Kristi Jauregi, Emerita Bañados, Jerónimo Morales

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Distant intercultural communication through video-web communication tools: preliminary results after four years of experience. Intercultural communication. Kristi Jauregi, Emerita Baados, Jernimo Morales. Universidad de Granada. Call 2008 , Antwerpen. Video-web communication tool. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Kristi Jauregi, Emerita Baados, Jernimo Morales

    Universidad de Granada Call 2008, AntwerpenDistant intercultural communication through video-web communication tools: preliminary results after four years of experienceIntercultural communication

    Universidad de Concepcin

  • Video-web communication tool

  • Spanish Language Course (Lengua 3) (B1) UUPilot 2005 > 6 + 6 > Granada2006: 20 + 20 > Granada + Barcelona2007: 20 + 20 > Granada + Valencia2008: 17 + 15 > Granada + Valencia

    Spanish Language Course (Lengua 5) (B2) UU2006: 20 + 18 > Concepcin (Chile)2007: 20 + 17 > Concepcin (Chile)ProjectsJauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Background: CMC in SLA Learners become more confident & active (Kelm 1992, Kern 1996), produce more coherent language (Felix & Lawson, 1996)Learners output present syntatical & lexically more complex structures (Smith, 2003; Sotillo, 2000; Warschauer & Kern, 2000)There are frequent instances of negotiation of meaning (Lee, 2004; Shekary & Tahririan, 2006; Tudini, 2003; Warschauer & Kern, 2000)Develop Intercultural Competence (Belz & Thorne, 2006; Tudini, 2007; Vogt, 2006) Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Synchronous communicationCommunication through chat has been reported to: enhance language learning at syntactic (Sotillo, 2000), grammar (Pelletieri, 2000), lexical (Smith, 2004) and Intercultural (Fuchs, 2007; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002 Tudini 2007) levels; fovour negotiation of meaning (Jepson, 2005; Lai & Zhao, 2006; Shekary & Tahririan, 2006; Smith, 2004; Thorne, 2003; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002; Tudini, 2003)

    Audio (graphic) conferencing (Hampel & Hauck, 2004; Hampel et al 2005; Hauck 2007; Ktter, 2004; Levy, 2004; Ciekanski & Chanier, 2008)

    Videoconferencing (ODowd,2000; 2006;2007) Desktop-conferencing (Wang, 2006; 2007)

    Video-web communication (Jauregi & Baados 2008)

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • QuestionsAre communication processes supported by chat and video-web technology similar?Does visual information (seeing each other while talking to each other) hinder communication processes or just enhance them? How?Does anonymity favour communication processes? Under which conditions can Intercultural Communicative Competence (Byram, 1997) be furthered using synchronous communication tools? Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Spanish Language Course (Lengua 3) (B1)Pilot 2005 > 6 + 6 > Granada2006: 20 + 20 > Granada + Barcelona2007: 20 + 20 > Granada + Valencia2008: 17 + 11 > Granada + Valencia

    Spanish Language Course (Lengua 5) (B2)2006: 20 + 18 > Concepcin (Chile)2007: 20 + 17 > Concepcin (Chile)ProjectsJauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Utrecht University: Volunteer students of Spanish Language and Culture in their first or second academic year. The project is included in two Spanish language courses: B1 & B2. Task-based language teaching context.

    Spanish Universities: Volunteer graduate students of the Master of Education of Spanish as a FL.

    University of Concepcin: Volunteer students of pedagogy becoming teachers of Spanish as L1. The project has been part of the course Introduction to Pragmatics. Project description: participants Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • ProcessE-mail to students inviting them to participate in the projectPlenary initial virtual session: project presentationTutorials about how to use the e-platformSelection of studentsMatching dyads and groups / Schedule interactionsInformal meetings5 official interactive sessions (once per week) Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Tasks5 communicative tasks per project with a clear intercultural focus according to course objectives Textual and audio(visual) inputObjective: information and opinion exchange, reflection (mostly speaking; one task writing), negotiation of intercultural meaningJauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Jauregi et al, Call 2008, AntwerpenChanges in the processFrom a controlled, centralised organisation (personal site) to a more flexible, learner oriented model > learner autonomy (group site: Surfnet groepen) Experienced students as tutors & supervisors

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • DataRecordings of interactionEvaluation questionnairesBlog postingsFinal presentationsJauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Are communication processes supported by textual chat and video-web technology similar?Both synchronous communication modes > organisationTextual chat relies on literacy skills, reading & writing, quick typing; discussion threads, disrupted turn structure (questions and answers do not match) hybrid genre, informal language use.

