Fat tax Airline—Samoa Air , Air France Concept--- The fare is calculated by multiplying a base fare (depending on the route flown) by the total weight of the passenger plus their luggage. So a passenger flying from Apia to Asau weighing 80 kg and carrying 20 kg of luggage would pay US$ 132 for the flight (100 kg x US$ 1.32 base fare[8]), while another passenger weighing 60 kg and traveling without luggage would pay US$ 79.20 (60 kg x US$ 1.32 base fare) for the same flight. Pros a reduction of 1 kilo weight of a plane will result in fuel savings worth US$3,000 a year and a reduction of CO2 emissions by the same token (Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management) promote healthier lifestyle Cons If a weight tax were rolled out throughout the aviation industry, it wouldn't just affect overweight people. It would affect tall people, muscled people, pregnant women, and men generally, as they tend to weigh more than women. The first is that they are worried about a backlash, quite understandably, although the polls suggest more people think it would be a good idea (but you’d have to believe the sample bias in the poll is small to believe this – a question for another day). The second is that price discrimination may be fairer from the perspective of user-pays principles but it may not generate more revenue for the airline because it is difficult to know how the high-weight travellers will respond to price increases compared to how the low-weight travellers will respond to price decreases. It is conceivable that revenue may not change or indeed fall. That is clearly a major risk. The third is that there is a capital cost to generating the infrastructure needed to weigh people and their baggage. That cost would have to be weighed against the present discounted

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Fat taxAirlineSamoa Air , Air FranceConcept--- The fare is calculated by multiplying a base fare (depending on the route flown) by the total weight of the passenger plus their luggage. So a passenger flying from Apia to Asau weighing 80 kg and carrying 20 kg of luggage would pay US$ 132 for the flight (100 kg x US$ 1.32 base fare[8]), while another passenger weighing 60 kg and traveling without luggage would pay US$ 79.20 (60 kg x US$ 1.32 base fare) for the same flight.Pros a reduction of 1kilo weight of a plane will result in fuel savings worth US$3,000 a year and a reduction of CO2 emissions by the same token (Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management) promote healthier lifestyle Cons If a weight tax were rolled out throughout the aviation industry, it wouldn't just affect overweight people. It would affect tall people, muscled people, pregnant women, and men generally, as they tend to weigh more than women. The first is that they are worried about a backlash, quite understandably, although the polls suggest more people think it would be a good idea (but youd have to believe the sample bias in the poll is small to believe this a question for another day). The second is that price discrimination may be fairer from the perspective of user-pays principles but it may not generate more revenue for the airline because it is difficult to know how the high-weight travellers will respond to price increases compared to how the low-weight travellers will respond to price decreases. It is conceivable that revenue may not change or indeed fall. That is clearly a major risk. The third is that there is a capital cost to generating the infrastructure needed to weigh people and their baggage. That cost would have to be weighed against the present discounted value of the revenue benefits of price discrimination but as indicated above the revenue benefits may be zilch. The fourth is that they may be worried about legal consequences. The fifth is that theyve got bigger problems on their plate such as a global economy that could be headed for GFC mark II at any stage, the elevated price of jet fuel and its volatility, and the partial breakdown of the connectivity between the oil price and the Australian dollar.Examples: Air Canada, which removed life vests from its planes to make each flight 25 kilos lighter, and other initiatives by low-cost carriers such as charging for excess luggage and making oversized passengers book two seats.Tourism vs foreign workerThe government recorded 3.1 million foreign workers in the country, of which two-thirds are illegalThe 2010/2011 Economic Report states that of the 1.8 million registered migrant workers in Malaysia, 38.2 per cent were employed in the manufacturing sector, 16 per cent in the construction and 14.2 per cent in the plantation sectors.Indonesians accounted for the highest number of registered foreign workers in Malaysia at 50.9 per cent, which was attributable to their country's proximity to Malaysia and cultural and language similarities.Bangladeshis were second highest, accounting for 17 per cent, followed by Nepalese at 9.7 per cent, Myanmars at 7.8 per cent, Indians at 6.3 per cent and Vietnamese at 4.2 per cent.However, the high dependency on foreign labour is not unique to Malaysia alone as the problem is also faced by countries with high growth rates such as Singapore, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.The government's effort in reducing the country's dependence on low-skilled foreign