KARYA TULIS AKHIR HUBUNGAN PAPARAN GETARAN Karya tulis akhir ini adalah karya saya sendiri, dan semua

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  • KARYA TULIS AKHIR

    HUBUNGAN PAPARAN GETARAN SELURUH TUBUH

    DENGAN LOW BACK PAIN PADA SOPIR

    BUS PUSPA INDAH DI TERMINAL

    LANDUNGSARI MALANG

    Oleh :

    Okta Dwi Kusuma Ayu

    201310330311089

    UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

    FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN

    2016

  • HUBUNGAN PAPARAN GETARAN SELURUH TUBUH

    DENGAN LOW BACK PAIN PADA SOPIR

    BUS PUSPA INDAH DI TERMINAL

    LANDUNGSARI MALANG

    Diajukan kepada

    Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang

    untuk Memenuhi Salah Satu Persyaratan

    dalam Menyelesaikan Program Sarjana

    Pendidikan Dokter

    Oleh :

    Okta Dwi Kusuma Ayu

    201310330311089

    UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

    FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN

    2016

  • PERNYATAAN ORISINALITAS

    Karya tulis akhir ini adalah karya saya sendiri, dan semua sumber baik yang dikutip

    maupun dirujuk telah saya nyatakan dengan benar.

    Nama : Okta Dwi Kusuma Ayu

    NIM : 201310330311089

    Malang, 18 Desember 2016

    Penulis

  • DAFTAR ISI

    Halaman

    LEMBAR PENGESAHAN..................................................................................i

    HALAMAN PERNYATAAN ORISINALITAS.................................................ii

    LEMBAR PENGUJI............................................................................................iii

    KATA PENGANTAR..........................................................................................iv

    UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH................................................................................vi

    ABSTRAK...........................................................................................................vii

    ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................viii

    DAFTAR ISI .......................................................................................................ix

    DAFTAR TABEL ...............................................................................................xiv

    DAFTAR GAMBAR ..........................................................................................xv

    DAFTAR SINGKATAN ....................................................................................xvi

    DAFTAR LAMPIRAN.......................................................................................xvii

    BAB 1 PENDAHULUAN.........................................................................................1

    1.1 Latar Belakang...............................................................................................1

    1.2 Rumusan Masalah..........................................................................................3

    1.3 Tujuan penelitian............................................................................................3

    1.3.1 Tujuan Umum.....................................................................................3

    1.3.2 Tujuan Khusus....................................................................................3

    1.4 Manfaat penelitian..........................................................................................4

  • 1.4.1 Manfaat Peneliti.................................................................................4

    1.4.2 Manfaat Institusi.................................................................................4

    1.4.3 Manfaat Masyarakat ..........................................................................4

    BAB 2 TINJAUAN PUSTAKA.................................................................................5

    2.1 Getaran..........................................................................................................5

    2.1.1 Pengertian Getaran.............................................................................5

    2.1.2 Bentuk Getaran...................................................................................5

    2.1.3 Klasifikasi Getaran.............................................................................8

    2.1.4 Efek Getaran.......................................................................................10

    2.1.5 Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Efek Getaran.........................................14

    2.1.6 Nilai Ambang Batas Getaran..............................................................15

    2.1.7 Alat Ukur Getaran..............................................................................20

    2.1.8 Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Besaran Akselerasi Getaran..................21

    2.1.9 Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Getaran Bus..........................................22

    2.1.10 Pencegahan atau Pengendalian Getaran.............................................23

    2.1.11 Peredam Getaran................................................................................24

    2.2 Nyeri Punggung Bawah (Low Back Pain)....................................................25

    2.2.1 Anatomi Punggung..............................................................................25

    2.2.2 Definisi Nyeri......................................................................................28

    2.2.3 Fisiologi Nyeri.....................................................................................30

    2.2.4 Jalur Nyeri di Sistem Saraf Pusat........................................................32

    2.2.5 Definisi Nyeri Punggung Bawah (LBP)..............................................33

    2.2.6 Etiologi Nyeri Punggung Bawah.........................................................34

  • 2.2.7 Faktor Risiko Nyeri Punggung............................................................37

    2.2.8 Klasifikasi Nyeri Punggung Bawah....................................................39

    2.2.9 Gejala Nyeri Punggung.......................................................................40

    2.2.10 Nyeri Punggung dan Mengemudi.......................................................41

    2.2.11 Faktor Pekerjaan yang mempengaruhi low back pain........................42

    2.2.12 Patofisiologi Low Back Pain..............................................................43

    2.2.13 Pemeriksaan fisik...............................................................................45

    2.2.14 Tes-Tes................................................................................................46

    2.2.15 Pemeriksaan Diagnostik.....................................................................47

    2.2.16 Skala Nyeri pada Low Back Pain.......................................................48

    BAB 3 KERANGKA KONSEP DAN HIPOTESIS

    3.1 Kerangka Konseptual....................................................................................49

    3.2 Hipotesis Penelitian......................................................................................50

    BAB 4 METODE PENELITIAN...............................................................................52

    4.1 Jenis Penelitian..............................................................................................52

    4.2 Lokasi Dan Waktu Penelitian .......................................................................53

    4.3 Populasi dan Sampel.....................................................................................53

    4.3.1 Populasi................................................................................................53

    4.3.2 Sampel..................................................................................................53

    4.3.3 Besar Sampel .......................................................................................53

    4.3.4 Teknik Pengambilan Sampel................................................................53

    4.3.5 Karakteristik Sampel Penelitian...........................................................53

    4.3.6 Variabel Penelitian...............................................................................54

  • 4.3.6.1 Variabel bebas..........................................................................54

    4.3.6.2 Variabel tergantung..................................................................54

    4.3.7 Definisi Operasional.....................................................................54

    4.4 Instrumen Penelitian......................................................................................55

    4.5 Prosedur Penelitian........................................................................................57

    4.5.1 Alur Penelitian......................................................................................57

    4.5.2 Pengumpulan Data...............................................................................58

    4.8 Analisis Data............................................................................................59

    4.9 Jadwal Penelitian.....................................................................................59

    BAB 5 HASIL PENELITIAN....................................................................................60

    5.1 Hasil Penelitian.............................................................................................60

    5.1.1 Besar In