMERICAREVOLUTION & REACTION INTO THE 21ST CENTURY
INTRODUCTIONThe arrest in 1998 in London of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet raised questions about whether Latin America needed to seek justice of the abuses of the 20th century or move ahead. Latin American countries in the 20th century have been part of the developing world, though their Western political and social structures as well as recent achievements set them apart from Asia and Africa. Since 1945, Latin America has dealt with struggles over economic development, social justice, and the rise of new social groups. Despite broad shifts in politics and the economy, the region remained remarkably unchanged.
LATIN AMERICA: 1914 1940s Latin America ChangesWorld War I: Led to upsurge in exports, development of industries1920s 1940s: Depression and war hurt local economiesUS initiates Good Neighbor Policy to try to improve US-Latin relationsOrganization of American States formed to support regions neutrality in early warSome sympathy for fascists in Argentina, Brazil; some states entered World War IIMexico After the RevolutionLiberal constitution of 1917 guaranteed land and liberty to Mexico Land redistributed to peasants, nationalization of oil Conservative governments dominated by Institutional Revolutionary PartyABC PowersThree nations emerged as major players: Brazil, Chile, ArgentinaTheir economies were very solidly export orientedEconomic Development fueled social progress within these statesBrazil joined the Allies in World War I but other two stayed neutralPatterns of economic dependence in Latin America Need to reorient economies from export to internal developmentMuch of Latin America exported raw minerals, food stuffs, oil to Western WorldNeed to develop domestic industry, consumer industries rather than import Raul Prebisch, Argentine economist, crafted theory of "economic dependency" Developed nations controlled world economy at expense of undeveloped ones Developing nations needed to protect domestic industries
ARGENTINA & CHILEArgentina1916 - 1930In 1916 Radicals won presidency but Conservatives controlled ParliamentRadicals sought to expand electorate, democracy, benefit middle classReforms favored labor, industry, commerce, studentsStayed neutral in World War IProblem was the rise of anarchist, communist and fascist organizationsThe Infamous 1930sHad 4th highest per capita GDP in 1928 but Depression crippled Argentinan foreign tradeMilitary staged a coup in 1930 bringing with it electoral fraud, corruption, persecutionsClashes between fascists, socialists/communists, unions and management became commonMilitary Coup of 1943 by junior officers to avoid joining Allies in warChileParliamentary republic dominated until 1925: Congress overshadowed PresidentQuarrel-prone system that merely distributed spoilsClung to its laissez-faire policy while national problems mountedA reform movement began to clamor for social reform, democratizationMilitary staged coup to avoid more radical reformsBegan to appoint presidents but many massacres and clashes with leftists, unions occuredGradually enacted reforms and returned power to the elected representatives in 19321932 1973 Presidential System of Civil Governments returned
LATIN AMERICA: FROM THE 1940sThe 1940sSubstantial political demand for reform in much of Latin AmericaDemocratic governments carried out reforms in Venezuela, Costa RicaOthers turned to models of Marxist revolutionPolitical democratization, economic development, social reforms failedMore radical solutions to ongoing problems were soughtGovernments that moved too swiftly met by resistance from the militaryFascism seemed a blend of social reform, industry, army, nationalismBrazil and Argentina were the best examplesArgentina 1943 1953Military coup by colonels produced a ruling junta in 1943Junior Officers not enthusiastic about elite support of Allies in World War IIJunior Officers were more pro-German, proto-fascistsJunta came to be dominated by Juan Peron, who became president in 1946Censored press but expanded participation in unions, spending on social problemsFollowed isolationist foreign policy and attempted limit others economic influenceInfluential wife Evita helped him become the darling of the shirtless workersBrazil 1930 1954Old Republic dominated by wealthy landed elite, export industries lasted until 1930Military Coup in 1930 installed Vargas as presidentVargas ruled as dictator, elected president, dictator again and then senatorContinued industrial and agricultural growth with development of AmazonTried to blend concern for workers with owners into a populism, corporatismPresidentVargasIndustrialGrowthOrder and Progress
MEXICOS POLITICAL PATHS IN THE 20TH CENTURYMexico After the RevolutionRevolutionary fervor absorbed by the ruling elite but reforms selectivePresident was limited to a six year term: constant tension between factions of the elitePrevious president Calles monopolized power even after presidency Created National Revolutionary Party so he could control nation, electionsThis was the predecessor to the Institutionalized Revolutionary Party (PRI)Calles flirted with fascism and became increasingly anti-reform, anti-leftistRise of Cardenas Originally selected to be president but Cardenas became more popular, powerfulRemoved Calles people from influence, powerEnacted sweeping reformsNationalized the oil industry largely owned by the USAGave land to the Indians, poor farmersThe Institutionalized Revolutionary Party (PRI)Pattern for Politics until 1995Allied the Mexican state to moneyed interests: exceedingly corruptAllied wealthy industrialists with rising urban middle class interestsMoved the PRI to the right stole much of PANs political ideologyWooed foreign capital negotiated a massive loan from the United StatesAccelerated industrialization at expense of poor, rural interests, Indians, workersUnprecedented patronage for governmental jobs including bribes, favoritismManipulated vying political interestsFree-trade agreement with the United States brought mixed results.