workers has been ongoing, as evidenced in the gradual reduction in the number of registered foreign workers over the last two years.The target is to reduce the number of foreign workers to 1.5 million by 2015.Many economists feel that what Malaysia needs is skilled or highly skilled workers, not cheap, unskilled foreign workers.Pros:They are usually cheap. Workers from Bangladesh, India or the Philippines are happy to work for salaries which are high in comparison to their home countries but low in the host country. Foreign workers are also ready to work in remote places or at times when local workers would not. A second point is that foreign workers are usually job-ready. They do not need expensive college education or training. They may have skills not available in the new country. A third point is that many migrant workers are ready to work in jobs that are too dirty or dangerous for nationals such as construction or cleaning. All these advantages mean that the economy is boosted by cheap labor and low production costs.Cons:One major drawback is that the workers are sending a lot of money home, instead of spending it. This results in a loss of foreign exchange for the country. Another point is that they may take jobs from locals. More importantly, they reduce the salaries for some jobs. For example, employers will pay very low salaries for some jobs which some locals might like to do but could not survive on. Security is another issue. Foreign workers can leave at any time if there is a political or other problem, and this can mean a sudden loss of skills and experience. An additional point is that the influx of foreign workers can put pressure on services such as hospitals or housing, and these costs have to be paid by the state, not the employers who are getting rich. All these factors can result in economic problems for the government.Lahad Datu: Chronology of eventsFeb 9 - The group enters Malaysian waters in a boat and begins to gather in stages at Felda Sahabat 17, Kampung Tanduo in Lahad Datu. Feb 11 - A gang from the group is discovered by a group of local fishermen at night. The fishermen lodge a police report that 100 armed men in army fatigues are putting up in Kampung Tandou.Feb 12 - The group breaks into smaller groups to enter several locations in the village, namely Sungai Bakau village, village surau and the house of one Ahmad Malandi, also known as Mad Bon.Feb 14 - Prime Minister Najib Razak says the Malaysian government will try its best, including negotiations, to handle the issue of intrusion before ousting them from the area. Inspector-general of police Ismail Omar says the police identify the group of Filipinos who landed on the shore of Lahad Datu as being linked to the 'Sulu Sultanate' from southern Philippines.He says the group claims to be the 'Royal Army of the Sulu Sultanate' and they do not want their people of Sulu descent to be sent back to their country of origin.Ismail says, negotiations with the armed group is still in progress to find the best solution, without bloodshed.A report quotes a Philippine army personnel, who is a loyal follower of Sulu raja muda, Azzimudie Kiram, as saying the group has come at the invitation of a "Malaysian opposition" to discuss land issues in Sabah.Feb 16 - Home Minister Hishammuddin Hussein (centre in photo) confirms the group is not a militant or terrorist group but is in fact, strong supporter of the Sulu Sultanate and stresses the situation in Kampung Tanduo is under control.The group, which wants to be known as the 'Royal Army of Sulu Sultanate', among others, is also claiming ownership of Sabah and wants the state to be returned as a territory of the Sulu Sultanate, claiming it was seized by the British from the Sulu Government.Feb 18 - Hishammuddin says the governments of Malaysia and Philippines are working closely to resolve the conflict, through diplomacy and without bloodshed.Feb 24 - The Philippine government sends a boat under humanitarian mission to ferry the 180 armed personnel, including 30 armed guards, holding up in Lahad Datu, Sabah since Feb 12. Feb 26 - The deadline to expel the group passes but negotiations are still in progress.Feb 28 - The Malaysian government is urged to negotiate directly with sultan Jamalul Kiram III in Manila to end the conflict of seizing the area in Lahad Datu, Sabah which has prolonged for more than three weeks. The call is made by Jamalul's youngest brother, Agbimuddin Kiram, who stresses that only his brother can order the 180 Royal Army personnel to leave Felda Sahabat 17, Lahad Datu.March 1 - a shootout breaks out between security forces and a small group of intruders when they try to break a police blockade in Kampung Tanduo, resulting in two police commandos dead and three others injured.All 12 members of the small group of intruders are killedMh17July 17 (Day 1) - Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 departs Amsterdam at 12.15pm (7.15pm in Malaysia) and is scheduled to arrive at the KL International Airport at 6.10am am (Malaysian time) the next day.July 18 (Day 2) - MAS confirms having been notified by the Ukrainian Air Traffic Control that it lost contact with Flight MH17 at 1415 GMT (10.15pm on July 17 in Malaysia) at 30km from Tamak waypoint, about 50km from the Russia-Ukraine border. Ukraine authorities believe the plane was shot down by rebels in