Kinds of Algae

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    10-Apr-2015

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<p>ALGAE</p> <p>Name Class</p> <p>: Irma Erviana : Bilingual : 071 404 166 Reg num</p> <p>Biology Departement Mathematic and natural Science Faculty Makassar State University 2010Chlorophyta:</p> <p>Division of the kingdom of protista consisting of the photosynthetic organism commonly known as green algae. The general characteristics are the various species can be unicellular, multi-cellular, coenocytes (having more than one nucleus in a cell), or colonial. Chlorophyta are largely aquatic or marine, a few types are terrestrial, occurring on moist soil, on the trunks of trees, on moist rocks and in snow banks. Various species are highly specialized. The Species 1. Ulva lobata</p> <p>The specific characteristics are a thin flat green alga growing from a discoid holdfast. The margin is somewhat ruffled and often torn. It may reach 18 cm or more in length, though generally much less, and up to 30 cm across. The membrane is two cells thick, soft and translucent. and grows attached, without a stipe, to rock by a small disc-shaped holdfast. Green to dark green in color this species in the Chlorophyta is formed of two layers of cells irregularly arranged, as seen in cross section. The chloroplast is cup-shaped with 1 to 3 pyrenoids. There are other species of Ulva which are similar and not always easy to differentiate. 2. Codium fragile</p> <p>The specific characteristics are the spongy textured green Codium comes in a number of forms, growing either as thalli that are divided into dark green finger-like branches, or as crusts, which can be convoluted, glassy and smooth, or form domed circular patches. Despite these different appearances,</p> <p>all species in the genus have very similar coenocytes construction (a continuous cellular matrix without cross walls in which there are many nuclei and chloroplasts). 3. Halimeda sp</p> <p>The specific characteristics are the Halimeda plant is a green calcareous macro algae found within tropical oceans worldwide, and is a beautiful decorative plant for a marine aquarium. The irregular oval segments of Halimeda appear as several small green coins glued from end-to-end, forming a chain. For this reason, Halimeda may also be called the Money Plant. Calcareous algae deposit calcium carbonate in their tissues, and require a sufficient calcium level in the aquarium in order to thrive. Halimeda are generally hardy in a marine aquarium, and few fish will feed on it. It is not an invasive plant that will cause harm to close neighboring corals or invertebrates. In addition to light, it requires a sufficient level of calcium to grow. They are not as tolerant of high nitrate or phosphate levels compared to some other algae. They also do not tolerate extensive pruning. 4. Caulerpa flexilis</p> <p>The specific characteristics are that vary in form, with blades that are either feathery, beaded, or look like young rimu leaves: these species are also coenocytes, can grow in areas of softer sediments, either growing on shell fragments and small stones, or extending from solid substrata across softer sediments with stolons or runners.</p> <p>Euglenophyta:</p> <p>Small phylum of the kingdom protista, The general characteristics consisting of mostly unicellular aquatic algae. Some euglenoids contain chloroplasts with the photosynthetic pigments; others are heterotrophic and can ingest or absorb their food. Reproduction occurs by longitudinal cell division. Most live in freshwater. The most characteristic genus is Euglena, common in ponds and pools, especially when the water has been polluted by runoff from fields or lawns on which fertilizers have been used. There are approximately 1000 species of euglenoids. The Species Euglena viridis</p> <p>The specific characteristics are Euglenid flagellate, with one or more green plastid or plastids, elongate or ovoid cells, some cylindrical, others flattened and/or cork-screwed in shape; one or no emergent flagella; swimming involves helical rotation of the cell; most species squirm but a few are almost rigid; gliding occurs in some taxa; eyespot and flagellar swelling present; canal opening subapical; about 125 species, mostly freshwater, a few marine; widely studied.</p> <p>Chrysophyta:Large group of eukaryotes algae commonly called golden algae, The general characteristics found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multi cellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.</p> <p>The Species 1. Navicula sp</p> <p>The specific characteristics are Photosynthetic, freshwater and marine; large component of phytoplankton, cell walls are two valves with silica; overlap at the girdle, abundant fossils, and reproduction mostly by fission. 