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LahaGaru Sadda Akkharathai-Pali

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Tipitaka Orthography

Text of LahaGaru Sadda Akkharathai-Pali

  • 1

    -

    .

    (.) 1

    ..

    .. -

    -

    [ ] -,

    [ ] [ ] -

    ..

    - 2

    [ ] [ ] [ ] [t ] [ b ] [ 6 ] -

    [t ] linguistic interference

    : , , , , -,

    - , - ,

    1

    2 - - .. 2436 (kerning) ( ) -, ( ) -, ( ) - (-) (-)

  • 2

    - -

  • 3

    -

    .

    ..

  • 4

    Lahu-Garu Thai Phonetic Alphabet-Pi

    Professor Emeritus Vichin Panupong, Ph.D.Associate Fellow of the Academy

    The Royal Institute

    Abstract

    The system of transliterating and transcribing Pi sound into Siam-script used in King Chulachomklao of Siam Pi Tipiaka 1893 Edition is an effective way of philological recording of the Pi Tipiaka. The pronunciation and definition of Pi sound in the 1893 Edition were well-preserved to be as close as possible to those in the original Pi sound

    as convened in the First Great Tipiaka Council over 2500 years ago. With reference to the Siam Phonetic Alphabet-Pi introduced by the King of Siam in the above-mentioned Tipiaka, and following Kaccyanav ykarana-Pi Grammar, this article further explains a phonetic symbol of /a/ () vowel in the Siam Phonetic Alphabet-Pi as orthographic symbol which distinctively separates final /a/ and cluster /a/ from one another; i.e, [ ] Mai-a () uniquely signifies /a/ sound, [ N ] or Mai Wanchakarn () signifies a final /a/, and [ ] or Mai Yamakkarn () signifies a cluster sound. This Siam Phonetic Alphabet-Pi with Mai-a () is instrumental in developing the orthographic system of the Thai Phonetic Alphabet-Pi, a set of which has been proposed to the Academy of Arts and was published in the Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand in 2012. Benefiting from that, this article introduces a

    new Lahu-Garu orthographic system for Pi as well as a set of symbols for transcribing lahu (quick) and garu (long) sounds. Lahu symbol is defined here as a vowel sound quickly pronounced and lightly printed [ ] [ ] [ ]. Garu symbol means a vowel sound pronounced longer and printed in bold [ t ] [ b ] [ 6 ]. These phonetic symbols help enhance accuracy in writing and reading Pi and transcribing into the Lahu-Garu Thai Phonetic Alphabet-Pi [t ]. Furthermore, this new approach also helps solve the problem of linguistic interference of the Thai alphabet in writing and reading the Pi sound.

    Keywords : Pi, transliteration, transcription, orthography, Kaccyanav ykarana-Pi, Mai-a Siam Phonetic Alphabet-Pi, Lahu-Garu Thai Phonetic Alphabet-Pi, linguistic interference

  • 5

    -

    .

    .. ( ) (-) () () (-) (-) ( ) (-) (-) (-) -, -, - [] [] [] - -

    - - ..

    ( ) .. .. - -

    (.) .. (saddaakkhara) ( ) (transcription) saddaakkhara (AEC) - (sadda) (saddanti) - ( )

    - . .. () (.. )

    .. - , .. - . , . - - .. .. , .. - .. .. .

  • 6

    - ( ) - ( )

    .

    - ( ) - ( )

  • 7

    . - - .. () - -

  • 8

    - - ..

    -

    ( . - )

    2

    1

    ( . - )

    ( . - )

    4

    ( . - )

    9

    10

    8

    3

    ( . - , )

    .. -

    ( . - )

    ( . - )

  • 9

    . - -

    . - - ( - ) - [] - - - [t 6F] [ ] ( - ) ..- .. .. )

    . -

    . ( ) - - ( - ) .. - (-) - [ y ] .. - - () - (-) - [t ] ( - ) [t ] - [6 y ] .. - ( - ) - [] - [ 6 y] -

    . ( ) - - ( + ) + (-) [ b ] - ( ) ( ), ( ), ( -)

    . ( ) - (-) [ y t y ] - [ y t y ] - [ g] - [t y y ] . ( ) - (, , ) - (-) - - - [ b 6 y y ] - - - [g t b] - - - [b 6 ]

    3

    2

    3

    ( ) .. ..