the war-torn zone. Malaysia dispatches its investigators to Ukraine. MAS says the route was declared safe by international aviation bodies and its aircraft has a clean maintenance record. On board the plane are nationals from the Netherlands (193 including one with dual Netherlands/United States citizenship), Malaysia (43 including 15 crew), Australia (27), Indonesia (12), United Kingdom (10 including one with dual United Kingdom/South Africa citizenship), Belgium (four), Germany (four), Philippines (three), Canada (one) and New Zealand (one).July 19 (Day 3) - United Nations Security Council convenes emergency meeting on Ukraine crisis and Malaysia demands a full, independent and transparent international investigation. Transport Minister Datuk Seri Liow Tiong Lai flies to Kiev to facilitate investigation team's safe passage to crash site. MAS releases full passenger manifest.July 20 (Day 4) - Foreign Minister Datuk Seri Anifah Aman departs for Ukraine to assist over the incident. Malaysia investigators arrive at the crash site in Torez.July 21 (Day 5) Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak achieves breakthrough with Alexander Borodai who is in command of the region where the tragedy occurred. Agreement is reached on the release of the victims' remains, on Malaysia to be given custody of the black box and on independent international investigators to be given access to the crash site.July 22 (Day 6) - MH17 black boxes handed over to Malaysian authorities in Donetsk, Ukraine. Train carrying 282 remains of victims leaves Donetsk for Kharkiv.July 23 (Day 7) - Special sitting of Malaysian parliament approves motion condemning the downing of Flight MH17. International investigation team decides to pass MH17 black boxes to UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch in Farnborough for forensic analysis.July 24 (Day 8) - Malaysian Cabinet cancels Aidilfitri open house out of respect for those killed in MH17 tragedy. Commonwealth Games opens in Glasgow, Scotland, with mark of respect for MH17 victims.July 25 (Day 9) - Attorney-General Tan Sri Abdul Gani Patail decides to depart for Amsterdam the next day to assist in the investigation into the MH17 tragedy.July 28 (Day 12) - Last batch of 38 coffins with remains of MH17 tragedy victims arrives in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, bringing to 227 the number of coffins delivered thus far.July 29 (Day 13) - Malaysia secures agreement for international police deployment at crash site.July 30 (Day 14) - UN High Commissioner for Human Rights says downing of MH17 may amount to war crime. Home Minister Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi and Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Khalid Abu Bakar depart for Kiev.July 31 (Day 15) - Seventy remains have undergone the DVI (disaster victim identification) process.Aug 1 (Day 16) - Najib arrives in Amsterdam. Malaysia, Netherlands call for cessation of hostilities at crash site.Aug 3 (Day 18) - Sixty-eight Malaysian policemen leave for Donetsk to assist in the investigation.Aug 4 (Day 19) - It is announced that immediate family members of victims will receive US$50,000 compensation.Aug 6 (Day 21) - Search for remains of MH17 crash victims continues in the vicinity of a lake at crash site. Investigation 50 per cent complete.Aug 12 (Day 27) - Remains of 16 Malaysian victims are identified.Aug 14 (Day 29) - Remains of 24 Malaysian victims are identified. Malaysian Government declares Aug 22 as Day of National Mourning.Aug 16 (Day 31) - Full religious rituals are held for non-Muslim victims.Aug 17 (Day 32) - Remains of 26 Malaysian victims are identified.Aug 19 (Day 34) - Remains of 28 Malaysian victims are identified.Aug 21 (Day 36) - Remains of 30 Malaysian victims are identified. BernamaMh370Three weeks have now passed since Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 vanished and still not a single definitive trace has been found.After taking off from Kuala Lumpur on Friday March 8, it vanished around an hour into its flight with 239 people onboard.It made no distress call, and despite a huge search operation involving dozens of countries, reported satellite signals and false leads, investigators have still not found the wreckage.Here we look back at how the last 21 days have unfolded.Saturday, March 8Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Flight departs at 12:41am (1441 GMT Friday), and is due to land in Beijing at 6:30am (2230 GMT) the same day. On board the Boeing 777-200ER are 227 passengers and 12 crew.Airline loses contact with plane between 1-2 hours after takeoff . No distress signal and weather is clear at the time.Missing plane last has contact with air traffic controllers 120 nautical miles off the east coast of the Malaysian town of Kota Bharu.Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam says plane failed to check in as scheduled at 17:21 GMT while flying over sea between Malaysia and Ho Chi Minh City.Flight tracking website flightaware.com shows plane flew northeast over Malaysia after take off and climbed to altitude of 35,000 feet. The flight vanished from website's tracking records a minute later while still climbing.Malaysia search ships see no sign of wreckage in area where flights last made contact. Vietnam says giant oil slick and column of smoke seen in its waters.Two men from Austria and Italy, listed among the passengers on a missing Malaysia Airlines flight, are not in fact on board. They say their passports were stolen.Sunday, March 9Malaysia Airlines says fears worst and is working with U.S. company that specialises in disaster recovery.Radar indicates flight may have turned back from its scheduled route to Beijing before disappearing.Interpol says at least two passports recorded as lost or stolen in its database were used by passengers, and it is "examining additional suspect passports".Investigators narrow focus of inquiries on possibility plane disintegrated in mid-flight, a source who is involved in the investigations in Malaysia tells Reuters.Monday, March 10The United States review of American spy satellite imagery shows no signs of mid-air explosion.As dozens of ships and aircraft from seven countries scour the seas around Malaysia and south of Vietnam, questions mounted over whether a bomb or hijacking could have brought down the Boeing airliner .Hijacking could not be ruled out, said the head of Malaysia's Civil Aviation Authority, Azharuddin Abdul Rahmanthe, adding the missing jet was an "unprecedented aviation mystery".Tuesday, March 11Interpol Secretary General Ronald Noble names the two men who boarded jet with stolen passports as Iranians, aged 18 and 29, who had entered Malaysia using their real passports. "The more information we get, the more we are inclined to conclude it is not a terrorist incident," Noble said.Malaysian police chief said the younger man appeared to be an illegal immigrant. His mother was waiting for him in Frankfurt and had been in contact with authorities, he said.Malaysian police say they are investigating whether any passengers or crew on the plane had personal or psychological problems that might shed light on the mystery, along with the possibility of a hijacking, sabotage or mechanical failure .Malaysia's military believes missing jet turned and flew hundreds of kilometres to the west after it last made contact with civilian air traffic control off the country's east coast, a senior officer told Reuters. The jet made it into the Strait of Malacca, one of the world's busiest shipping channels, along Malaysia's west coast, said the officer.A Colorado-based company has put "crowdsourcing" to work in search for a missing jet, enlisting Internet users to comb through satellite images of more than 1,200 square miles (3,200 square km) of open seas for any signs of wreckage.Wednesday, March 12The search for the missing Malaysia Airlines jet expands to an area stretching from China to India , as authorities struggle to answer what had happened to the aircraft that vanished almost five days ago with 239 people on board.Its revealed that the finals words spoken by one of the pilots from the cockpit of the plane to ground control were "all right, good night" . The comment came as the plane flew from Malaysian into Vietnamese air space.Thursday March 13A Chinese satellite picture appears to show the outline of wreckage floating in the South China Sea, but Vietnamese search teams failed to find any sign of the objects.Aviation experts say they believe the missing airliner could have flown for an extra four hours, after it lost contact with traffic controllers. The new theory was based on data downloaded automatically from the jet's engines.It was also revealed that satellites picked up faint electronic pulses from MH370 after it went missing.China said that they would not stop searching for the missing aircraft so long as there is a "glimmer of hope".Investigators began looking into suggestions that the plane may have been deliberately flown towards the Andaman IslandsFriday March 14A satellite company revealed it had received signals for MH370 five hours after it disappeared, suggesting the plane was still flying and had not crashed, and the search was dramatically shifted to large parts of the Indian Ocean.Saturday March 15The investigation into the disappearance shifted towards foul play, amid suggestions the plane was deliberately flown hundreds of miles off course.Malaysian authorities then gave a press conference where they confirmed that they believed "deliberate action" had caused the plane to veer off course, and that someone deliberately shut down its communication and tracking systems.New satellite information suggests the plane was flown west into the Straits of Malacca, but could then have gone down either one of two huge north or south corridors, spanning large tracts of land and deep oceans.Police searched the homes of pilot Zaharie Ahmad Shah, and co-pilot Fariq Abdul Hamid.Sunday March 16Pilot Captain Zaharie Ahmad Shah is picture wearing a T-shirt with a Democracy is Dead slogan, sparking fears he could have hijacked the plane as an anti-government protest.The number of countries involved in the search increased from 14 to 25, as Malaysian authorities revealed all passengers, crew and ground staff associated with the flight were under investigation.Investigators revealed a flight simulator had been found at Captain Zaharie Ahmad Shah's home, and taken away for further analysis.At a press conference, it was suggested that Flight MH370 could have been on the ground when it sent its final satellite signal, and that its transmission system was switched off after its final communication with ground control.Monday