King Abdulaziz University Department of European Languages & Literature Syntax (LANE-334) Chapter 3 Functions Dr. Abdulrahman Alqurashi Dr. Abdulrahman

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  • King Abdulaziz UniversityDepartment of European Languages & Literature

    Syntax (LANE-334)

    Chapter 3Functions

    Dr. Abdulrahman Alqurashi

    2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Categories vs. Functions2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Introduction 2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • The verb and its complements2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    Verb typesIntransitiveCopulaMonotransitiveDitransitiveComplex transitiveIntransitive +PPTransitive +PP

    Frames [VP ][VP { AdjP ,NP or PP}][VP { NP / S} ][VP {NP- NP / NP-PP}] [VP NP -{AdjP / NP}] [VP PP ] [VP NP - PP]

    Examples He laughed He seems [AdjP very sad]He killed [NP the mouse] He gave [ NP the girl][NP a book]He called [NP him][NP a fool]He leaned [PP towards the girl] He put [NP the cup][PP on the table]

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • The verb and its complements2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*Intransitive verbMonotransitive verb

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in S2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Examples: The boy was reading Was the boy reading?

    Subjects of finite clause agree with the first auxiliary or with the main verb if there is no auxiliary.

    Examples: The boy was reading The boys were laughing

    The boy reads a story everyday. The boys read a story everyday.

    2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Subject NPs can be replaced by a pronoun in the subjective form but not in the objective form.

    Examples: The boy was reading. He was reading. * him was reading.

    2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in S2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in S2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in VP2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in VP2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in VP2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in VP2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in VP2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatical functions in VP2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Assignment

    Q: Bracket the complement and indicate what kind of complement it is and how it is realized in each of the following sentences:

    The doctor put her on a diet.They left the door open.The room is in a mess.He destroyed all the magazines.This song gives me a headache.He lives in Paris.

    2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Adjuncts and Complements2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Adjuncts and Complements2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Complex sentences: function of clauses2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Complex sentences: function of clauses2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    S

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Complex sentences: function of clauses2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Complex sentences: function of clauses2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatcal functions in phrases2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    FunctionSpecifierHeadComplementsAdjunctCategoryModelVerbNPNP(PP)Exampleswillshowthe girlthe paintingsafter dinner

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatcal functions in phrases2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    FunctionSpecifierHeadCategory(Adv)AdverbExamples[Adv very][Adv extremely][Adv recently][Adv slowly]

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • Grammatcal functions in phrases2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    X-Phrase: Specifier Head Complement {Modifier/Adjunct} X

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

  • What to do next week

    2014KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334*

    KAU-Syntax/ LANE-334

    *

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