Ken Curren's Steelhead Evolution & Diversity

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Ken Currens, Hatchery Genetics Manager for the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, gives a talk on the evolution of steelhead.

Text of Ken Curren's Steelhead Evolution & Diversity

  • 1. The View
    from 60,000 Feet
    Evolution and Diversity
    of Steelhead
    Ken Currens
    Pacific Coast Steelhead Management Meeting 2010

2. Things werent always as they are now
The present is often more interesting if we know something about the past
West Africa, 1930
3. Eocene North America
55-30 Million
Years Ago
Began with rapid warming
Polar climates similar to Pacific Northwest today
Tropical forests in Pacific Northwest
Large lakes and inland seas; none of existing mountain ranges
4. British Columbia
40-50 Ma
Salmonidae already present
Included

  • Thymallinae

5. Coregoninae 6. SalmoninaeStart of long-term cooling trend
Eosalmo driftwoodensis
7. Continued cooling
allowed dispersal
southward
Late Miocene
(10-5Ma)
The Sabertooth Salmon
Oncorhynchyus (Smilodonichthys) rastrosus
8. Continued cooling
allowed dispersal
southward
Plio-Pleistocene (5-0.1 Ma)
9. Fossil O. australis
In Lake Chapala,
Mexico
10. Distribution of western trouts
in North America
about 1900
(from Behnke 1992)
11. Diversity of extant
western trouts
Westslopecutthroat
Yellowstone cutthroat
Greenback cutthroat
Bonnevillecutthroat
Coastal cutthroat
Colorado River cutthroat
Rainbow trout O. mykiss
Mexican golden trout
& undescribed trout
Rio Grande cutthroat
Whitehorse & Alvordcutthroats
Gila trout
Paiute cutthroat
California,& Kern golden trouts
Lahontan cutthroat
Humboldt cutthroat
Apache trout
12. Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south
Extant distribution does not simply reflect southward colonization
Formation of mountain ranges
Shaping old rivers
& creating new ones
Columbia basalts & Snake River flows
Faulting in Basin & Range
Volcanic lava floods
Glaciation
13. Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south
Extant distribution does not simply reflect southward colonization
No O. mykissin the Columbia River as recently as 70,000-50,000 years ago
Formation of mountain ranges
Shaping old rivers
& creating new ones
Columbia basalts & Snake River flows
Faulting in Basin & Range
Volcanic lava floods
Glaciation
14. Species & Subpeciesof North American trout
Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south
Pleistocene
2.6
Extant distribution does not simply reflect southward colonization
Pliocene
5.3
Oncorhynchus
Salmo
Miocene
23
Oligocene
Hucho
Brachymystax
Salvelinus
34
Oncorhynchus
Salmo
Eocene
15. Two Morphologically Different Forms of Steelhead Trout
Inland or fine-scale form with redband trout-likecharacteristics
Coastalform
Landlocked redband troutwith cutthroat-like characteristics (Oncorhynchussp.)
16. Extant distribution does not simply reflect colonization to the south
Coastal & Inland forms thought to reflect dispersal after isolation & differentiation in glacial refuges
17. Derived Traits
Most primitive forms of O. mykissoccur near Gulf of California
Coastal rainbow trout & steelhead
Mexican golden trout
& undescribed trout
Goose Lake, Warner,& Chewaucanredbands
Columbia River redbands
White River redband
McCloud redband
Catlow Valley redband
Fort Rock redband
Upper Klamath redband
California & Kern golden trouts
Primitive Traits
18. Earliest O. mykissevolved around the Gulf of California & dispersed north
Reached Columbia River 32-50K years ago
?
Columbia
Oregon Desert Basins
Klamath
Sacramento
San Joaquin
Gulf of California
19. Tahoe Glaciation
32K years ago
Glacial Lake Missoula
Upper Fraser
Puget Sound
10-15 K years ago
?
Columbia
Oregon Desert Basins
Klamath
Sacramento
San Joaquin
Gulf of California
20. 5
B
Columbia River
L
G
B
B
B
F
E
G
F
B
E
B
B
F
G
B
J
E
E
B
F
G
L
B
B
J
F
B
F
G
J
D
B
B
E
A
F
A
D
D
B
O
B
B
A
D
A
A
B
B
A
B
L
A
A
A
J
A
A
A
B
A
A
A
A
B
O
A
H
0
A
A
A
J
A
A
A
A
B
A
B
C
B
F
C
C
E
C
G
O
O
C
C
C
C
C
C
Intermediates?
Harney (H), Catlow (I)
Fort Rock (K)
C
C
B
C
L
I
O
B
B
H
H
G
H
H
I
Sacramento:
Goose Lake (L),
Warner Lakes (O)
Chewaucan (J)
N
K
Q
N
M
N
N
N
-5
Q
Canonical Variate II
K
G
M
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
M
Klamath:
Upper Klamath headwater (M),
Upper Klamath Lake (N)
Coastal Klamath mountains (Q)
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
-10
M
M
-15
5
-30
-20
-25
-15
-10
-5
0
Canonical Variate I
21. Are Extant DistributionsAlways About Geology?
Life-history (e.g, ability to migrate, environmental tolerance) makes a difference
What about biotic interactions?
22. Williamson River
Klamath River Basin
Sycan River
Trout Creek
Upper Klamath Lake
Sprague River
Klamath redband
(O. mykissnewberrii)
Iron Gate Dam
Jenny Creek Falls
Coast steelhead
(O. mykissirideus)
Lower Klamath River
23. Klamath Basin
Oncorhynchusmykiss
Williamson River
Sycan River
sAH*112 allele
sAH* alternate alleles
Trout Creek
Upper Klamath Lake
Sprague River
Iron Gate Dam
Jenny Creek Falls
Ancestral Klamath redband
( unnamed subspecies)