March 17Flight engineer Mohd Kairul Amri Selamat, who was also one of the passengers on board the plane, comes under investigation. Police say they are looking at anyone on the plane who may have had aviation skills and knowledge.A theory emerges that the missing plane could be in a Taliban controlled base, where it could be being kept ready for use at a later date.It is also suggested MH370 may have secretly flown at just 5,000ft to avoid radar detection.Tuesday March 18After days of frustration at the lack of confirmed information, relatives of some of the Chinese passengers on board the plane threaten to go on hunger strike.Wednesday March 19The FBI joined the search for the Malaysia Airlines jet, with the agency dedicating resources to analysing computer hard-drives seized from the homes of the plane's pilots.Distraught relatives are bundled out of a press conference after storming in with a banner demanding more information.Thursday March 20Search teams spot huge chunks of possible wreckage in a remote part of the southern Indian Ocean, 1,500 miles off the western coast of Australia. One is 78ft long, the other 25ft. The find prompts the launch of another focused air and sea search mission from Perth.Britain sends HMS Echo to join the search in the Indian Ocean.Friday March 21The search off the Australian coast continues for a second day, but flights to the site where possible debris was spotted fail to find anything.The Australian Maritime Safety Authority say they continue to focus on locating any survivors.Saturday March 22There was a dramatic moment at the Malaysian authorities' daily press conference when the country's transport minister was handed a note saying a Chinese satellite had spotted a "floating object" in the southern search corridor which could be debris.The object measured 22.5m by 13m and was 120k south west of where an Australian satellite had previously spotted two other objects.There were also angry scenes as at press conference in Beijing, where officials were briefing relatives of Chinese passengers who, frustrated at the lack of concrete information, demanded to know "the truth".Search missions in the southern Indian ocean failed to find anything for a third day.Sunday March 23A French satellite became the third to spot objects in the southern search corridor, 1,430 miles from Perth.But again search crews setting off from Perth - including four military and four civilian planes - failed to find any sign of it.Monday March 24In an emotional press conference, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak told the world that experts had established "beyond any doubt" that the 239 passenger and crew on board flight MH370 had perished in the Indian Ocean.The train was tracked down to an area 1,200 miles from Perth by "unprecedented" analysis of satellite data by British company Inmarsat.The announcement prompted emotional scenes from the passengers' grieving families, who launched a scathing attack on Malaysian authorities.Tuesday March 25Relatives of those on board MH370 hit out at authorities for the way the tragedy has been handled.It also emerged Malaysia Airlines was offering relatives of the victims $5,000 per passenger in compensation. The company said additional cash would be handed out at a later date.Wednesday March 26Images taken by a French satellite are released, showing 122 objects floating in a possible "debris field" 2,557km west of Perth.Transport minister Hishammuddin Hussein describes the discovery as "the most credible lead that we have".But despite this, the search and rescue effort deployed to the remote area of the Indian Ocean fails to find any wreckage for another day.Thursday March 27The search operation was temporarily suspended due to bad weather as the Australian Maritime Safety Authority revealed the news on TwitterAs 300 floating objects were spotted by a satellite, a veteran Boeing 777 pilot claimed the plane needed "human input" to change course so dramaticallyBut the pilot's son dismissed any suggestions his dad was involved in the appearanceFriday March 28The search moved on some 685 miles to northeast after a "new credible lead" in the Indian OceanF1 teams organised a minute's silence ahead of Malaysian Grand Prix for victims, which is being supported by Williams ace Felipe MassaBritish Airways were left red-faced after featuring an advert saying "escape to the Indian Ocean"Saturday March 29Grieving families of MH370 launched a scathing attack against 'despicable' Malaysian authoritiesFamilies were moved out of the hotel where they were staying in Malaysia so that room could be made for Ferrari's F1 teamThe search resumed after more debris was spotted as planes spot 'multiple coloured objects' in Indian OceanSunday March 30The daughter of MH370 pilot Zaharie Ahmad Shah says her father had been acting strangely in recent months. Aishah, 28, said he was "not the father I knew", and that he "seemed disturbed and lost - in a world of his own".Monday March 31Malaysian authorities released a transcript of the final conversation between MH370's cockpit and ground control. It revealed the final words spoken by the co-pilot were not "all right, good night" as previously reported, but "good night Malaysian three seven zero".However, investigators said the rest of the transcript contained nothing that would have caused alarm.

