Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced old. Grades 8...Language Arts Enrichment Activities

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  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

    1

    Grades 8-10

    Threads of

    Change in

    19th

    Century

    America

    Literature

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

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    Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners Overview

    The College of William and Mary's Center for Gifted Education is one of the nation's

    foremost leaders in the development of curriculum materials and instructional and

    assessment approaches for gifted learners. The lessons included in this packet are

    condensed versions of those lessons. In these abridged lessons, teachers will find the

    following components:

    Lesson Title: Please note this is the lesson title exactly as it is referred to in the

    accompanying teacher's edition.

    Grade Level: The grade level has been assigned by the College of William and Mary.

    Teacher's Edition Title and Lesson Number: Several teachers' editions were

    referenced in creating the lessons. Use the title listed (i.e. Journeys and Destinations,

    Patterns of Change, etc.) and lesson number, to locate the full lesson in the teacher's

    edition.

    Lesson Goals:

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 2-to develop persuasive writing skills

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 4-to develop listening/oral communication skills

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview: The major activities of the lesson are summarized here so that

    teachers may see at a glance what each lesson will entail.

    Suggested Materials: This section includes the title of the text as well as the author.

    When possible, a direct link to the text has been provided.

    Discussion Questions: When necessary discussion questions are categorized by text

    (if more than one text is used for the lesson), as well as by question type (literary

    response/interpretation, reasoning, and questions pertaining to change).

    Response Journal: Encourage the students to keep a Response Journal for

    responding to the questions in each lesson.

    Extensions/Homework: Here you will find a preview of all extension activities, which

    are optional activities offered to provide further enrichment or to accommodate

    expanded schedules. Cross curricular connections are also noted here.

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

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    The texts for these lessons include high-quality poems, short stories, and essays. A

    great deal of the language arts lessons focus on the concept of change. As students

    progress through these units, they learn that change is everywhere, change is linked to

    time, change may be positive or negative, change may be perceived as orderly or

    random, change may happen naturally or change may be caused by people. As

    students read they will identify examples of how change affects the story.

    To enhance the learning experience of students, the concept of change and

    accompanying generalizations should extend into the students' other curricula. The

    more connections they are able to draw, the deeper they will be able to examine and

    understand the concept of change. The following generalizations are introduced in

    Lesson 2:

    Change is linked to time. Change may be positive or negative.

    Change may be perceived as orderly or random.

    Change may happen naturally or may be caused by people.

    Change is everywhere. Change does not affect everything.

    Throughout each lesson, two models are frequently used to encourage close interaction

    with the text: The Literature Web Model and Vocabulary Web Model.

    The Literature Web Model encourages students to consider five aspects of the

    selection they are reading: keywords, feelings, ideas, images or symbols, and the

    structure. This web helps students organize their initial responses and provides them

    with a platform for discussing the piece in small or large groups. Whenever possible,

    students should be allowed to underline and make marginal notes as they read and

    reread. After marking the text, students then organize their notes into the web.

    Suggested Discussion Questions for Literature Web:

    Key Words-What words or phrases from the story are important? Why do you

    think the author chose these words? What are some words that the author

    seems to emphasize?

    Feelings-What feeling do you get when you read the story? Why do you think

    you had those particular feelings? What feelings do you think the characters

    have? What feelings do you think the author had or is trying to show?

    Ideas-What idea is the story mostly about? What other ideas does the folk tale

    show? What is the author saying about Change?

    Images/Symbols-What are some pictures or images that came to mind when

    you read the story? How does the author use description and imagery?

    Structure-What are some characteristics of the way the story is written? How is

    dialogue used? How does its structure contribute to the meaning of the story?

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    After students have completed their webs individually, they should compare their webs

    in small groups. This initial discussion will enable them to consider the ideas of others

    and to understand that individuals interpret literature differently. These small groups

    may compile a composite web that includes the ideas of all members. Following the

    small group work, teachers have several options for using the webs. For instance, they

    may ask each group to report to the class, they may ask groups to post their composite

    web, or they may develop a new web with the class based on the small group work. The

    discussion that is generated through the use of the Literature Web is one which the

    teacher should facilitate through the use of open ended questions. Students should be

    encouraged to provide evidence from the text to support any response. A black line

    master of the Literature Web is found in Appendix E in the designated teacher's edition.