    Lack of visual and paralinguistic features might difficult comprehension processes > emoticons & smileys

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Communication processes supported by VWC technologyVWC tool is a multimodal environment where logged in members can:Talk and listen to each other while seeing each other in real time (dyadic & group interaction). Chat (complementary function to conversation)Collaborate in real time from different computers in the writing process of a text.Share multimedia documents in the same environment (flash video, mp3, ppt, flash documents) & the computer, desktop.VWC relies particularly on speaking & listening skills.

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Webcam imageLogged in membersChatOn-line writingShared documentsRecordVideo-web communication

  • Are communication processes supported by textual chat and VWC technology similar?Technical issuesVWC requires good computers and a quicker connection to the Internet than the chat environments.

    Technical problems are not unusual & these disrupt the normal communication flow.

    Consequently interlocutors engage in side-sequences negotiating technical matters (echo, low volume of microphone, default microphone, communication delay).

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, AntwerpenAre communication processes supported by textual chat and VWC technology similar?Technical issues

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Jauregi et al, Call 2008, AntwerpenCommunication through chat or VWC. Quantitative results.

    Question itemNNS (B1)N14Mean SDNS (Spain)N9Mean SDNNS (B2)N19Mean SDNS (Chile)N14 Mean SDHave you used frequently the chat application?2.91.02.70.83.60.63.10.8Chat (1) or videocommunication (5). Would you have preferred to communicate with your interlocutors though chat or with WVC?4.71.14.31.24.41.14.11.4

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • To support negotiation sequences:of comprehension & production problemsof technical problemsof cultural informationFor private talkTo make jokesTo sheer up interlocutorsTo empathiseJauregi et al, Call 2008, AntwerpenChats in a multimodal VWC environment are used:

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Does visual information hinder communication processes or just enhance them?Lack of body language is at times perceived as an advantage: it allows learners to remain anonymous to speak more freely (chat, Tudini, 2007), (audio-graphic conferencing, Hampel et al 2005) > it reduces anxiety.

    But not knowing who you are addressing (an unknown /unseen audience) can cause anxiety.

    Without visual cues it is more difficult to detect non-literal use of language, indirect speech acts and irony or humor & it makes it more difficult to know whether the interlocutors have understood ones contribution. Thus comprehension processes become more difficult without visual cues.

  • The Integrationist approach to linguistics (Harris, 2005) posits moving away from the orthodox exponents that have idealized the notion of language to focus on communication, that is, language in use, whereby gesture is regarded as a central aspect of language in use, integral to how we communicate (make & interpret meaning).

    Visual cues within the Integrationst approach (SSLA, 2008 / 30, Gullberg, McCafferty) Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

  • Are regarded as an important component to acquisition both as a means of expression and as a mediator of meaning. Are implicated in interactional work (turn & floor regulation, feedback elicitation, agreement marking attention directing, via pointing) in experiences of sympathy & rapport.Influence & improve addressees comprehension & interpretation of speech (speech in noise, indirect speech acts) Important in cross-cultural communication & learningGestures: Integrationst approachSSLA, 2008 (30) (Gullberg, McCafferty)

  • Importance of visual cues in communication processes. Quantitative results.Jauregi et al, Call 2008, Antwerpen

    Question itemNNS (B1)N 16Mean SDNS (Spain)N 11Mean SDNNS (B2)N 16Mean SDNS (Chile)N14Mean SDAudio (1) vs audiovisual communication (5)4.41.34.21.64.41.24.31.5How do you value seeing your interlocutor?(1: negative; 5: positive)50.04.90.24.90.54.90.4Do you think that seeing your interlocutor hinders (1) or facilitates (5) communication 4.70.74.90.24.90.34.90.3Face-to face (1) vs videocommuni