L2 VOCABULARY ACQUISITION, KNOWLEDGE AND USE 682927/ SECOND LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION 2013. ... Different ways of assessing vocabulary reflect different ... L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use,

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    L2 VOCABULARY ACQUISITION, KNOWLEDGE AND USEnew perspectives on assessment and corpus analysisEDITED BY

    CAMILLA BARDELUniversity of Stockholm

    CHRISTINA LINDQVIST University of Uppsala

    BATIA LAUFERUniversity of Haifa


  • Eurosla monographs Eurosla publishes a monographs series, available open access on the associations website.The series includes both single-author and edited volumes on any aspect of second langua-ge acquisition. Manuscripts are evaluated with a double blind peer review system to ensu-re that they meet the highest qualitative standards.

    EditorsGabriele Pallotti (Series editor), University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

    Fabiana Rosi (Assistant editor), University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

    The Authors 2013Published under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 licenseISBN 978-1-300-88407-1

    First published by Eurosla, 2013Graphic design and layout: Pia t Lam

    An online version of this volume can be downloaded from eurosla.org

  • Table of contents

    ForewordCamilla Bardel, Christina Lindqvist and Batia Laufer 5

    Looking at L2 vocabulary knowledge dimensions from an assessment perspective challenges and potential solutionsHenrik Gyllstad 11

    Research on L2 learners collocational competence and development a progress reportBirgit Henriksen 29

    Measuring the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to proficiency in the four skillsJames Milton 57

    Frequency 2.0: Incorporating homoforms and multiword units in pedagogical frequency listsTom Cobb 79

    A new approach to measuring lexical sophistication in L2 oral productionChristina Lindqvist, Anna Gudmundson and Camilla Bardel 109

    Lexical properties in the writing of foreign language learners over eight years of study: single words and collocationsTami Levitzky-Aviad and Batia Laufer 127

    Automatic extraction of L2 criterial lexico-grammatical features across pseudo-longitudinal learner corpora: using edit distance and variability-based neighbour clustering 149Yukio Tono

    About the authors 177

  • Editorial boardCecilia Andorno, University of PaviaDalila Ayoun, University of ArizonaCamilla Bardel, Stockholm UniversityAlessandro Benati, University of GreenwichSandra Benazzo, Universit Lille 3Giuliano Bernini, University of BergamoCamilla Bettoni, University of VeronaMarina Chini, University of PaviaJean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College, UCLAnna Giacalone Ramat, University of PaviaRoger Gilabert, University of BarcelonaGisela Hkansson, Lund UniversityHenritte Hendriks, University of CambridgeMartin Howard, University College CorkGabriele Kasper, University of Hawaii at Ma-noaJudith Kormos, Lancaster UniversityFolkert Kuiken, University of AmsterdamMaisa Martin, University of JyvskylJames Milton, Swansea UniversityJohn Norris, Georgetown UniversityLourdes Ortega, Georgetown UniversitySimona Pekarek-Doehler, Universit de NeuchtelManfred Pienemann, University of PaderbornLeah Roberts, University of YorkJason Rothman, University of IowaMichael Sharwood Smith, Heriot-Watt University EdinburghNina Spada, University of TorontoRichard Towell, University of SalfordDanijela Trenkic, University of YorkAda Valentini, University of BergamoIneke Vedder, University of AmsterdamChristiane von Stutterheim, Heidelberg UniversityJohannes Wagner, University of Southern Denmark