    Similarly, the purpose of the Vocabulary Web Model is to enable students to gain an

    in-depth understanding of interesting words. Rather than promoting superficial

    vocabulary development, the web approach allows for deep processing of challenging

    and interesting words. Vocabulary Web components include: word, origin, part of

    speech, word families, synonyms, antonyms, sentence from the text using word,

    student example using word, stems, and dictionary definition. A black line master of the

    Literature Web is found in Appendix E in the designated teacher's edition.

    Students may complete the Vocabulary Web individually or in small groups. Please

    allow students to access a dictionary as needed. Once students become familiar with

    this activity, they may use a streamlined version to accommodate new words they meet

    in their independent reading.

    A vocabulary section should be kept in a separate place in students' notebooks for this

    purpose. They only need to list the word, definition, and sentence in which the word was

    encountered, plus any additional information they find particularly interesting. They may

    then develop webs for the few selected words.

    We hope you are able to implement these lessons in your classroom to enrich and

    differentiate your curriculum. The original, unabridged lessons can be found in the

    designated teacher's editions published by the College of William and Mary. If you have

    any questions regarding the content or procedures involved within this adapted

    curriculum, please feel free to contact the Advanced Studies and Gifted Learners

    Department.

    Teacher's editions and student guides for each unit are available for check out

    from the Advanced Studies and Gifted Learners Department. Contact Irene

    Benfattis secretary, Kathleen Romano, for details (ext. 70102).

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

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    Lesson Title: The Concept of Change (page 1 of 3)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 2

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    {The content of this lesson provides the framework for future lessons and activities.}

    Assignment Overview:

    Facilitate the brainstorming of multiple examples of change on chart paper.

    Complete a change model chart including change linked to time, change is

    everywhere, change may be positive or negative, change may be perceived as

    orderly or random, change may happen naturally or may be caused by people,

    and change does not affect everything. (see chart below).

    Share group ideas with class adding new ideas to their original lists.

    Encourage groups to categorize their examples of change using the following

    criteria:

    Change is linked to time. Change may be positive or negative.

    Change may be perceived as orderly or random.

    Change may happen naturally or may be caused by people.

    Change is everywhere. Change does not affect everything.

    Explore a timeline of events of the 19th century.

    Write a Response Journal entry.

    Suggested Materials:

    Chart paper, markers

    Discussion Questions for Change Model

    Brainstorming ideas about change and recording all responses:

    What do you think about when you hear the word change? What kinds of things

    change? What is it about them that changes?

    Categorizing ideas and titling each group:

    How could you put your change ideas into groups? How are some of the

    changes alike?

    What could you call each group? Why?

    Could some of your changes belong to more than one group? Why?

    What are some different ways that you could categorize your changes?

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    Lesson Title: The Concept of Change (page 2 of 3)

    What do your ideas tell you about changes in general? What are some of the

    characteristics of change?

    Brainstorming a list of things that do not change:

    What are some things that are always the same, or that always happen the same

    way?

    Look at the list of things that change. While those things are changing, can you

    think of anything else that stays the same?

    What can you say about the ideas of things that do not change? How could you

    put them into groups?

    What would you call each group? Why?

    Think about these ideas and whether they show change: routines or habits, rules

    and regulations, table manners, laws, customs of cultures. Explain your answers.

    If they do show change, then where would they fit into your categories of

    changes? If they do not, then where would they fit into your categories of things

    that do not change?

    Making generalizations about change:

    A generalization is something that is always or almost always true. Can you say

    something that is always or almost always true about change?

    Look at the categories of changes that we found and see if they help you make

    generalizations about change. How are your examples alike?

    Discussion Questions:

    Change is linked to time. How is change linked to time? Are all changes linked to time in the same way? How do some of your examples relate to time?

    Change may be positive or negative. What is progress? Does change always represent progress? How could a change be both positive and negative?

