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  • LUND UNIVERSITY

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    La enseanza del pretrito indefinido y el imperfecto espaoles en ELE : Un modelodidctico para el bachillerato Sueco

    Lopez, Fernando

    Published: 2014-01-01

    Link to publication

    Citation for published version (APA):Lopez, F. (2014). La enseanza del pretrito indefinido y el imperfecto espaoles en ELE : Un modelo didcticopara el bachillerato Sueco

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    TUDES ROMANES DE LUND 96

    Fernando Lpez Serrano

    La enseanza del pretrito indefinido y el imperfecto espaoles en ELE:

    Un modelo didctico para el bachillerato sueco

    Tesis de filosofie licentiat / Licentiatavhandling

    Centre for Languages and Literature Spanish Studies

  • LPEZ SERRANO Fernando, La enseanza del pretrito indefinido y el imperfecto espaoles en ELE: Un modelo didctico para el bachillerato sueco. tudes romanes de Lund 96, Lund 2014. 216 pages. Written in Spanish. Monograph. Abstract This study focuses on the teaching of second languages, especially on the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language in Swedish schools. Although the teaching of Spanish as a second language (ELE), in many respects, has seen considerable progress in the last twenty years, there has been little impact in Swedish schools. Of all subjects in Swedish schools, Spanish is the one that has the highest number of teachers without the requisite certification. Maybe it is no wonder that students are progressing very slowly according to international evaluation agencies.

    Our study is an attempt to solve one of the most well-known problems of the didactics of Spanish as a second language, the learning of the indefinite and imperfect tenses and their use. As a Germanic language, Swedish lacks simple morphological tenses marking aspectual contrast in the past. Learning these two Spanish tenses is a mayor difficulty for the students.

    We tested a new methodology in which grammatical issues are presented explicitly and through the principles of cognitive grammar applied to second language teaching for an intensive period of ten classes, combining elements of various methods of second language teaching, as the traditional grammatical method, structural methods, natural or direct method, and communicative method. Other features were audio-visual input focused on language use and the practice of corrective feedback.

    The results obtained in our study in comparison with a control group showed that the experimental methodology reached a higher degree of proficiency both in the short and long run and both in written and oral skills.

    TUDES ROMANES DE LUND Sprk- och litteraturcentrum Lunds universitet Box 201 SE-221 00 Lund, Suecia Secretaria de redaccin: Carla Cariboni Killander Carla.Cariboni_Killander@rom.lu.se Fernando Lpez Serrano 2014 ISSN 0347-0822 ISBN 978-91-7623-155-5 (Tryck) ISBN 978-91-7623-156-2 (Pdf) Impreso en Suecia por Media-Tryck, Lund

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    La pedagoga tiene mucho ms de arte que de ciencia

    Fernando Savater

  • ndice ndice ................................................................................................................................ 4

    1 Introduccin .................................................................................................................. 6 1.1 Presentacin de los objetos de estudio ........................................................ 10 1.2 Trasfondo y propsito del trabajo ................................................................ 12 1.3 Preguntas de investigacin e hiptesis de trabajo ....................................... 14

    2 El contexto escolar sueco ............................................................................................ 16 2.1 Un poco de historia ...................................................................................... 17 2.2 Los ltimos veinte aos ............................................................................... 18 2.2.1 Marco social y cultural ............................................................................... 19 2.2.2 Marco administrativo y legal ..................................................................... 20 2.2.3 El profesor de espaol y su circunstancia ................................................ 25 2.2.4 Los estudiantes de espaol ....................................................................... 30 2.2.5 El nivel 3 de espaol como lengua extranjera .......................................... 34

    3 Marco Terico ............................................................................................................. 37 3.1 La enseanza y el aprendizaje ...................................................................... 38 3.1.1 Enfoque, mtodo y procedimiento ........................................................... 40 3.2 Principales mtodos en la enseanza de lenguas extranjeras ..................... 41 3.2.1 El mtodo tradicional gramatical .............................................................. 42 3.2.2 El mtodo natural o directo ...................................................................... 43 3.2.3 Mtodos de base estructuralista ................................................................ 46 3.2.4 Mtodos de base comunicativa .................................................................. 47 3.2.5 Resumen .................................................................................................... 50 3.3 El papel de la gramtica en la enseanza de lenguas extranjeras ............... 52 3.4 El problema del indefinido y el imperfecto espaoles ................................ 62 3.4.1 Acerca del sistema verbal espaol ............................................................ 62 3.4.2 El problema del indefinido y el imperfecto en ELE ................................ 64 3.4.3 La enseanza y aprendizaje del do indefinido/imperfecto en Suecia .... 68

    4 Datos del estudio en las aulas ..................................................................................... 79 4.1 Diseo y mtodo del estudio en las aulas .................................................... 79 4.2 Perfil de los profesores participantes en el estudio ..................................... 80 4.3 Perfil de las escuelas .................................................................................... 82 4.4 Perfil de los grupos experimentales y de control ........................................ 83 4.4.1 El grupo experimental 1 (grex1) ................................................................ 83 4.4.2 El grupo de control 1 (grol1) ..................................................................... 86

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    4.4.3 El grupo experimental 2 (grex2) ................................................................ 86 4.4.4 El grupo de control 2 (grol2) ..................................................................... 88 4.5 Periodo del experimento y diseo de las pruebas ....................................... 88 4.5.1 Las pruebas del estudio ............................................................................ 90

    5 Nuestro modelo didctico basado en la interfaz PPP y la gramtica cognitiva ....... 93 5.1 Fundamentacin terica de nuestro modelo ............................................... 94 5.1.1 La interfaz PPP .......................................................................................... 94 5.1.2 El input comprensible y el discurso del profesor ..................................... 96 5.1.3 Focus on Forms y Focus on Form ............................................................ 98 5.1.4 La correccin explicativa (corrective feedback) ......................................... 100 5.1.5 La interaccin en la clase ........................................................................ 104 5.1.6 La gramtica cognitiva en la clase de ELE ............................................. 105 5.2 Elementos constituyentes del mtodo experimental ................................. 108 5.2.1 Elementos diferenciadores entre el mtodo experimental y el de los grupos de control ............................................................................................. 119 5.2.2 Elementos descartados en la metodologa experimental, pero empleados en el GROL ...................................................................................................... 122 5.3 Aplicacin prctica de la metodologa experimental ................................. 124 5.3.1 Las diez clases del mtodo experimental ................................................ 124 5.3.2 Resumen sobre los elementos y los contenidos de la metodologa experimental .................................................................................................... 140

    6 Resultados del estudio ....