  • Foreword

    This book revolves around two main themes. One is vocabulary assessmentmethods, the other vocabulary use research by means of corpus analysis andcomputational linguistics. The chapters are based on individual papers whichwere presented either at a workshop at Stockholm University in May 2010, orat a thematic panel at the 20th Eurosla Conference in Reggio Emilia inSeptember 2010. We felt that these conference contributions offered some newinsights into L2 vocabulary research and consequently decided to compile theminto a book that would present recent L2 vocabulary research and suggest somenew directions in the field. Different ways of assessing vocabulary reflect different conceptualizations ofvocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary knowledge can be viewed as the number ofwords a person knows (hence, there are tests of vocabulary size, e.g. Nation &Beglar, 2007), the amount of information a person has about a particular word(deep knowledge tests measure how well certain words are known, e.g. Wesche& Paribakht, 1996), how a word associates with other words (e.g. Read, 1993),and the speed with which words are retrieved (Laufer & Nation, 2001). Lexicalrichness in free production has been measured by lexical profiles (e.g. Laufer &Nation, 1995; Bardel, Gudmundson & Lindqvist, 2012). Some of the chaptersin the book discuss problems of these measurement methods and make sugges-tions for refinements and additions (Cobb; Gyllstad; Lindqvist et al.). The introduction of language corpora, corpus analysis techniques and othercomputer analyses into second language research has made it possible to conductstudies on sizeable and varied samples of spontaneous linguistic productions.Cross-corpora comparisons and new types of analyses can be performed that pro-vide new insights into lexical knowledge and its development in a second lan-guage. Some of the chapters of the book reflect these developments in lexicalresearch. These chapters analyze the vocabulary found in learners performancein speaking (Lindqvist et al.) or in writing (Levitzky-Aviad & Laufer; Tono).Besides being concerned with these two overarching themes, the chapters alsofocus on a number of central issues in vocabulary research. One such issue is therole of word frequency, which is a recurrent factor when measuring lexical rich-ness and is discussed from different points of view in some of the chapters(Cobb; Levitzky-Aviad & Laufer; Lindqvist et al.).

    EUROSLA MONOGRAPHS SERIES 2L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, 5-10

  • Another central issue is the relationship between knowledge of single words andmulti-word units, which is addressed in detail by Henriksen, who sees colloca-tional knowledge as part of communicative competence. Even very advancedlearners seem to have difficulty with mastering this kind of knowledge fully, asLevitzky-Aviad and Laufer found. Their data shows in fact that studentsimproved over time as far as measures of single words were concerned, but notwith respect to multi-word units. Knowledge of multi-word units is normallyconsidered to be indicative of deep knowledge, a construct that is discussedthoroughly in Gyllstads chapter. Yet another fundamental theme in vocabulary acquisition research pertains tothe differences between learning and using oral and written vocabulary. Thestudies in this book examine data from written and spoken language, somefocussing on production, some on comprehension. The differences in lexicalsophistication between spoken and written modes are discussed by Lindqvist etal. and by Milton. Milton also points out that the correlations between vocab-ulary size scores and listening skills are generally weaker than the correlationswith the written skills of reading and writing, and suggests some possible expla-nations for this difference. As regards written production, Tonos chapteraddresses the important issue of vocabulary errors as correlates of proficiencylevel, and analyzes the kinds of errors characterizing different proficiency levelsin academic essays.Below is a brief summary of the chapters.Henrik Gyllstad, in his chapter Looking at L2 vocabulary knowledge dimensionsfrom an assessment perspective challenges and potential solutions, notes how therecent upsurge of interest in L2 vocabulary and L2 vocabulary assessment hasbeen followed by a situation where a large number of knowledge constructs areproposed and investigated. As Gyllstad points out, the development of compet-ing definitions and perspectives is part and parcel of any flourishing academicdomain, but still, it is a problem if constructs are given very different interpre-tations from study to study. Taking the fundamental constructs of vocabularybreadth and depth (Anderson & Freebody, 1981) as a point of departure, anddrawing on some subsequent critical work on their viability and use, Gyllstaddiscusses some of the basic assumptions underlying these constructs. In partic-ular, he emphasizes that empirical data on the learning and assessment of lexi-cal items larger than single words, e.g. phrasal verbs, collocations and idioms,raise questions as to where to draw the line between breadth and depth. Theauthor ends his paper by presenting suggestions for potential remedies. Multi-word units are further discussed in Birgit Henriksens contribution,Research on L2 learners collocational competence and development a progressreport. According to previous studies, mastery of formulaic sequences includ-

    6 Foreword

  • ing collocations is a central aspect of communicative competence, whichenables the speaker to process language both fluently and idiomatically and tofulfil basic communicative and social needs. In light of studies that show thatcollocational competence is acquired late and often not mastered very well byL2 language learners, Henriksen discusses the features of learners collocationalcompetence and the problems in its development. Different research approach-es to investigating L2 learners collocational development are discussed with afocus on the dynamic non-linear models of Larsen-Freeman (1997, 2006),which view language development as a complex process, allowing for individualvariation resulting from language use conditions and the choices made by indi-vidual learners.In his paper Measuring the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to proficiency inthe four skills, James Milton examines how vocabul