    Change may be perceived as orderly or random. Can we predict change? Select examples of change and describe which aspects of these changes can be predicted and which are unpredictable?

    Change may happen naturally or may be caused by people. What causes change? What influence do people have over changes in nature? What influences does nature have over the changes people intend to make?

    Change is everywhere. Does change apply to all areas of our world? What are some specific changes that are universal and some that apply only to a particular area at a given time?

    Change does not affect everything. Consider the following: non-living things, traditions, religious rituals, and universal truths. How does not apply or not apply to these categories?

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    Lesson Title: The Concept of Change (page 3 of 3)

    Timeline of the 19th Century:

    Review this list of major changes that occurred in the 19th century. Use the

    additional changes column to add to the timeline from your own knowledge of the

    period.

    Year Major Changes Additional Changes

    1801 Thomas Cole born

    1802

    1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson born Louisiana Purchase

    1804 Nathaniel Hawthorne born

    1805

    1806 Noah Websters first dictionary published

    1807

    1808

    1809 Edgar Allen Poe born Abraham Lincoln born

    1810

    1811

    1812 War with England begins

    1813

    1814

    1815 War with England ends

    1816

    Writing to Respond:

    Have students respond to the following question in their Response Journal:

    Of the changes that occurred during the 19th century, which one do you think is

    most significant? Why?

    Extensions/Homework:

    Have students list at least 10 changes that occurred in the United States in the

    19th century and that are not included in the timeline. Changes may include

    events in politics and government, social shifts, developments in art, music, and

    literature, and changes in other aspects of society.

    Have students work with a partner to identify changes that occurred in your

    community within a given span of time. Have them create a pictorial

    representation of these changes.

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    Lesson Title: Romantic Themes in the Poetry of Whitman (page 1 of 3)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 5

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview:

    Read and discuss A Noiseless Patient Spider and When I Heard the Learnd

    Astronomer.

    Complete the Literature Web for each poem including key words, feelings, ideas,

    images/symbols, and structure.

    Complete a Vocabulary Web to explore the meaning of new words in depth,

    including word, origin, part of speech, word families, synonyms, antonyms,

    sentence from the text using word, student example using word, stems, and

    dictionary definition for teacher selected vocabulary (Suggested words to use:

    promontory, filament, ductile, gossamer, unaccountable, mystical).

    Write a Response Journal entry.

    Suggested Materials:

    A Noiseless Patient Spider by Walt Whitman

    http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174741

    When I Heard the Learnd Astronomer by Walt Whitman

    http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174747

    Discussion Questions for A Noiseless Patient Spider:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    What qualities of the spider does the speaker seem to admire? Why?

    How are the spider and the soul similar? How are they different?

    Compare the fourth line of the first stanza with the third line of the second stanza.

    How does the structure of these lines imply parallels and contrasts between the

    soul and the spider?

    Compare the position of the spider on a promontory with the position of the soul.

    How are they different and why is this difference significant in the poem?

    Why does the poet use images of the ocean in the poem?

    Why might Whitman have titled this poem A Noiseless Patient Spider? What

    other title might you give the poem? Why?

    http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174741http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174747

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    Lesson Title: Romantic Themes in the Poetry of Whitman (page 2 of 3)

    Reasoning:

    What was Whitmans purpose in this poem? What evidence supports your idea?

    What does the poem say about isolation and making connections?

    What would be the consequences for the soul if its gossamer thread were to

    catch somewhere?

    Change:

    How does this poem reflect the generalizations about change?

    How does the change in this poem from a description of a spider to a direct

    address of the soul affect its meaning?

    Discussion Questions for When I Heard the Learnd Astronomer:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    What qualities of the astronomer or his work do you think the speaker finds

    tiresome? Why?

    How are the words proofs and mystical opposed in meaning? Why do you

    think Whitman chose to use those two words?

    The speaker describes his physical position in the poem, using words such as

    sitting, rising, gliding, and wandrd. How do these physical movements

    parallel the speakers mental state?

    Why does the speaker switch from passive to active voice midway through the

    poem?

    Reasoning:

    What was Whitmans purpose in writing this poem? What evidence supports your

    idea?

