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FOUNDING OF THE KATIPUNANFounded on the night of July 7, 1892.Azcarraga St. (Claro M. Recto St.)The Katipunan was a secret revolutionary society of Filipino patriots.Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng BayanFounder: Andres Bonifacio, with the aid of his friends:Teodoro PlataLadislao DiwaDeodato ArellanoValentin Diaz
Aim of KKKTo unite the Filipinos To fight for Philippine Independence
Andres BonifacioThe Great PlebeianBorn in Tondo on November 30, 1863, the first child of poor parents.Named after St. Andrew the patron saint of Manila.He had three brothers and two sisters:CiriacoProcopioEspiridionaTroadioMaxima
His parents died when he was 14 years old.He supported his siblings by selling bamboo canes and paper fans in the city streets.He also worked as a warehouse keeper in a mosaic tile factory in Sta. Mesa.He worked first as a messenger and was promoted as an agent in Fleming and Company but he transferred to Fressell and Company for a higher wage.
He started his education in the school of Guillermo Osmea, a private primary school in Tondo.He educated himself by extensive reading of good books and learning Spanish by self-study.Monica first wife of Bonifacio who died because of leprosyGregoria de Jesus second wife of Bonifacio whom he had a son named Andres who died because of smallpox.
Emilio JacintoBrains of the KatipunanBorn in Trozo (Tondo), Manila on December 15, 1875.His father died shortly after he was born so he was adopted by his uncle Don Jose Dizon
Obtained the Bachelor of Arts degree in Colegio de San Juan de LetranStudied Law in UST but was not able to finish it.Remained loyal to Bonifacio even after his death.He died on April 16, 1899 at the age of 23 years old because of Malaria.
Katipunan GovernmentKataastaasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council) for the whole countryConsisted of a president, a fiscal, a secretary, a treasurer, and a comptroller.Sangguniang Bayan (Provincial Council) for every province.Sangguniang Balangay (Municipal Council) for every town.The Judicial power of KKK was exercised by the Sangguniang Hukuman (Judicial Council)It decided cases involving treachery among the members and quarrels between them.
Officers of KKKThe first Supreme Council of the Katipunan was organized in August 1, 1892. It was composed of the following:President (Supremo) Deodato ArellanoComptroller (Intervenor) Andres BonifacioFiscal Ladislao DiwaSecretary Teodoro PlataTreasurer Valentin Diaz
Deodato Arellano was the first President of Katipunan.
Roman Basa- became the Supremo because Bonifacio was disgusted over the performance of Arellano.
Two years after, another election was held with the following as officers:
Supremo Andres BonifacioSecretary of State Emilio JacintoSecretary of War Teodoro PlataSecretary of Justice Briccio PantasSecretary of Interior Aguedo del RosarioSecretary of Finance Enrique Pacheco
KATIPUNAN MEMBERSHIPOriginally the KKK recruited new members by means of TRIANGLE SYSTEM An original member would recruit two new members who did not know each other.Example: Bonifacio formed the first triangle with Diwa and PlataThey also agreed that they would pay a membership fee amounting to one real fuerte (twenty-five centavos) and a monthly due of media real (twelve centavos).
Every member of the Katipunan adopted a symbolic name:Andres Bonifacio May PagasaEmilio Jacinto PingkianArtemio Ricarte ViboraEmilio Aguinaldo MagdaloThree Grades of the Katipunan Membership:Katipun (Associate) first grade, password was ANAK NG BAYANKawal (Soldier) second grade, password was GOMBURZABayani (Patriot) third grade, password was RIZAL
Women of the KatipunanAt the beginning, the Katipunan was exclusively for men.Women were later admitted to preserve peace in the family, because the wives of the Katipuneros were becoming jealous of the nightly absences of their husbands and the reduction of their monthly earnings.
Qualifications for Female MembersWife of a KatipuneroDaughter of a KatipuneroSister of a KatipuneroAny close relative of a Katipunero
Prominent KatipunerasGregoria de Jesus wife of Bonifacio and was called Lakambini of the Katipunan.
Maria Dizon cousin of Emilio Jacinto
Sisters of RizalJosefa RizalTrinidad Rizal
Melchora Ramos y AquinoTandang Sora (January 6, 1812 March 2, 1919) Mother of the KatipunanShe fed the Katipuneros and nursed the wounded patriotsLater she was arrested by the Spanish authorities and was exiled in Marianas.
Services of the Women in the KatipunanThey guarded the secret documents and paraphernalia of the society.They helped recruiting new members of the society.Whenever the Katipuneros were holding their secret meeting, they held a gay party to cover up the revolutionary activity.
Literature of the KatipunanEmilio Jacinto youngest and greatest writer of the KatipunanHis pen name was Dimas-IlawHe wrote the following:A la Patria his poetical masterpieceLiwanag at Dilim a series of essays on human rights, liberty, equality of men, labor, and love of country.Kartilya ng Katipunan contains the teachings of the KKK.
