Kritik Goodies

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    Critique Goodies Evazon 2013

    Table of ContentsCritique Goodies Evazon 2013

    Framework/EtOntology 1st

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    Epistemology 1st

    Language 1st

    Facts ad!" ad#$% &peci'c #lt (ey#$% &il)Epistemic *ragmatism

    #$% &cience + $rut,#$% O-.ectivity /2 #ction#$% *redictions &olve Compleity)&cience is &elCorrecting#$% ig ords ad)!vory $o4er

    !T !"onism#$% 5ietzsc,ean #gonism 2#CCritical #gonism Good#$% 6ou 7estroy 7e-ate#$% *ositivism)O-.ectivity

    !T #eliberative #emora$7eli-erative 7emocracy adConsensus adConsensus ad 8 FundamentalismConsensus ad 9 *opulism

    $,ird ay ad:!nequality$,ird ay ad:*o4er$opicality ad#$% "ules /2 7emocracy#$% Coalitions)(ris,na#$% a,/tin)7ialogical Ec,ange

    %iolene &'#$% *in/er:General#$% *in/er:7emocratic *eace#$% *in/er:Foucault (

    Generi (inksC,ina Lin/ 15CC,ina Lin/C,ina Frame4or/Glo-al arming Lin/Glo-al arming Frame4or/#$% arming;s -ad or t,e 3rd4orld

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    Framework/Et

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    )ntolo"$ 1st

    )ntolo"$ determines t*e results of +olitial siene inquiries,tanle$ -12Liam &tanley< ="et,in/ing t,e 7e'nition and "ole o Ontology in

    *olitical &cience *olitics< ?ol@ 32 A2B< p@ 3< 2012!n contrast< ontolo"$ in +olitial siene onerns t*e im+liit and sim+lif$in"assum+tions about +olitial .realit$- t*at under+in e+lanations of +olitial+*enomena@ $,e analysis and discussion o ontological assumptions s,ould t,ereore -e considered asecondorder endeavour@ Consequently< ontology s,ould not -e de'ned as Dt,e 4orld as it actually is; -ut instead as

    Dt,e 4orld as political scientists assume it to -e;@ n order to e+lain t*e +olitial world it isneessar$ w*et*er im+liitl$ or e+liitl$ to ommit to a ertainontolo"ial view of w*at is +ossible in soial realit$4$,us

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    E+istemolo"$ 1st

    E+istemi ommitments determine ontolo"ial outlooks and+reditive results9+rior ritique is neessar$ to stave o7 banal

    instrumentalit$ and institutional bias,tanle$ -12Liam &tanley< ="et,in/ing t,e 7e'nition and "ole o Ontology in*olitical &cience *olitics< ?ol@ 32 A2B< p@ 3< 2012

    $,e literature says very little directly on t,e su-.ect o ,o4 ontological assumptions emerge Aay< 200I< p@ J1B@ !nmany 4ays< t,is is unsurprising< particularly -ecause it is not possi-le to conduct suc, an analysis 4it,out 'rstcommitting to a series o ontological and epistemological assumptions A4,ic, !< o course< must also ma/e in t,eremainder o t,e articleB@ $,is inescapa-le irony is noted< -ut s,ould not prevent t,e endeavour altoget,er -ecauseot,er4ise suc, discussions 4ould not even -e possi-le@ 5evert,eless< in regard to ,o4 political scientists ma/eontological assumptions some preliminary ans4ers can -e gat,ered rom reading t,e literature rom in -et4een t,elines@ ,ile t,e literature oten rig,tly claims t,at ontological dualisms are perennial pro-lematiques 4it, nosolution Aay< 200K< p@ 2H Men/ins< 200I< p@ KB< t,ey also tend some4,at paradoically to oer conceptualre'nements to t,ese unsolva-le dic,otomies% e@g@ structureagency ANc#nulla< 2002B< material ideational Ae@g@

    Nars,< 200B< mind-ody Ae@g@ Men/ins< 200IB@ &o< t,e question -ecomes< if ontolo"ial dualismsannot be solved t*en w*$ do +olitial sientists seek to o7er inreasin"l$

    om+le one+tualisations: t is +resumabl$ beause su*+roblematiques allow +olitial sientists to re;et on t*eir ownassum+tions as well as t*e assum+tions of ot*ers and avoid makin" t*esim+listi struturalist or intentionalist mistakes of $ester$ear4 ,u*sim+listi under+innin"s s*ould indeed be ritiqued on t*e basis ofunrealistiall$ limitin" t*e +otential for *uman a"en$ or failin" toonsider *ow strutures favour ertain ators and strate"ies@ ut t,e value oincrementally more comple conceptualisations is rarely .usti'ed t,roug, t,is@ Furt,ermore< in tandem 4it, t,eidealtype o t,e directional dependence< t,is aspect o t,e literature also implies t,at ontological assumptionss,ould emerge rom engagement 4it, p,ilosop,ically oriented literature@ 6et t,ere is little reection on 4,et,er t,isidealtype accurately reects academic practice and< more importantly< 4,et,er t,is 4ould ,ave any implicationsor oundations o t,eir arguments@ # second reading o t,e directional dependence model could also imply t,atontological assumptions sometimes derive rom epistemological decisions Aay< 200K< p@ 2B@ $,is is 4,y t,e

    directional dependence model outlined earlier is important< -ecause it demonstrates ,o4seemin"l$

    innouous e+istemolo"ial or met*odolo"ial deisions an in;ueneassum+tions about soial realit$@ ! some ontological assumptions are inetrica-ly tied up 4it,epistemological decisions< t,en t,e net step s,ould involve t,e analysis o t,e process t,at< in part< gives rise to