    What does the poem say about the concepts of science and progress? With what

    concept are they contrasted?

    Change:

    How does this poem reflect the generalizations about change?

    What is the speakers apparent attitude about change?

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    Lesson Title: Romantic Themes in the Poetry of Whitman (page 3 of 3)

    Literature Web Questions for Both Poems:

    Key Words-What words or phrases do you especially notice? Why are they

    significant to you? Why do you think the author chose these words?

    Feelings-What feelings did you get when you read the poem? What words

    contribute to those feelings? What feeling do you think the poet was trying to

    express?

    Ideas-What is the main idea or theme of this poem? What other ideas was the

    poet trying to share? What was the poet saying about change? What is the

    author saying about isolations and connections?

    Images/Symbols-What are the central images in the poem? What deeper

    meanings do they have? What is the relevance of the spider?

    Structure-What type of writing is this piece? What poetic structures and devices

    are used? Find words and phrases that are repeated. How does the repetition

    contribute to the meaning of the poem?

    Writing to Respond:

    Have students respond to the following questions in their Response Journal:

    Describe a time in your life when you felt surrounded, detached, in measureless

    oceans of space. How did you resolve the situation? How did you create bridges

    for yourself?

    Describe a time in your life when your own or other peoples advancement or

    change led you to feel tired and sick. How did you respond to that feeling?

    Extensions/Homework:

    Have students read other poems from Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman. Tell

    students to select one or more of the poems and write an essay writing how

    these poems reflect the characteristics of Romanticism.

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    Lesson Title: Symbolism and Allegory in Dr. Heideggers Experiment

    (page 1 of 3)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 12

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 2-to develop persuasive writing skills

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview:

    Read and discuss Dr. Heideggers Experiment.

    Complete the Literature Web including key words, feelings, ideas,

    images/symbols, and structure.

    Complete a Vocabulary Web to explore the meaning of new words in depth,

    including word, origin, part of speech, word families, synonyms, antonyms,

    sentence from the text using word, student example using word, stems, and

    dictionary definition for teacher selected vocabulary (Suggested words to use:

    venerable, portentous, delirium, festoons, damask, effervescence).

    Complete a Symbolism Chart.

    Write a Response Journal entry.

    Suggested Materials:

    Dr. Heideggers Experiment by Nathaniel Hawthorne

    http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/dhe.html

    Discussion Questions:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    What is the experiment and why is it important?

    How is the character of each of Dr. Heideggers guests revealed in the story?

    What qualities do the guests have in common? How do the actions of the

    characters reflect the descriptions of them given at the beginning of the story?

    What seems to be Dr. Heideggers motive for staging the experiment? How does

    the experiment affect the lives of his guests?

    Discuss the symbolism of the rose.

    What does the mirror represent in the story? How do you know?

    What techniques does Hawthorne use to hold the readers interest in the story?

    In what ways is the story humorous? In what ways is it a darker story with a

    message?

    http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/dhe.html

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    Lesson Title: Symbolism and Allegory in Dr. Heideggers Experiment

    (page 2 of 3)

    Reasoning:

    What was Hawthornes purpose in writing this poem? What evidence supports

    your idea?

    What roles do perception and point of view play in the story?

    What does the story show about the concept of wisdom? Vanity?

    Why does Dr. Heidegger choose not to join his guests in drinking the water at the

    beginning of the story? Why does he reject the water at the end of the story?

    Change:

    How are the generalizations about change reflected in the story? What other

    generalizations about change might you make based on the story? What does

    the story say about how people do or do not change?

    How is the changing time of day significant in the story?

    Do you believe that most people view and react to change as Dr. Heidegger

    does, or as the other characters in the story do?

    Discussion of Symbolism and Allegory:

    Define symbolism and allegory. Create a chart identifying symbols from the poem

    and their intended symbolic meanings.

    Discuss the following questions:

    What abstract qualities does each character represent?

    What symbols play an important part in the allegory?

    What allegorical meaning or meanings does the story have?

    Writing to Respond:

    Have students respond to the following question in their Response Journal:

    Do you think that the characters in the story will be happier because they have

    felt some of their youthfulness again, or would they have been happier if they had

    never thought of the possibility of being young again? Why?