Tuesday April 1Malaysia's government announced it is in discussions with America about the use of deep sea search and rescue equipment, as search and rescue operations still fail to find any sign of wreckage.British submarine HMS Tireless arrived in the search zone to help with the underwater hunt.Wednesday April 2Malaysian police ruled out the involvement of any passengers in the disappearance of MH370, saying all 227 have been cleared of hijacking, sabotage, or having personal or psychological problems.Australian officials warned bad weather and a lack of reliable information were still hampering efforts to find any wreckage.10 planes and nine ships continued their search in the Indian Ocean.Thursday April 3Reports say the FBI found "nothing suspicious whatsoever" during their investigation of a flight simulator found at the home of pilot Zaharie Shah.Malaysian PM Najib Razak arrived in Perth for talks with the Australian teams co-ordinating the search in the Indian Ocean.At a joint press conference with Australian leader Tony Abbott, Mr Razak said: "I know that until we find the plane, many families cannot start to grieve. I cannot imagine what they must be going through, But I can promise them that we will not give up."Angus Houston, the head of a joint agency co-ordinating the search, says there is no time frame for ending the search, but acknowledges a new approach will eventually be needed if nothing turns up.

Ministry of tourism and cultureThe Ministry of Tourism & Culture (Malay: Kementerian Pelancongan) is a government ministry that is responsible determining the policies and direction to achieve the goals of Tourism for Malaysia, in line with Malaysia's commitment towards the United Nations. Its current minister is Dato' Sri Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz.[1] (law degree)Ng yen yen (former, medical degree)

The major heritage elements; historic building, historical sites and unique local cultures are commonly found in many historic cities throughout Malaysia. An inventory has revealed that 30,000 heritage buildings are located in 162 cities throughout Malaysia (Idid, 1996). From this figure, 69.6% are shop houses and dwellings built before World War II (Table 2). The unique colonial architectural styles of buildings have played major role in the creation of historic cities such as George Town, Ipoh, Malacca, Taiping, Kuala Lumpur and Kuching.Table 2 Distributions of Pre-War Buildings in Selected States in MalaysiaStates inMalaysiaNumber of Pre-War BuildingsPercentage (%)

PenangPerakJohorMalaccaKuala Lumpur5057335123232177176324.316.

