Kardiologi Anak

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Kardiologi Anak PJB

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    KRISNATALIGANKARDIOLOGI ANAK

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    Topik1. Fisiologi peredaran darah pada janin

    2. PJB non sianotik

    a) Defek Septum Atrium

    b) Defek Septum Ventrikel

    c) Defek Septum Atrioventrikuler

    d) Duktus Arteriosus Paten

    3. PJB sianotika) Trunkus arteriosus

    b) Anomali Total Drainase Vena Pulmonalis

    c) Ventrikel Tunggal

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    1. Fisiologi Peredaran Darah Pada Janin

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    2a. Defek Septum Atrium

    Atrial septal defect (a) The ostium secundum atrialseptal defect (ASD) is a deficiency of the foramenovale and surrounding atrial septum. (b) Partialatrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a deficiencyof the atrioventricular septum. (c) Murmur. (d)Chest radiograph. (e,f) ECG. (g) Examples of an

    occlusion device used to close secundum atrialseptal defects.

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    2b. Defek Septum Ventrikel

    Dibagi : Ostium Primum, OstiumSecundum

    Ventricular septal defect. (a) Ventricularseptal defect showing a left-to-rightshunt. (b) Murmur. (c) Chest radiograph.(d) ECG.

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    2c. Defek Septum Atrioventrikuler

    Features of complete Atrioventricular

    Septal Defect are: Presentation on antenatal ultrasound

    screening Cyanosis at birth or heart failure at 23

    weeks of life No murmur heard, the lesion being

    detected on routine echocardiographyscreening in a newborn baby with Down

    syndrome There is always a superior axis on the ECG Management is to treat heart failure

    medically (as for large VSD) and surgicalrepair at 36 months of age.

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    2d. Duktus Arteriosus Paten

    Persistent ductus arteriosus. (a) Murmur. (b) Chestradiograph. (c) ECG. (d) A persistent ductus arteriosusvisualised on angiography. (e) A coil used to close ducts. It ispassed through a catheter via the femoral artery or vein. (f)Angiogram to show coil in the duct. (PT, pulmonary trunk;

    AO, aorta.)

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    3a. Trunkus Arteriosus

    Clinical Presentation :Blue coloring of the skin(cyanosis)Poor feedingExcessive sleepinessPoor growthShortness of breath (dyspnea)Rapid breathing (tachypnea)Irregular heartbeats(arrhythmia)Excessive sweating(diaphoresis)

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    3b. Anomali Total Drainase VenaPulmonalis

    Exams and Tests :

    Cardiac catheterization canconfirm the diagnosis byshowing that the blood vesselsare abnormally attachedECG shows enlargement of the

    ventricles (ventricularhypertrophy)Echocardiogram may show thatthe pulmonary vessels areattachedMRI of the heart can show theconnections between thepulmonary vesselsX-ray of the chest shows anormal to small heart with fluidin the lungs

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    3c. Ventrikel Tunggal

    Foto toraks menunjukkan konfigurasi jantung yangtidak khas. Atrium kanan membesar dan vaskularisasiparu meningkat (kecuali terdapat stenosis pulmonal).Elektrokardiogram menunjukkan aksis deviasi kekanan atau ke kiri. Bila terdapat stenosis pulmonalmaka terlihat adanya P pulmonal.

    Ekokardiografi akan menunjukkan adanya satuventrikel yang besar dengan 2 katup artrio ventrikulartanpa septum ventrikel.