    epistemological assumptions@ $,is section aims to do .ust t,at@ E+istemolo"ial deisions anin;uene or "enerate ontolo"ial assum+tions@ Colin ay Aay< 200K< p@ 2B ,as s,o4nt,e adverse aects o searc,ing or generalisa-le /no4ledge Aan epistemological decisionB on t,e ontological

    assumptions and resulting eplanations o rational c,oice t,eory@ 6et< t*e etent of e+istemolo"ialdeision6makin" etends be$ond t*e understandable ambition to t*eorise+olitis4 t is sometimes in;uened b$ aademi norms emer"in" from t*edisi+line as well as re"ulator$ and fundin" bodies4One possi-le criticism o t,eliterature on ontology is t,at it is irrelevant to t,e ma.ority o +olitial sientists4,oare driven b$a .mundane instrumentalit$- in w*i* .w*at ounts is w*at works-Aale< 200K to

    stabilize debate alon" t*e lines of a stati resolution is to +utdebate-s a"onisti +otential to deat*,iemens .1 erman @ &iemens< 7epartment o *,ilosop,y at 5i.megenVniversity in $,e 5et,erlands< =5ietzs,ce;s agon 4it, ressentiment% to4ards at,erapeutic reading o critical transvaluation Continental *,ilosop,y "evie4 3J%K3< 2001< &pringerLin/5ietzs*ean transvaluation is devoted to ontestin" and overomin"+revailin" values in t*e name of life its aHrmation and elevation4 !s ana"onal ontest of values transvaluative disourse *allen"es a "ivenvalue or ideal b$ sta"in" a onfrontation wit* a re+resentative +ersona ort$+e w*ose various attitudes and +ostures are t*en interro"ated andevaluated from a stand+oint in life as t*e *i"*est value4$,e agon ,as important

    consequences or t,e 4ay 4e understand 5ietzsc,e;s tetual conrontations< 4,ic, can -e used to introduce avia-le t,erapeutic reading@ !n t,e 'rst place< t*e a"on involves a s$mmetrial or"anisationor eonom$ of +ower +resu++osin" a +luralit$ of more6or6less equalanta"onisti fores 4 13 !"onal disourse is t*erefore ontin"ent on t*e+artii+ation of a +luralit$ of fores in a s$mmetrial ontestation ofvalues? transvaluation onl$ ours w*ere weD are drawn into ritialontests as an a"onal ommunit$D of readers w*o onsent to t*e rulesof +la$4 &nder t*ese onditions deferene to5ietzsc,e oran$ sin"le fore isruled out 4 5ietzs*e-s

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    t*erefore resist t*e lure of =nalit$ and t*e e+edient of destro$in" itso++onents4 T*is does not elude on;it alto"et*er4 T*e interests of"rowin" stru""lin" lifeD require t*at 5ietzs*e-s +*iloso+*$ +ratiseon;it or stru""le in a form t*at AaB em+owers its o++onents 1I andA-Bremains o+en6ended or inonlusiveH t,at is< it must practice agonal conict@

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    !T? Pou #estro$ #ebate

    #ebate is ontinuall$ bein" destro$ed> t*at-s +reisel$ t*enature of a"onisti ommunit$ t*at we s*ould aHrm4

    ,iemens .1 erman @ &iemens< 7epartment o *,ilosop,y at 5i.megenVniversity in $,e 5et,erlands< =5ietzsc,e;s agon 4it, ressentiment% to4ards at,erapeutic reading o critical transvaluation Continental *,ilosop,y "evie4 3J%K3< 2001< &pringerLin/! understood correctly< t*e o+en6ended d$nami qualities of t*e a"on alsoaddress t*e +roblem of losure at its most intratable? t*e demand t*att*era+euti disourse be non6diretional or anti6teleolo"ial in t*einterests of asendin" life4 @e+eatabilit$ in t*e a"on annot be +ro+erl$understood if we restrit ourselves to a *istorial +ers+etive or t*e+ers+etive of t*e anta"onists4 !t issue is not w*et*er t*e a"on is in fatre+eated and t*e kinds of institutional and =nanial infrastruture t*isrequires@ $,ese ,istorical)empirical questions presuppose t,at t,e agon is to -e repeated< and t,is is a eature

    intrinsic to t,e agon as a dynamic ordering o orces< a matter o its temporal c,aracter as a estival and a orm oplay@ #s Gadamer ,as argued< +la$ annot be adequatel$ understood from t*e+la$ers- +ers+etives beause it *as its bein" inde+endentl$ of t*eironsiousness attitudes and intentions? t*e mode of bein" of +la$ is notsu* t*at t*ere must be a sub rat*er it renews itself in onstantre+etitionDAp@ 103B@ $,is t,oug,t is es,ed out -y Gadamer 4it, reerence to t,e puzzling temporality oAperiodicB estivals@ 1 T*e festival annot be +ro+erl$ "ras+ed from t*e usual+ers+etive in suessive time as a *istorial event t*at was ori"inall$ soand t*en ame to be re+eated wit* small variations at +eriodi intervals @"at,er< repetition or return is intrinsi to estivals including a"onal festivals in t*eir*arater as elebration4 ,ine it belon"s to t*e establis*ment of afestival at its ver$ ori"ins t*at it s*ould be re"ularl$ elebrated t*efestival is somet*in" t*at onl$ is insofar as it is alwa$s di7erentQ@ @ @R t *asits bein" onl$ in beomin" and reurrin"DAp@ 120B@ !n t,is lig,t< t*e o+en6endedre+eatabilit$ of a"onal disourse is not ontin"ent on t*e self6restraint of

    anta"onists able to *old bak fromdestructionor absolute vitor$4 Contestantsannot be relied on to avoid eessin t,e agon 4,ic,< -y its very nature< allo4s t,e temptationo ,u-ris to compe