Laboratory and Field Performance of Asphalt and ?· Asphalt and Concrete Patching Materials and Techniques…

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  • Laboratory and Field Performance ofAsphalt and Concrete Patching

    Materials and Techniques

    Robert Kostick and Jay Dailey

    Eshan Dave

    Eric Musselman

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Motivation for the Research Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) patch

    failure rates are high (.so are for others) The annual roadway condition report indicates that on an average

    basis patches have been failing within one year.

    2

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Two Projects Partial Depth Patching Materials

    2012 - 2014 Lab testing based acceptance system for partial depth patching

    mixtures Final Report:

    http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/TS/2014/201441.pdf

    Pothole Patching Materials and Techniques 2014 - 2016 Field evaluation of patching materials and techniques Outcomes:

    Best practices manual and decision tree Slurry mix design, equipment modifications

    3

    http://www.uiuc.edu/http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/TS/2014/201441.pdf

  • Concrete Rapid Patching Material Acceptance Criteria

    4

    State (Northern US) Material Acceptance SpecificationMinnesota ASTM C928 (required tests only)North Dakota ASTM C928 (required tests only)South Dakota Material must reach 4000 psi compressive strength

    in 6 hours

    Michigan Presentation by John StatonIdaho Type III Portland cement concrete requiredState (Southern US)Arizona Material must reach 2000 psi compressive strength

    in 6 hoursFlorida ASTM C928 (required tests only)Georgia ASTM C928 and Freeze Thaw Durability Factor

    must be within 75% of the reference concrete @ 300 cycles

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Summary of State DOT Practices

    Many states follow the ASTM requirements for the approval of mixes

    Most do not require any of the additional (recommended) ASTM tests

    ASTM C928, Required testing includes: Compressive Strength Gain Bond Strength by Slant Shear Length Change, in air and water Consistency of Concrete, workability Scaling Resistance to Deicing Chemicals, the only cold

    weather related test

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Recommended ASTM C928 Testing The optional tests include:

    ASTM C403, Time of setting

    ASTM C78, Flexural strength

    ASTM C666, Freeze-thaw durability

    ASTM C1012, Sulfate expansion

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Previous Research

    Laboratory evaluation: AASHTO/NTPEP FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Program) Penn State University TTI (Texas Transportation Institute)

    Field performance testing: MnROAD Evaluation of Patching Materials (2011) NTPEP conducted a tests on a bridge deck in Ohio using 6

    products in 3 ft. X 9 ft. patches SHRP had a similar test but ranged over 4 states; Utah, Arizona,

    Pennsylvania and South Carolina

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Why Cold Climate Specific Testing

    Cold climates present unique challenges for patching materials: greater slab curling, snow plow damage, deicing chemicals etc.

    The goal is to identify materials in the lab that will perform better and last longer once in the field.

    This was achieved by: Extending the current standards to include laboratory tests that

    represent colder climate conditions. Eliminating those that do not provide additional information about

    the performance of patches. Investigating what additional data can be retrieved from tests that

    are currently in practice.

    8

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Experimental Program

    Focus is on laboratory testing: Basis was formed by ASTM C928 specification

    Testing scope: Test 13 rapid set cementitious products and mixes using the

    current acceptance criteria (ASTM C928 specification) Choose 4 products from the original list to undergo a more rigorous

    set of tests The tests in this phase are more tailored to climatic effects on

    the materials.

    Tests that were developed to focus on bond Pull-out bond test (adapted ASTM C900) and flexural bond test

    Gather additional data from existing tests Record mass loss during freeze-thaw testing

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Rapid Set Materials (13) Portland Cement Based PCC# (4) Magnesium Phosphate Based MP# (2) Polymer Modified Cement - PMod (1) Unknown Pro# (6)

    10

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    12000

    0.1 1 10

    Co

    mp

    ress

    ive s

    tren

    gth

    (p

    si)

    Days

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Freeze-Thaw Testing Freezing and thawing is of concern in colder regions

    Spring and Fall are critical periods

    Considerations: Mass loss: an indicator of surface durability in cold weather Relative dynamic modulus (stiffness): measure of material integrity

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Freeze-Thaw Testing: Mass Loss

    12

    -9.0

    -8.0

    -7.0

    -6.0

    -5.0

    -4.0

    -3.0

    -2.0

    -1.0

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    0 50 100 150 200 250 300

    Perc

    ent C

    hang

    e in

    Mas

    s

    Number of F-T Cycles

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Pop out/Flexural Bond Test

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • 3000

    3500

    4000

    4500

    5000

    5500

    6000

    6500

    7000

    D3-2-W D3-2-G 3U18M-W 3U18M-G D3-2-Cold

    Loa

    d at

    Fai

    lure

    (lbs

    )Flexural Bond, Static tests

    Peak load at failure for half slab specimens, 3 replicates

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Flexural Bond, Cyclic Loading