    Extensions/Homework:

    Tell students to read The Ministers Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne

    (http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/mbv.html). Tell students to decide whether Dr.

    Heideggers Experiment or The Ministers Black Veil would be the better example

    to illustrate symbolism and allegory. Have them draft a persuasive essay

    recommending their choice to another student.

    http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/mbv.html

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    Lesson Title: Symbolism and Allegory in Dr. Heideggers Experiment

    (page 3 of 3)

    Have students write their own allegory. Encourage them to find models in other

    stories by Hawthorne or in fables by Aesop. Invite them to share their allegories

    with the class and discuss the literal and symbolic meanings of the stories.

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    Lesson Title: Symbolism in The Ministers Black Veil (page 1 of 2)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 13

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 2-to develop persuasive writing skills

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview:

    Read and discuss The Ministers Black Veil.

    Complete the Literature Web including key words, feelings, ideas,

    images/symbols, and structure.

    Complete a Vocabulary Web to explore the meaning of new words in depth,

    including word, origin, part of speech, word families, synonyms, antonyms,

    sentence from the text using word, student example using word, stems, and

    dictionary definition for teacher selected vocabulary (Suggested words to use:

    sagacious, ostentatious, tremulous, synod, visage, solicitude).

    Write a Response Journal entry.

    Suggested Materials:

    The Ministers Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne

    http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/mbv.html

    Discussion Questions:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    What is a parable? Why might this story be subtitled A Parable?

    Why is Mr. Hoopers black veil so disturbing to the people of Milford?

    What possible explanation might you give for the events at the young ladys

    funeral? What evidence supports each explanation?

    Explain the significance of Mr. Hoopers conversation with his fiance, Elizabeth.

    What is one interpretation of Mr. Hoopers deathbed exclamation that lo! on

    every visage a black veil!? Explain.

    Reasoning:

    What seems to be Mr. Hoopers purpose in wearing the veil? What evidence

    supports your point of view?

    How does the story relate to the concepts of guilt and sorrow?

    http://www.eldritchpress.org/nh/mbv.html

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    Lesson Title: Symbolism in The Ministers Black Veil (page 2 of 2)

    Why does Mr. Hooper choose not to remove his veil, even when he realizes that

    his decision means he will lose his fiance?

    What consequences would there be for him if he were to remove the veil?

    Change:

    How are the generalizations about change reflected in the story? What other

    generalizations about change might you make based on the story? What does

    the story say about how people do or do not change?

    How does the veil change peoples perceptions of Mr. Hooper? In what ways are

    these changes positive? Negative?

    In what ways does Mr. Hooper himself change? What changes are most

    significant-the changes in himself or the changes in how people see him? Why?

    In what ways does The Ministers Black Veil support or contradict points of view

    about change express in some of the other readings in this unit?

    Writing to Respond:

    Have students respond to the following question in their Response Journal:

    Do you think that a specific event inspired Mr. Hooper to wear a black veil, or do

    you think that his decision to wear the veil reflected a more general perspective

    on issues of guilt or sin? Support your answers with details from the story.

    Extensions/Homework:

    Have students read a longer work by Nathaniel Hawthorne, such as The Scarlet

    Letter or The House of the Seven Gables. Tell the students to use a T-Chart to

    list (in the left column) and interpret (in the right column) Hawthornes use of

    symbolism and allegory and the elements of Romanticism in the works they read.

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    Lesson Title: The Power of Words (page 1 of 3)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 15

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 4-to develop listening/oral communication skills

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview:

    Read and discuss A word, Primer Lesson, and The Gettysburg Address.

    Complete the Literature Web for each text including key words, feelings, ideas,

    images/symbols, and structure.

    Complete a Vocabulary Web for The Gettysburg Address.to explore the meaning

    of new words in depth, including word, origin, part of speech, word families,

    synonyms, antonyms, sentence from the text using word, student example using

    word, stems, and dictionary definition for teacher selected vocabulary

    (Suggested words to use: dedicate, consecrate, hallow).

    Write a Response Journal entry.