The legal foundations of the Malaysian cultural policy are derived from the following acts and regulations: i). Antiquities Act 1976 (Act 168) ii). National Art Gallery Act, 1958 iii). Legal Deposit of Library Material Act, 1986 (Act A667) iv). National Library Act, 1972; The National Library (Amendment) Act, 1987 v). National Archive Act, 1966 (Act 44), (Revised 1971), (Act A85), (Revised 1993), (Act 511) vi). Tourist Development Corporation of Malaysia Act 1972 (Act 1972) vii). Broadcasting Act 1988 (Act 338), Broadcasting (Amendment) Act, 1997 (Act A977)viii). Cinematography Film - Hire Duty Act 1965 (Revised 1990), (Act 434) ix). (Perbadanan Kemajuan Filem Nasional Malaysia Act 1981 (Act 244), Perbadanan Kemajuan Filem Nasional Malaysia (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Act 589) x). Perbadanan Kemajuan Kraftangan Malaysia Act 1979 (Act 222) xi). Theatres & Places of Public Amusement (Federal Territory) Act 1988 (Act 182) xii). Bernama Act, 1967 (Revised 1990), (Act 449)xiii). Entertainment Duty Act 1953 (Revised 1973) (Act 103) Efforts to preserve the heritage buildings in Malaysia are supported by various acts and legislations. The prominent acts have been the Town and Country Planning Act of 1976 or the 172 Act, The National Land Code (Kanun Tanah Negara), the Street, Drainage and Building Act 133, the Antiquities Act 1976 , as well as local legislations such as the Malacca Enactment No. 6 (1988). Act 133 for instance stipulates that No person shall erect any building without a prior written permission of the local authority (Section 70[1]). This provision is supported by Section 18(1) of Act 172 which states All land/building use shall comply with the local plans (structure and local plans). Any development shall obtain planning permission (Section 21). And if there is no development plan prepared for the area, the owner/developer of the land shall inform their plan to the adjoining landowners (Act 172, Section 21 (6)). To date, a guidelines on the Guidelines on the Conservation of George Town Inner City details out specific recommendations pertaining extensions, renovations, revitalizations of heritage buildings within the prescribed zones. At present, any erection of buildings is loosely bonded by both Acts (133 and 172). Section 16 of 133 defines erections of building includes renews or repairs of any existing buildings in such a manner as to involve a renewal, reconstruction or erection of any portion of an outer or party wall to the extent of one storey height. Further, all building that fall within the definition of development, stipulated in Act 172 also requires planning permission. The Guidelines is in concordant with Part Vll of Act 133 that gives the State Authority to make by-laws or in respect of every purpose which is deemed by him necessary. In regards to the preservation of building, the State Authority, among other things, has the right to make by laws in:- i). the construction, paving, width and level of arcades and footways; ii). the construction, alteration and demolition of buildings and the methods and materials to be used in connection therewith; iii). the minimum timber or other building material content in any building.Policy of the Ministry

VISIONDeveloping Malaysia as a world-class tourist destinationMISSIONTo work with all industry players to position the tourism industry as a catalyst for sustainable economic growthNATIONAL TOURISM POLICYTo transform the national tourism industry into a major, sustainable, viable and quality sector that contributes to national developmentOBJECTIVESTo boost the contribution of the tourism sector to the national economyTo empower the rural community through rural tourism activitiesTo catalyse the development of 1Malaysia through tourism activitiesFUNCTIONSTo formulate a national tourism policy in order to achieve the vision, mission and objectives of the ministryTo implement policies relating to the growth and development of the tourism industryTo co-ordinate, monitor and assess the effectiveness of tourism programmes and projectsQUALITY POLICYThe Ministry of Tourism is committed to the delivery of quality tourism industry services to its customers in accordance with MS ISO 9001:2000.The Ministry of Tourism constantly makes continuous improvement to its Quality Management System in order to enhance the effectiveness of the systems implemented.Achievements and RecognitionsThe United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) has ranked Malaysia as the world's 11th most visited tourism destination in 2013.Malaysia has also been voted as one of the top ten must-visit global destinations in 2014 by the popular travel publication, Lonely PlanetCNN Travel 2012 & 2013 voted Kuala Lumpur as the world's fourth best shopping destination. CNN's listing of three of our pristine islands and beaches - Perhentian Kecil Island, Terengganu; Juara Beach, Pulau Tioman; and Tanjung Rhu, Langkawi - as among the Top 50 Beaches of the World's 100 Best BeachesMalaysia has been voted as the 10th Most Friendliest Country in the world by Forbes Online. Malaysia was also ranked as The Most Popular Tourist Destination in Asia by the Top 10 magazine. Five sites have been officially listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, namely :Melaka CityGeorgetown, Penangthe Mount Mulu National Park, Sarawakthe Kinabalu Park, Sabahthe Lenggong Valley, Perak