    ..

  • 10

    . -

    () : -, -, - ( ) : -, -, -, -, - ( )

    [][]

    [][]

    -

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  • 11

    (135)

    [b] [b] [b]

    . - sajjhya-garu () () () , - - - [ g] [g-] () , () - - - [g ] () [ - ] [- b] [- 6] () , () - - - [ t b g] () - - - [t ] [- ] [- t] () , () - - - [b b b F t t ] [-t] [- b] () () - - - [ g b] [ b g t] [- b] [- t] () () - - [b b b F t t ] () , () - - - [b b b F t t ] [- b] () - - - [t t ] [t t ]

    -/ - :

    ..

  • 12

    - -

    . .. -

    -

    -

    [ F]

    - () :

    [ ]

    [ y] () :

    [ ] : [ 6 ] - [] () : [ ]

    - - () - ()

    [ ] :

    [ g ] - - - ()

    - - : [ ]

    [ ]

    ( ) - () -

    :

    [ ] - ( ) (linkage mark) :

    [t 6 F] [-]

    ()

    - ( ) (linkage mark) :

    [ t ] [b ] [6 ] [ ] [-] ()

    :

    [6 g] - - - ( ) (linkage mark)

    - - ()

    : [ t F] [ ][b][ 6]

    - []

    () : /

    () / () ()

    .

    .

    ,

    -

  • 13

    () (Pi) - -

    -

    - -

    - -

    [ ] + [ ] , [ ] + [ ] ()

    [ ] + [ ] , [] + [] ()

    [t 6 F] + [t 6 F] , [ 6 F] + [ 6 F] ()

    [ t ] -+ [ t ] , [ ] -+ [ ] ()

    [b ] + [b ] , [b ] + [b ] ()

    [ 6 ] -+ [ 6 ] , [ 6 ] -+ [ 6 ] ()

    [ ] +- [ ] , [ ] +- [ ] ()

    [6 g] + [6 g] , [6 g] + [6 g] ()

    [ t F] - + [ t F] , [ F] -+ [ F] () (Transliteration) -

    ( ) -

    (Transcription) -

    (Linguistic Interference)

    ..

    ,

    -

  • 14

    . -

    (.) -

    -

    -

    (.) -

    -

    (.) ( )

    ( .. ) (.) ( ) ( )

    -

    -

    (.) -

    - -

    - []

    - (-)

    (Linguistic Interference) -

    -- ( )

    ( )

  • 15

    - - - ( )

    -

    -

    -

    ()

    -

    . -

    - .. ..

    . .. - () [] [t] [t]

    [b], [6] -, - [y] [b] ( ) . ( ) - [t 6 F] - - - [ ]

    () (Pi) - -

    -

    - -

    - -

    [ ] + [ ] , [ ] + [ ] ()

    [ ] + [ ] , [] + [] ()

    [t 6 F] + [t 6 F] , [ 6 F] + [ 6 F] ()

    [ t ] -+ [ t ] , [ ] -+ [ ] ()

    [b ] + [b ] , [b ] + [b ] ()

    [ 6 ] -+ [ 6 ] , [ 6 ] -+ [ 6 ] ()

    [ ] +- [ ] , [ ] +- [ ] ()

    [6 g] + [6 g] , [6 g] + [6 g] ()

    [ t F] - + [ t F] , [ F] -+ [ F] () (Transliteration) -

    ( ) -

    (Transcription) -

    (Linguistic Interference)

    ..

    ,

    -

    () (Pi) - -

    -

    - -

    - -

    [ ] + [ ] , [ ]

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