Kartilya of the KatipunanA life that is not dedicated to a noble cause is like a tree without a shade or a poisonous weed. A deed lacks nobility if it is motivated by self-interest and not by a sincere desire to help. True piety consists of being charitable, loving ones fellow men, and being judicious in behavior, speech and deed. All persons are equal, regardless of the color of their skin. While one could have more schooling, wealth, or beauty than another, all that does not make one more human than anybody else.
A person with a noble character values honor above self-interest, while a person with a base character values self-interest above honor.To a person of honor, his/her word is a pledge. Dont waste time; lost wealth can be retrieved, but time lost is lost forever. Defend the oppressed and fight the oppressor.
The wise person is careful in all he/she has to say and is discreet about things that need to be kept secret./ An intelligent man is he who is cautious in speech and knows how to keep the secrets that must be guarded.
In the thorny path of life, the man leads the way and his wife and children follow. If the leader goes the way to perdition, so do the followers. (Note: This begins with an observation of the vertical relationship of husband and wife during the time of the Katipunan; now, we can say that the parents lead the way and the children follow.)
Never regard a woman as an object for you to trifle with; rather you should consider her as a partner and helpmate. Give proper consideration to a womans frailty and never forget that your own mother, who brought you forth and nurtured you from infancy, is herself such a person.
Dont do to the wife, children, brothers, and sisters of others what you do not want done to your wife, children, brothers, and sisters.
A mans worth is not measured by his station in life, neither by the height of his nose nor the fairness of skin, and certainly not by whether he is a priest claiming to be Gods deputy. Even if he a tribesman from the hills and speaks only his tongue, a man has fine perceptions and is loyal to his native land.
When these teachings shall have been propagated and the glorious sun of freedom begins to shine on these poor Islands to enlighten a united race and people, then all the lives lost, all the struggle and the sacrifices will not have been in vain.
Andres Bonifacio a self trained writer. His pen name was Agapito BagumbayanHis writings were:Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Bayan a patriotic poemKatungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan a Katipunan DecalogueAng Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog a politico-historical essay.
Decalogue of the KatipunanLove God with all your heart.Bear always in mind that the love of God is also the love of Country, and this too, is love of ones fellowmen.Engrave in your heart that the true measure of honor and happiness is to die for the freedom of your country.
All your good wishes will be crowned with success if you have serenity, constancy, reason, and faith in your acts and endeavor.Guard the mandates and aims of the KKK as you guard your honor,It is the duty of all to deliver, at the risk of their own lives and wealth, anyone who runs great risks in the performance of his duty.
Our responsibility to ourselves and the performance of our duties will be the example set for our fellowmen to follow.In so far as it is within your power, share your means with the poor and the unfortunate.Diligence in the work that gives sustenance to you is the true basis of love love yourself, for your wife and children, and for your brothers and countrymen.
Punish any scoundrel and traitor and praise all good works. Believe, likewise, that the aims of the KKK are God-given for the will of the people is also the will of God.
Dr. Pio ValenzuelaThe physician of the Katipunan.He helped Jacinto in putting up the Kalayaan, the Katipunans newspaper.Madlang-away (fight of the people) his pen name.Collaborated with his best friend Bonifacio in writing the manifesto entitled Sa Mga Kababayan.
KalayaanOrgan of the KKKRealizing the value of the printed word, Bonifacio and his friends established a printing press and an organ of for the society.
Isabelo delos ReyesThe printing pres was purchased from him.The money used to by the printing press was donated by two Visayan katipuneros:Francisco del CastilloCandido Iban whose ticket won the lottery.
Jose Rizal and the Katipunan From the time that Rizal was banished in Dapitan in July of 1892, he has devoted himself to helping the people in Dapitan.Bonifacio tried hard to convince Rizal to support the armed revolt, because he believed that if Rizal would give his approval, that would enable the reluctant ilustrados to support the cause of the Katipunan.
Pio Valenzuela was sent by Bonifacio in Dapitan to convince Rizal to give his approval.Rizal believed that it was foolishness to fight the Spaniards without sufficient arms and funds.He suggested that the Katipuneros wait for sometime before the launching of an armed struggle.
Even so, he suggested as to why not attract the influential and wealthy Filipinos to the cause to ensure the success of the revolution. He also suggested ANTONIO LUNA to be appointed as their MILITARY LEADER
Valenzuela came back to Manila and reported the results of his mission, Bonifacio admitted that it would be fatal for them to start a revolution without enough weaponry with which to fight the enemy.
Paciano Rizal Jose Rizals older brother supported Bonifacio.Bonifacio hang Rizals portrait in their headquarters.
The Katipunan and JapanThe Katipunan sought Japans aid in the coming revolution.In May 1896, a Katipunan delegation, headed by Bonifacio and Jacinto, secretly contacted a visiting Japanese naval officer of the cruiser Kongo, and the Japanese consul at a Japanese bazaar and requested Japanese aid against Spain.Moritaro Tagawa a Japanese married to Filipina from Bocaue, Bulacan acted as interpreter.