    15

    -5000

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

    Load

    (lb)

    Displacement (in)

    3U18 M C 2

    3U18 M C 4

    3U18 M W 1

    3U18 M W 3

    3U18 S C 2

    3U18 S C 3

    3U18 S W 1

    3U18 S W 3

    Control 3

    Control 4

    Futura 45 M C 1

    Futura 45 M C 2

    Futura 45 M W 1

    Futura 45 M W 4

    Futura 45 S C 1

    Futura 45 S C 4

    Futura 45 S W 1

    Futura 45 S W 4

    -600

    -500

    -400

    -300

    -200

    -100

    0

    Mic

    rost

    rain

    0.25 in Cycles

    0.30 in Cycles

    0.20 in Cycles

    0.05 in Cycles

    0.10 in Cycles

    0.15 in Cycles

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Summary and Conclusions Laboratory testing based material acceptance process is

    recommended to be used as routine practice ASTM C928 is very good starting point, some changes are strongly

    recommended through the present study

    Modulus of Elasticity No specific target value, but should require it to be close to rest of

    the pavement

    Freeze-thaw testing Current requirements primarily focus on durability factor (DF) Both RDM and mass loss should be included in the requirements

    Bonding of patching materials Chemical bond did not appear to be an issue of concern for

    materials studies herein Modified bond test has potential to become a pass/fail

    requirement16

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Recommendations Tests that should be included in the acceptance procedure for rapid

    set materials Consistency and workability of patching mixes Compressive strength at 3 hours and 28 days Shrinkage, length change Freeze-thaw durability

    Including mass loss and initial dynamic modulus Air entrainment strongly recommended for all patch materials

    Setting time Modulus of elasticity, match closely to pavement concrete

    If the dynamic modulus matches closely (

  • Comprehensive Field Evaluation of Asphalt Patching Techniques

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Objectives of Study Main objective is to improve the current asphalt patching

    practices and to aid in-field operations Selection of appropriate technique and materials (decision tree) Best practices manual Aid in developing/optimizing patching materials

    Research Tasks1) Identify pothole locations for study2) Field observation and evaluation (Year-1)3) Field observation and evaluation (Year-2)4) Laboratory testing to support mix design refinements5) Develop best practices guide and simple design treeUnderlined tasks are completed and will be briefly discussed in this presentation

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Location Identification

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Five Sites

    Site A (TH 61): Fine-Aggregate Cold Mix

    Site B (Grand Ave): Cold Mix and Hot Recycler

    Site C (I-35): Mastic

    Site D (Hwy 53-Trinity Rd): Mill and Fill

    Site E (Hwy 53): Mill and Fill

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Types of Patching Material, Mastic

    22

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Fine Aggregate Cold Mix

    23

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Hot Recycled Milling

    24

    Hot Recycler

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Mill and Fill

    25

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Field Observations

    26

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

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  • Day 149 29

    Day 3

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

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  • Laboratory Testing for Slurry Mix Refinement

    33

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • 34

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Trial Mixes Completed

    35

    Trial

    Percentage Based on Weight of

    Aggregate (%)

    Cement Emulsion Water

    1 2.6 19.2 6.3

    2 2.5 16.3 6.2

    3 2.4 13.4 6.0

    4 2.4 15.7 2.4

    5 2.4 19.5 0

    6 2.4 15.9 3.6

    7 2.4 19.5 0

    8 0 19.0 0

    9 3 16 3.5

    10 3 16 5

    11 3 16 4.5

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Future Research Observation on sites will continue for another year

    Percent retention Permeability

    Plans to place more patch materials for observations including: Slurry mix design from laboratory testing Virgin patch material using the recycling machine

    A Best Practice Guide and Simple Decision Tree for field use on basis of the findings of this study

    36

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Summary Year-1 of observations has been completed at 5 locations. Preliminary observations:

    Fine-aggregate cold mix should be used in potholes with a depth less than 2 inches

    Patches constructed with hot recycled mixes show rapid aging andravelling

    Mastic holds well Mill and fill operations distress quickly and can sometimes create

    more damage than its benefits

    Laboratory and field testing has been conducted on mix designs with the intent to place and observe in the field during the upcoming year

    37

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Thank you for your attentionQuestions?

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    http://www.uiuc.edu/

  • Indirect Tensile Strength Results

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    Trial Load (N)Stress

    (MPa) (psi)

    7 4,076.70 0.21 30.28

    8 2,381.54 0.12 17.59

    9 9,798.77 0.54 77.75

    10 5,218.20 0.29 42.02

    11 7,400.79 0.41 59.31

    http://www.uiuc.edu/

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