    Suggested Materials:

    A word by Emily Dickinson

    http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/11164

    Primer Lesson by Carl Sandburg

    http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/primer-lesson/

    The Gettysburg Address

    http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm

    Discussion Questions for A word and Primer Lesson:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    What does the speaker in the poem by Emily Dickinson mean when she talks

    about a word as something that may live or die?

    What does the speaker in the poem by Carl Sandburg mean when he says that

    proud words wear long boots, hard boots?

    In what ways are the ideas expressed about words similar in the two poems? In

    what ways are they different?

    What do the structures of the two poems tell you about their meanings? Why do

    you think the poems are so brief?

    Why do you think these poems were paired for study?

    http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/11164http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/primer-lesson/http://www.abrahamlincolnonline.org/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htm

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    Lesson Title: The Power of Words (page 2 of 3)

    Reasoning:

    What do you think was each poets purpose for writing this or her poem? Who is

    the intended audience for each?

    What does Carl Sandburg suggest are the consequences of using proud words?

    Change:

    How do words change after they are spoken?

    How do words cause change?

    Discussion Questions for The Gettysburg Address:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    Why did Lincoln begin his speech with the words four score and seven years

    ago instead of eighty-seven years ago? What is the effect of the different

    phrases?

    What is the climactic point of the speech?

    Examine the structure of the speech carefully. Find examples of series or sets of

    three words or phrases. What are the effects of these sets of three?

    What words does Lincoln repeat, even within the same sentence? Why does he

    repeat these words?

    What symbols are used in the speech? Look for words that refer to the stages of

    life and death. How do these references move the speech along and hold it

    together?

    Explain the irony of the statement, The world will little note, nor long remember

    what we say here Do you think Lincoln ever realized the lasting memory that

    Americans would hold of his speech?

    Reasoning:

    This speech was written for a ceremony dedicating a military cemetery. What

    other purposes did Lincoln have for his address? How do you know?

    What concepts are central to the speech?

    Change:

    How does the speech reflect the five generalizations about change?

    Based on The Gettysburg Address, does Lincoln appear to agree or disagree

    with the points of view on change demonstrated by the other two poets?

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    Lesson Title: The Power of Words (page 3 of 3)

    Writing to Respond:

    Have students respond to the following questions in their Response Journal:

    Describe a situation in which you felt that your words reflected the qualities

    described in either the poem by Emily Dickinson or the poem by Carl Sandburg.

    In what ways has your understanding and appreciation of The Gettysburg

    Address changed as a result of examining its structure?

    Extensions/Homework:

    Have students read additional poems by Dickinson or Sandburg. Tell them to

    select a favorite to read aloud to the class.

    Together as a class, read O Captain! My Captain! by Walt Whitman and discuss

    the imagery Whitman uses in lamenting the death of President Lincoln.

    http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/o-captain-my-captain/

    http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/o-captain-my-captain/

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

    19

    Lesson Title: Industrialism and Life in the Iron Mills (page 1 of 2)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 16

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 2-to develop persuasive writing skills

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview:

    Read and discuss Life in the Iron Mills.

    Complete the Literature Web including key words, feelings, ideas,

    images/symbols, and structure.

    Complete a Vocabulary Web.to explore the meaning of new words in depth,

    including word, origin, part of speech, word families, synonyms, antonyms,

    sentence from the text using word, student example using word, stems, and

    dictionary definition for teacher selected vocabulary (Suggested words to use:

    idiosyncrasy, sobriquet, proximity, magnanimity).

    Write a Response Journal entry.

    Suggested Materials:

    Life in the Iron Mills by Rebecca Harding Davis

    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/876/876-h/876-h.htm

    Discussion Questions:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    In what ways does Davis create a negative impression of industrialism?

    How does the authors use of dialect and dialogue contribute to the realism and

    credibility of her writing?

    What does the figure of the woman represent at the end of the story? How is the

    figure a symbol for the entire story?

    What role does Deborah play in the story?

    Find examples of visual imagery in the story. What effects do the images of light

    and shadow have on the story?

    Explain the last sentence of the story. What does the narrator suggest about the

    future?