Importance heritage siteNatureWorld Heritage sites often feature rare and beautiful natural phenomena, endangered habitat, rich biological diversity or striking land features. China's Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, Honduras' Ro Pltano Biosphere Reserve and Canada's Dinosaur Provincial Park represent such phenomena, respectively.Biological and Archaeological RecordsMany world heritage sites can teach us about how species (including humans) developed throughout time. The Galapagos Islands can show us much about evolution, of course, and the rock art in Valcamonica, Italy, can teach us about how human societies progressed.Human AccomplishmentsWorld Heritage sites also showcase the accomplishments of humans around the world, such as the Great Pyramids of Egypt. These masterpieces show the human potential and can be appreciated by all.Religious ValueSome World Heritage sites are still used in religious practices, so they must be respected and protected. Many places of worship, such as the Cathedral of St. James in ibenik, Croatia, are protected as World Heritage sites.Enhancing our quality of life: in contributing to the familiar, aesthetic quality of our surroundings, where we live and work, the historic environment enhances our sense of well-being. As it is all around us and easily accessible, it provides a setting for a great variety of local activities.Knowing ourselves: the historic environment is fundamental to our sense of place, helps link us to our roots and underpins our sense of cultural identity. It is of value for what it tells us about past society, modern culture and human interaction with the environment, and it helps give us a long-term view of social and environmental change.Place-making: the historic environment contributes significantly to peoples sense of place and their enjoyment of different spaces. The character of our local landscape and townscape is largely the product of historic development, and this is reflected in the diversity and distinctiveness of field patterns and settlement lay-outs, as well as in building styles, materials and cultural traditions. This historic character is not only attractive in its own right, but it can act as a catalyst for creative new designs.Sustainability: the historic environment represents considerable past investment of physical, natural and intellectual resources. Where archaeological and historic features already exist, it makes good sense to make the most of the resource they provide, rather than destroy them or allow them to decay with consequent cultural, environmental, social and economic costs. Environmental regeneration: the historic environment can make a beneficial contribution to the regeneration of both urban and rural areas. Through the adaptation of historic buildings for modern uses, and in providing a high quality setting for new development, the historic environment provides a unique environment where people choose to live and work. Their inherent quality provides an opportunity for reviving run-down areas. Employment and economic success: the historic environment can make a significant contribution to economic prosperity. The historic environment generates value by creating a high quality setting for modern life, attracting inward investment and helping to create economic prosperity. The economic benefits of tourism are also closely linked to the historic environment - 83% of visitors to Scotland come primarily to visit historic sites and make an important contribution to the Scottish economy. Attracting visitors to an area provides economic benefits through direct employment linked to the historic sites, as well as to tourism-related businesses, while heritage projects also generate employment and play an important role in maintaining traditional skills for wider application. An educational resource: the historic environment provides a focus and resource for lifelong learning about the human past and how people have inhabited the landscape and used natural resources through time. This aids teaching about our modern culture and our present environment.Recreation and access: archaeological and historic sites are popular places for recreation, attracting local people and visitors alike. Our broader environment: investigation of the historic environment contributes significantly to our understanding of environmental change and the impact of human activity on natural resources through time. Such knowledge of the past is vital for informing management decisions today. Historic features frequently provide locally important habitats for flora and fauna, the nature of which is often closely related to human activity in the past.Preservation of historical buildings and sites involve maintaining the integrity of the place through protection and restoration using both old and new materials. The preservation of historical buildings may involve several stages which may or may not include rehabilitation, restoration and reinforcement.The world could be moving faster than ever but there are benefits to preserving historical sites and keeping things as they were many years ago. There are many ways communities can revitalize and modernize neighbourhoods while maintaining historical buildings.One of the many reasons historical building must be preserved is the character they bring to a neighbourhood or a place. Buildings and spaces with history have character. They bring a certain charm to a neighbourhood that new buildings dont. Many old buildings created in the 19th century are beautiful.Historical establishments serve as reminders of the past. This is one of the reasons preserving historical buildings is important. Understanding the past, having reminders of the past even just in architecture will allow people to understand where they are and where they are headed. When people understand what the community has gone through and have visual reminders of their past then they can feel more connected to a place. The historical buildings can allow people to understand what happened in the past and how things could possibly play out in the future. Preserving our past gives us more understanding and hope for the future.Preserving buildings means you are saving on construction costs by making use of structures that are already there instead of tearing down old buildings just to create new ones. Many old buildings remain structurally sound even if they were built a long time ago. When you save buildings, you are also in turn saving the environment. This is because construction of buildings requires the use of materials such as lumber which will have an impact on the environment. Even the use of cement and other materials and the whole process of constructing new buildings have impacts on the environment. The building is already there to begin with, it makes better sense for the environment if we made things we built last longer. Existing buildings can still be used for modern uses and processes. Historical preservation also comes in handy for making old buildings usable and earth-friendly. Some repairs may be needed to make buildings more energy-efficient but generally, doing repairs on buildings still uses less energy than knocking down old buildings down and building new ones from scratch.