Kinetics of Hydroprocessing

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    INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

    2012

    Study Of Kinetics of

    Hydro-Processing ofVegetable oil[Type the document subtitle]

    I O C L R & D FA R I D A B A D S E C - 1 3 A , HA R Y A N A , I N D I A

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    K I N E T I C S O F H Y D R O - P R O C E S S I N G O F V E G E T A B L E - O I L

    Project Completed By:-

    Atul-Goel Deepak Pandey

    B.Tech B.TechSummer Training Report Summer Training Report

    July-2012 July-2012

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    A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T

    Apart from the efforts of myself, the success of any project depends largely on the

    encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude

    to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I

    would like to show my greatest appreciation to Mr.B.Ravi Kumar, SRO (AE&TD). I can't

    say thank you enough for his tremendous support and help. Without his encouragement and

    guidance this project would not have materialized. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to

    Mr. Sarvesh Kumar, SRM (AE&TD), for his initial support and guidance. I would also like to

    thank Mr. Alok Sharma, CRM (AE&TD), for allowing me to work in this department and

    helping me to gain profound knowledge about various key elements. I also record my sincere

    thanks to the entire staff of Refining Technology-II Department and Library for their

    cooperation and guidance in successful out coming of this report. At last I would like to

    express my thanks to the IOCL R&D Training and Placement Department for allowing me to

    undergo my training at their organization.

    .

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    S U M M A R Y

    The project assigned was to study the kinetics of hydro-processing of vegetable oil. The

    mixture of mustard oil with diesel was made to run at different operating condition of

    temperature, pressure and composition. The kinetic model for the reaction was proposed.

    It was observed that the hydrogenation of vegetable oil proceeded through two different

    reaction that are decarboxylation and hydro deoxygenation. The two side reaction of reverse

    water gas reaction and methanation reaction were also observed.

    The rate equation for different model like power law and Langmuirhinshelwood mechanism

    were calculated. The decarboxylation and hydro-deoxygenation reaction were observed first

    order with respect to vegetable oil. Methanation reaction was found to behave first order with

    respect to carbon mono-oxide.

    The mechanism and the rate determining step in the reaction were also proposed at the end of

    the report.

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    A B B R E V I A T I O N

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    F I G U R E S

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    C O N T E N T S

    I. Company Profile

    II. Introduction

    III. Extraction Of Jatropha Oil

    IV. Experimental Method And Set-Up

    V. Experimental Investigation Of Rate of Hydrogenation Reactions

    VI. Quality of Product Obtained

    VII. Mathematic Model Of Trickle-Bed

    VIII. Conclusion

    Reference

    Appendix A

    Appendix B

    Appendix C

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    1 . C O M P A N Y P R O F I L E

    1. COMPANY OVERVIEW

    Indian Oils world class R&D centre, established in 1972, has state-of-the-art facilities & hasdelivered pioneering results in lubricants technology, refining process, pipeline

    transportation, bio-fuels & fuel-efficient appliances.

    Over the past three decades, Indian Oil R&D Centre has developed over thousands offormulations of lubricating oils and greases responding to the needs of Indian industry and

    consuming sectors like Defence, Railways, Public Utilities and Transportation. The Centre

    has also developed and introduced many new lubricant products to the Indian market like

    multigrade railroad oils.

    Focused research in the areas of lubricants and grease formulations, fuels, refining processes,

    biotechnology, additives, pipeline transportations, engine evaluation, tribological and

    emission studies, and applied metallurgy has won several awards. The R&D Centres

    activities in refining technology are targeted in the areas of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC),

    hydroprocessing, catalysis, residue upgradation, distillation simulation and modelling, lube

    processing, crude evaluation, process optimization, material failure analysis and remaining

    life assessment and technical services to operating units.

    In FCC, apart from process optimization and catalyst evaluation the accent is on the

    development of novel technologies aimed at value addition to various refinery streams.

    IndianOil's R&D Centre is fully equipped to provide technical support to commercial

    hydrocracker units in the evaluation of feed stocks and catalysts, optimization of operatingparameters, evaluation of licensors' process technologies, development of novel processes

    and simulation models.

    Material failure analysis and remaining life assessment of refinery equipment and

    installations is a highly specialized service being provided by the R&D Centre to the

    refineries of IndianOil as well as other companies.

    With a vision of evolving into a leader as technology provider through excellence in

    management of knowledge, technology and innovation, IndianOil has launched IndianOil

    Technology Ltd. The new subsidiary markets the intellectual properties developed by

    IndianOil R&D Centre.

    In todays dynamic business environment, innovation through a sustained process of

    Research & Development (R&D) is the only cutting edge tool for organisation to thrive. With

    emphasis on development & speedy commercialisation of globally competitive products,

    process & technologies, the focus has now shifted from R&D to RD&D (Research,

    Development & Deployment).

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    Figure 1.

    INDMAX, a hallmark technology developed by the Centre for maximisation of LPG and

    light distillates from refinery residue, has been selected by IndianOil for setting up a 4 million

    metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) INDMAX unit as a part of the 15 MMTPA integrated

    refinery-cum-petrochemicals complex at Paradip, as well as at Bongaigaon Refinery &

    Petrochemicals Ltd. (BRPL). The Centre has also licensed its Diesel Hydrotreating

    technology to these two refineries. These successes have catapulted IndianOil R&D into the

    elite league of multinational technology licensors.

    Standing in the company of six worldwide technology holders for Marine Oils, with the

    second global OEM (original equipment manufacturer) approval by Wartsila, Switzerland,

    IndianOil's SERVO Marine Oils are now technically qualified to cater to the lubrication

    requirements of more than 90% of the world's marine engine population. In the power-

    generation segment, the newly developed SERVO Marine K-Series was approved by Yanmar

    Co. Ltd. of Japan for use in their engines operating on distillate fuels.

    The R&D Centre continues to provide significant support to the IndianOil Group refineries in

    product quality improvement, evaluation of catalysts and additives, health assessment ofcatalysts, material failure analysis, troubleshooting and in improving overall efficiency of

    operations. In-house developed FCC models are not only being used in IndianOil refineries

    for process optimisation but a similar model has also been sold to a multinational company.

    IndianOil has formed a joint venture company, Indo Cat Pvt. Ltd., with Intercat, USA, for

    manufacturing 15,000 tonnes per annum of FCC (fluidised catalytic cracking) catalysts &

    additives in India, for catering to rising global demand.

    As a step towards ensuring energy security for the nation, IndianOil has launched several

    initiatives to exploit alternative sources of energy such as Hydrogen and Bio-fuels.

    Subsequent to commissioning India's first experimental H-CNG (Hydrogen-Compressed

    Natural Gas) dispensing unit at the R&D Centre campus at Faridabad, demonstration projects

    are underway on use of H-CNG blends in heavy and light vehicles. IndianOil is also setting

    up India's first commercial H-CNG dispensing station at one of its retail outlets in Delhi in

    the year 2008 for fuelling experimental vehicles running on H-CNG blends as well as on pure

    Hydrogen. IndianOil R&D is also working on production, storage, transportation, distribution

    & commercialization of Hydrogen as an alternative fuel.

    Bio-fuels, besides spearheading commercialisation of Ethanol-Blended Petrol in the country,

    Indian Oil has been in the forefront of technology development for Bio-diesel production

    from various edible and non-edible oils and its application in vehicles. Pioneering studies by

    Indian Oils R&D Centre established that Bio-diesel produced from Jatropha seeds were at

    par with that produced from vegetable oils. In the past few years, the R&D Centre has studied

    the entire value chain of Bio-diesel, starting from Jatropha plantation to field trials on

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