THE MEXICAN MIRACLEFirst 4 decades of PRIDubbed the "Mexican MiraclePeriod of economic growth Substitution of imports and low inflationGrowth spurred by national development plans Followed the 5 Year Plans of the Soviet UnionProvided for major investment on infrastructure. From 1940 to 1970 GDP increased six-fold Population only doubled The peso-dollar parity was maintained.Mexico went from a largely rural economy to an industrial societyOil production surgedPEMEX: Mexico nationalized oil industry in 1938World War II and 1970s Oil Crisis benefited MexicoProduction and export fueled growthAllowed government to support social programs, infrastructure
THE END OF HEGEMONYThe PRI Loses Its Monopoly On PowerAccused many times of blatant fraudIn 1980s the PRI lost the first state governorshipThe event that marked the beginning of the party's loss of hegemonyTroubles BeginMexico faced an economic crisis due to oil glut, debtsPublic demonstrations in Mexico City Constant military presence after Zapatista rebellion in ChiapasPolitical and electoral reforms that reduced the PRI's hold on power. 1988 electionStrongly disputed and arguably lost by the government partyIFE (Instituto Federal Electoral Federal Electoral Institute) created in the early 1990sRun by ordinary citizens, overseeing that elections are conducted legally and fairlyPresident Vicente Fox QuesadaPopular discontent allowed the National Action Party (PAN) Vicente Fox Quesada to win in 2000Did not win a majority in the Chambers of CongressThis election ended 71 years of PRI hegemony of the presidencyPresident Felipe Caldern HinojosaFelipe Caldern Hinojosa also a member of the conservative National Action Party (PAN)Many people in Mexico claim that he actually did not win the electionObrador, candidate of Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) claimed he wonHe appointed himself as legitimate president" Currently traveling all over the country along with his own cabinetUses resources from the taxes from all Mexicans to supervise actions of Caldern
THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICAThe American EmpireUntil the 1890s, the Monroe Doctrine was maintained more by British interest than US powerUS threatened to intervene in Mexico against the French in 1867The United States remained the greatest external force in Latin AmericaAfter 1898, US annexed Puerto Rico, turned Cuba into a protectorateIn 1904, staged Panamanian revolution in order to build canal across the IsthmusAmerican Interventions: More than 30 before 1933The US invested heavily, loaned billions in Central America, Mexico and the CaribbeanThe USA intervened whenever it believed its interests to be threatened often called Dollar DiplomacyIn Central America, investment by U.S. corporations was so high that intervention was commonAnyone attempt to nationalize resources, opposed intervention branded Communists or banditsIn Nicaragua Augusto Sandino led resistance to U.S. influence until his assassination in 1934Intervention often followed by establishment of puppet governments referred to as Banana RepublicsAmerican intervention helped to spread nationalist movements in Central America1930s ChangesUnited States introduced the Good Neighbor Policy, worked with Latin America on common interestsFormed Organization of American States as an alliance to resist Nazi aggression in World War II1960s ChangesIntervention was renewed after World War II on the pretext of containing communism. U.S. programs provided economic aid as means of raising standards of living, combating radicalsIn the 1970s and 1980sU.S. intervention was somewhat less flagrantPresident Carter signed a treaty returning the Panama Canal zone to PanamaPresidents Reagan, Bush pursued more aggressive policies in Latin America to con