    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/876/876-h/876-h.htm

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

    20

    Lesson Title: Industrialism and Life in the Iron Mills (page 2 of 2)

    Reasoning:

    Why does Wolfe take his own life? Give evidence from the story to support your

    response.

    What point of view does the narrator express about the effects of industrialism in

    America? What might be other points of view on the issue?

    What message might a reader have taken away from this story when it was

    published in 1861? What message might a reader take away today?

    Change:

    How does this story reflect the generalizations about change?

    In what ways does Life in the Iron Mills support or contradict points of view on

    change expressed in other works of literature in this unit?

    Writing to Respond:

    Have students respond to the following question in their Response Journal:

    What does the story reveal about the ways in which peoples perceptions of

    themselves affect their relationships with others? Give an example from your own

    life of how a persons perception of him or herself has affected relationships.

    Extensions/Homework:

    Have students work with a small group to find information about the technological

    developments that made the production of steel and growth of iron mills possible

    in the 19th century. Have students share their findings with the class.

    Discuss how different people during the period would have thought about these

    technological changes.

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

    21

    Lesson Title: The Stories of Edgar Allan Poe (page 1 of 2)

    Grades 8-10: Threads of Change in 19th Century America Literature-Lesson 17

    GOAL 1-to develop analytical and interpretive skills in literature

    GOAL 3-to develop linguistic competency

    GOAL 4-to develop listening/oral communication skills

    GOAL 5-to develop reasoning skills in the language arts

    GOAL 6-to understand the concept of change in the language arts

    Assignment Overview:

    Read, discuss and compare The Masque of the Red Death, and Ligeia.

    Complete the Literature Web for each text including key words, feelings, ideas,

    images/symbols, and structure.

    Complete a Vocabulary Web.to explore the meaning of new words in depth,

    including word, origin, part of speech, word families, synonyms, antonyms,

    sentence from the text using word, student example using word, stems, and

    dictionary definition for teacher selected vocabulary.

    Suggested Materials:

    The Masque of the Red Death by Edgar Allen Poe

    http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/POE/masque.html

    Ligeia by Edgar Allen Poe

    http://poestories.com/read/ligeia

    Discussion Questions:

    Literary Response/Interpretation:

    How does Poe attempt to evoke feelings of horror in his readers in these two

    stories?

    Give examples of imagery in the two stories. How does Poe use poetic devices

    and descriptive language to create vivid pictures in the minds of his readers?

    Why do you think the narrator never describes any individuals attending the

    masquerade in The Masque of the Red Death in detail? What does this lapse

    suggest about the party or its attendees?

    What is significant about the setting of The Masque of the Red Death?

    What explanations might you give for the behavior of the narrator of Ligeia?

    What is significant about the narrators description of the learning of Ligeia as

    immense?

    http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/POE/masque.htmlhttp://poestories.com/read/ligeia

  • Language Arts Enrichment Activities for Advanced and Gifted Learners

    22

    Lesson Title: The Stories of Edgar Allan Poe (page 2 of 2)

    Reasoning:

    How does the concept of revenge relate to both stories? How does the concept

    of fate relate to these stories?

    What assumptions does Prince Prospero make about his ghoulish visitor? In

    what ways do Prosperos assumptions influence the readers perception of both

    Prospero and the visitor?

    Why does Poe tithe the story Ligeia, rather than Rowena or something more

    descriptive? What inferences can be made based on the title?

    Who is the central character of The Masque of the Red Death: Prince Prospero,

    the Red Death, the ghoulish visitor, Time itself, or someone or something else

    entirely?

    Change:

    How do these stories demonstrate both the power and inability of people to

    create change?

    In what ways does the tone of Ligeia change as the story proceeds? What does

    this change of attitude demonstrate about changes occurring within or to the

    narrator of the story?

    How would The Masque of the Red Death change if it were told from the point of

    view of a character in the story, rather than a disinterested narrator?

    Extensions/Homework:

    Invite students to read other works of literature by Edgar Allen Poe.

    Have students investigate the life of Poe and write an essay explaining how his

    work might reflect the tragedies that occurred in his life.

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