KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY - CORE vision correction as contact lenses. Modern interventional radiology

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    KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

    FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES

    DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

    Investigation of photon induced degradation of contact lenses

    Final project of master degrees

    Supervisor

    KAUNAS, 2017

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    KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

    FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES

    INVESTIGATION OF PHOTON INDUCED DEGRADATION OF

    CONTACT LENSES

    Final project of master degrees

    Medical physics 621B92002

    Supervisor

    Doc. Judita

    (data)

    Reviewer

    Dr. Karolis Gedvilas

    (data)

    Project made by

    (data)

    KAUNAS, 2017

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    KAUNO TECHNOLOGIJOS UNIVERSITETAS

    (Fakultetas)

    (Studento vardas

    Medicinos fizika, 621B92002

    Patvirtinu, kad mano, ,

    iningumo faktui, man bus taikomos nuobaudos, remiantis

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    CONTENTS

    LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................... 6

    LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................. 7

    ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 9

    SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................... 10

    SANTRAUKA .................................................................................................................................. 11

    INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 12

    1. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................ 13

    1.1. X-RAY AND INTERVENTIONA L RADIOLOGY .......................................................... 13

    1.1.1. OVERVIEW OF INTERVEN TIONAL RADIOLOGY PRO CEDURES ................... 13

    1.1.2. IR WORKERS MONITORIN G ...................................................................................... 16

    1.1.3. IR MONITORING AND PR OTECTION. ..................................................................... 17

    1.1.4. ANNUAL DOSES OF IR EMPLOYEES ....................................................................... 22

    1.2. CONTACT LENSES CHARA CTERISTICS .................................................................... 24

    1.2.1. IN ACCORDANCE WITH T HE MATERIALS OF WHIC H THEY ARE MADE.

    HARD AND SOFT CONTAC T LENSES. .................................................................................... 25

    1.2.2. IN ACCORDANCE WITH T HE FREQUENCY .......................................................... 27

    1.2.3. ACCORDING CARRYING M ODE ............................................................................... 28

    1.2.4. IN ACCORDANCE WITH I TS DESIGN ...................................................................... 28

    1.2.5. THE DEGREE OF TRANSPARENCY (TRANSPARENT, COLORED, FANCY) OF

    CL 30

    1.2.6. CL STORAGE CONDITION S ........................................................................................ 30

    1.3. SURFACTANT ..................................................................................................................... 32

    1.3.1. X-RAY INTERACTION WITH SU RFACTANT ......................................................... 34

    2. EXPERIMENTAL PART ........................................................................................................... 36

    2.1. CONTACT LENS PROPERTIES .......................................................................................... 36

    2.2. UV-VIS SPECTROMETER .................................................................................................... 39

    2.3. X-RAY IRRADIATI ON SOURCE ......................................................................................... 41

    2.4. AUTOMATIC LENSM -1000 .............................................................. 44

    3. RESULTS ..................................................................................................................................... 47

    3.1. LENSMETER TEST OF CL ................................................................................................... 47

    3.2. INVESTIGATION OF CL TRANSMISSION BEFORE X-RAY IRRADIATION ...... 47

    3.3. INFLUEANCE OF CL SOL UTION TO CL OPTICAL PROPERTIES. ...................... 50

    3.4. UV-VIS SPECTRA OF CL AFTER X -RAY IRRADIA TION ........................................ 51

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    3.5. OPTICAL DENSITY DIFF ERENCE ................................................................................ 53

    4.6. EVALUATION OF EXPOSU RE DOSE USING CL DOSE DEPENDENCE CURVES

    60

    CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................................................. 65

    REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 66

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIG.1. PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY ........................... 14

    FIG.2. ANGIOGRAM BEFORE AND AFTER SELECTIVE ARTERIAL EMBOLIZATION. .... 15

    FIG.3 TLD IN EYE DOSIMETRY ................................................................................................... 18

    FIG. 4 OVERHEAD LEAD-GLASS BARRIERS CONSTRUCTION ............................................ 20

    FIG.5. TYPES OF MOBILE SCREENS: A) PANORAMIC MOBILE SCREEN, B) STANDARD

    MOBILE SCREEN, C) SPECIAL PURPOSE MOBILE SCREEN ................................................. 21

    FIG. 6 RADIATION PROTECTIVE GLASSES .............................................................................. 22

    FIG.6. SCHEMA OF CONTACT LENS CLASSIFICATION ......................................................... 24

    FIG. 7. HARD AND SOFT CONTACT LENSES ........................................................................... 25

    FIG.8. SYNTHESIS AND FORMULATION OF A SILICON HYDROGEL CONTACT LENSES

    ........................................................................................................................................................... 26

    FIG.9 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF BRANCHED PEG-FUNCTIONALIZED

    HYDROGEL LENSES EXHIBITING PROTEIN ADSORPTION RESISTANCE ........................ 27

    FIG.10. SPHERICAL CONTACT LENSES HAVE THE SAME POWER IN ALL MERIDIANS,

    SO IT REMAINS STABLE AND DOES NOT MOVE IN THE EYE BLINKING ........................ 28

    FIG.11. TORIC LENSES FIXATIONS: A) DESIGN OF FIXATION, B) VARIOUS MARKINGS

    ........................................................................................................................................................... 29

    FIG.12. DESIGNS OF MF CONTACT LENSES. ........................................................................... 30

    FIG. 13. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE EMULSION-POLYMERIZATION METHOD.

    MONOMER MOLECULES AND FREE-RADICAL [ ................................................................... 32

    FIG.14. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SURFACTANTS ............................................................... 33

    FIG.15 A SCHEMA OF COMPTON EFFECT [ .............................................................................. 34

    FIG.16. A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT ............... 35

    FIG.17. THE DATA ARE REPRESENTATIVE MEASUREMENTS TAKEN THROUGH THE

    CENTRAL 3-5 MM PORTION FOR THE THINNEST MARKETED LENS (-3.00D LENS, 0.084

    MM CENTER THICKNESS) ........................................................................................................... 37

    FIG.18. PLACING THE SAMPLE TO THE SPECTROMETER .................................................... 39

    FIG.19. SPECTROMETER USB4000-UV-VIS ............................................................................... 41

    -RAY THERAPY SYSTEM. ........................................ 42

    FIG.21. NUMERATION AND EXPOSURE BY X-RAY OF CL: 1. ACUVUE 1-DAY MOIST, 2.

    THE AIR OPTIX AQUA MULTIFOCAL, 3. AIR OPTIX FOR ASTIGMATISM. ....................... 43

    FIG.22. PANEL VIEW WHEN DOSE VALUE IS 1GY (83 MU). ................................................. 44

    FIG.23. LENSMETER WITH SPECTACLE LENS. ....................................................................... 46

    FIG.24. LENSMETER DISPLAY DATA WHEN EXAMINED CONTACT LENS. ..................... 47

    FIG.25. DIFFERENT CL TRANSMITTANCE WITHOUT EXPOSURE. ..................................... 48

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    FIG.26. 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST TRANSMITTANCE. ............................................................... 48

    FIG.27. AIR OPTIX AQUA MULTIFOCAL TRANSMISSION. ................................................... 49

    FIG.29. CL TRANSMISSION AFTER 4 DAYS IN A 5% GLUCOSE SOLUTION: SERIES 1 1-

    DAY ACUVUE MOIST, SERIES 2 - AIR OPTIX AQUA MULTIFOCAL, SERIES 3 - AIR

    OPTIX FOR ASTIGMATISM. ......................................................................................................