  • Isolated above barriers formed before dispersal

of coastal steehead from glacial refugia

  • More primitive morphology

Lower Klamath River
24. Why Dont the Ancestral Redband Still Occur Throughout Upper Klamath Lake Basin?
Williamson River
Sycan River
Trout Creek
Upper Klamath Lake
Sprague River
Iron Gate Dam
Jenny Creek Falls
Lower Klamath River
25. 100% Susceptible
Co-evolution with Diseases & Parasites
Williamson River
Sycan River
Ceratomyxashasta
Trout Creek
Upper Klamath Lake
Sprague River
100% Susceptible
Intermediate resistance
Iron Gate Dam
Jenny Creek Falls
100% Resistant
Lower Klamath River
100% Resistant
26. Reconnection of Upper Klamath Basin to the Pacific allowed invasion C. shastaand C. shasta resistant O. mykissdisplacing earlier form
Williamson River
Sycan River
Trout Creek
Upper Klamath Lake
Sprague River
Iron Gate Dam
Jenny Creek Falls
Lower Klamath River
27. Steelhead life-history contributed to greater O. mykissdiversity
than often recognized
Glacial Lake Missoula
Upper Fraser
Puget Sound
?
Columbia
Oregon Desert Basins
Klamath
Sacramento
San Joaquin
28. Basins now isolated from large river systems played key roles in the evolution of steelhead
Glacial Lake Missoula
Upper Fraser
Puget Sound
?
Columbia
Oregon Desert Basins
Klamath
Sacramento
San Joaquin
29. Large river systems were more important than glaciation in diversity of O. mykiss
Glacial Lake Missoula
Upper Fraser
Puget Sound
?
Glacial refuges &
dispersal
37%
Columbia
67%
Persistence in large
river systems
Ability to Explain Differences
Oregon Desert Basins
Klamath
Sacramento
San Joaquin
30. Co-evolution with diseases & parasites may help explain someunexpected distributions of trout
Glacial Lake Missoula
Upper Fraser
Puget Sound
?
Columbia
Oregon Desert Basins
Klamath
Sacramento
San Joaquin
31. Things werent always as they are now
The present is often more interesting if we know something about the past
Fishing for Ancestral Steelhead in the Oregon Desert Basins, 1985