King Abdulaziz University Department of European Languages & Literature Welcome to Syntax (LANE-334) Dr. Abdulrahman Alqurashi I am Dr. Abdulrahman Alqurashi

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This week in LG209

King Abdulaziz UniversityDepartment of European Languages & Literature

Welcome to Syntax (LANE-334)

I am Dr. Abdulrahman Alqurashi

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33411

Course websitehttp://aaalqurashi.kau.edu.sa/Pages-LANE-334.aspx

The course website contains the following materials for you to downloadcourse descriptionlecture materials (i.e. I will put copies of my Powerpoint slides on the website after I finish my lectures every week) Coursebook Wekker, H., & Haegeman, L. M. (1985). A modern course in English syntax. Croom Helm.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3342What you should do every week Read the text of the appropriate chapter of your coursebook in advance of the lecture (look at the course time plan in the course description )

Write down your questions and bring them to the lecture, so we can discuss them together.2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3343What I will do in the lecture Summarize keys points of the appropriate chapter of the coursebook according to the course time plan.

Analyse some of the exercise material in each chapter

Answer your questions

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3344Syntax (LANE-334)

Chapter 1Aims and Methods

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33455What is Syntax?Syntax is the study of how sentences are formed. In other words, Syntax or Syntactic Analysis is the study of how a specific language combines words to form sentences. Syntax vs. MorphologyMorphology is the study of how words are formed.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3346The tasks of syntaxThe study of Syntax involves two related tasks: (a) breaking down the sentence into its components parts (i.e. constituents). (b) assigning some grammatical label to each constituent.

Each constituent (i.e. syntactic unit) belongs to a specific grammatical category and serves a specific grammatical function.2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3347The tasks of syntaxGrammatical categories = parts of speech (e.g. noun or verb )

Grammatical function = grammatical job (e.g. subject or predicate )

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3348The study of Syntax involves two related tasks: (a) breaking down the sentence into its components parts (i.e. constituents). (b) assigning some grammatical label to each constituents, to say what grammatical category it belongs to and what grammatical function it serves.2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-3349The tasks of syntaxAn example(1). The student talked.

This sentence has two constituents :(a). the student(b). TalkedWhat is the Grammatical category of the constituent (the student)?- nounWhat is the Grammatical category of the constituent (talked)?- verb

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33410An example(1). The student talked.

This sentence has two constituents :(a). the student(b). TalkedWhat is the Grammatical function of the constituent (the student)?- subjectWhat is the Grammatical function of the constituent (talked)?- predicate

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33411Syntactic units SENTENCE CLAUSE PHRASE WORD MORPHEME

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33412SENTENCE CLAUSE PHRASE WORD MORPHEME

An example(2). The boy took the ball and hid it.

Q: How many sentences do we have ? A: One. The boy took the ball and hid it.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33413An example(2). The boy took the ball and hid it.

Q: How many clauses do we have ? A: Two. The boy took the ball hid it. The boy took the ball and hid it

A sentence may consist of one or more than one clause.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33414An example(3). The boy took the ball

Q: How many phrases do we have in the above clause? A: Two. the boy the (Det) boy (N) - (noun phrase - NP)took the ball took (V) the (Det) ball (N) (verb phrase VP)Det = Determiner - N = Noun V=Verb

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33415An example(4). (he) hid it

Q: How many phrases do we have in the above clause? A: one. hid it (verb phrase VP)

A clause may consist of one or more than one phrase. A clause is made up of phrases

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33416An example(5). The boy (NP)

Q: How many words do we have in the above phrase? A: Two. the (Det) + boy (N) Head

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33417An example(6). took the ball (VP)

Q: How many words do we have in the above phrase? A: three. took (V) + the (Det) + ball (N) HeadA phrase may consist of one or more than one word.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33418An example(7). took the ball (VP)

Q: How many morphemes do we have in the above phrase? A: three. took , the , ball

A morpheme is the smallest indivisible unit in syntax.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33419An example(8). talked (V)

Q: How many morphemes do we have in the above word? A: two. talk + ed

A word may consist of one or more than one morpheme.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33420Representing a syntactic structure

There are two ways to represent a syntactic structure:a). Labelled Bracketing [a square brackets ] = [ S John died] b). Tree Diagrams

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33421

XP X XP X XP X X Examples

Labelled Bracketing Sentence (S):e.g. The boy took the ball and (he) hid it.[S1 [ S2 the boy took the ball] and [S3 hid it]]Clauses (S): [ S1 the boy took the ball] and [S2 hid it] [ S the boy took the ball] [S he hid it]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33422Examples

Phrases (P):e.g. The boy took the ball and (he) hid it.[S1 [ S2 [NPthe boy] [VP took [NPthe ball]]] and [S1[VP hid [NP it]]]] [NP the boy] [VPtook] [NPthe ball] [VPhid][NP it]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33423Examples

Words: e.g. The boy took the ball and hid it[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]][Coord and] [VP [V hid]][NP [ N it]]Coord = Coordinator

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33424Examples

[NP [ N it]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]][Corrd and] [VP [V hid]][NP [ N it]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33425Examples

[VP [V hid] [NP [ N it]]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]][Corrd and] [VP [V hid]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33426Examples

[S1[NP [N he]] [VP [V hid] [NP [N it ]]]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]][Corrd and][NP [N (he)]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33427Examples

[Corrd and] [S1[NP [N he]] [VP [V hid] [NP [N it ]]]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]][Corrd and]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33428Examples

[NP [Det the] [ N ball]][Corrd and] [S1[NP [N (he)]] [VP [V hid] [NP [N it ]]]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33429Examples

[VP [V took] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]]][Corrd and] [S1[NP [N (he)]] [VP [V hid] [NP [N it ]]]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]] [VP [V took]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33430Examples

[S2[NP [Det the][N boy]] [VP [V took] [NP [Det the] [ N ball]]]][Corrd and] [S1[NP [N he]] [VP [V hid] [NP [N it ]]]]

[NP [Det the] [N boy]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33431Examples

[S1[S2[NP [Det the][N boy]] [VP [V took] [NP [Det the] [N ball]]]] [Cor and] [S3[NP [N he]] [VP [V hid] [NP [N it ]]]]]

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33432Representing a syntactic structure

b). Tree Diagramse.g. The boy took the ball and (he) hid it.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33433 itRepresenting a syntactic structure

b). Tree Diagramse.g. The boy took the ball and (he) hid it.

2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-33434 PRN itRepresenting a syntactic str

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