2. Pinnularia viridis</p> <p>The specific characteristics are this group of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial algae includes the golden algae. Although most members of this group are autotrophy, the vast majority of them can become heterotrophy when light levels are low. Food is stored as oils, and photosynthetic pigments include chlorophyll a and c and yellow carotene pigments, some of which may be removed to other phyla in the future, such as the silicoflagellates and yellow-green algae. reproduce asexually, each received one old valve. The new valve fits inside the old one; therefore, the new diatom is smaller than the original one. Once the shells reach a certain size the diatom reproduces sexually and restores its size, allowing the asexual reproduction cycle to begin a new.</p> <p>Phaeophyta:</p> <p>Phylum of the kingdom protista. The general characteristics consisting of those organisms commonly called brown algae. Many of the world's familiar seaweeds are members of phaeophyta. Like the chrysophytes brown algae derive their color from the presence, in the cell chloroplasts, of several brownish carotene pigments, as fucoxathin. With only a few exceptions, brown algae are marine, growing in the colder oceans of the world, many in the tidal zone, where they are subjected to great stress from wave action; others grow in deep water. There are approximately 1500 species of phaeophyta. The Species 1. Turbinaria ornata</p> <p>The specific characteristics are a stiff, erect seaweed with distinctive angular turban-like blades and a central stem. Light brown to brown, from 2 to 20 cm tall, it grows on rocky intertidal coastlines, in tidep ools, and on reef flats and crests. 2. Sargassum vulgare</p> <p>The specific characteristics are Color &amp; Pigments, Chlorophyll, Carotenoids, b Carotene, Fucoxanthin, Absorbs in Green Region. They are almost entirely Marine. The species are found in Fresh Water. They are most abundant in</p> <p>Colder Waters. There are Few Large Species in Tropical Waters, which are found in tide pools &amp; wave-swept areas. 3. Padina japonica</p> <p>The specific characteristics are by a flat blade rolled into a circle and an inrolled margin. The upper surface of the blade is whitish due to the presence of calcium carbonate, while the lower surface, with less calcification, is brownish. This seaweed is very common in shallow tide pools, where it reaches a height of 10 cm, and on reef flats, where it can be 20 cm high.</p> <p>Rhodophyta:Phylum of the kingdom protista. The general characteristics consisting of the photosynthetic organisms commonly known as red algae. Members of the division have a characteristic clear red or purplish color imparted by accessory pigments called phycobilins. The red algae are multicellular and are characterized by a great deal of branching, but without differentiation into complex tissues. Most of the world's seaweeds belong to this group. Although red algae are found in all oceans, they are most common in warm-temperate and tropical climates, where they may occur at greater depths than any other photosynthetic organisms. Most of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building reefs, belong here. Red algae are a traditional part of oriental cuisine. There are 4000 known marine species of red algae; a few species occur in freshwater.</p> <p>The Species</p> <p>1. Euchema spinosum</p> <p>The specific characteristics are aquatic organisms that exist in both freshwater and marine habitats, although mostly marine. They are found in tropical, temperate, and cold-water environments. Also farmed and harvested for use in food and gels. useful for the study of metabolic pathways, cell biological processes, and genetics. 2. Gracilaria sp</p> <p>The specific characteristics are currently a beautiful darker reddish/brown color. This algae almost looks like a root system. Quick refugium filler. Best floating. It is a very "rubbery" algae which divides through fragmentation. It is heavily regarded as it is a very highly nutritious fish food which many marine fish will readily consume, grows well in both temperate and tropical waters.This algae looks like a root system and is a highly nutritious marine fish food.</p> <p>3. Gelidium sp</p> <p>The specific characteristics are chiefly marine, multicellular organisms that are, as a rule, smaller and more delicate that the brown algae. Some are filamentous, but most are branched, having a feathery, flat, or ribbon like appearance. Sexual reproduction involves oogamy, although the sperm are not flagellated. The food reserve is floridean starch, a polysaccharide that resembles glycogen.</p>