KABAZI II: LAST INTERGLACIAL OCCUPATION, INTERGLACIAL OCCUPATION, ... трансформационный анализ кремневого сырья на поселении ... and leaf-buds

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  • N AT I O N A L A C A D E M Y O F S C I E N C E S O F U K R A I N EI N S T I T U T E O F A R C H A E O L O G Y

    C R I M E A N B R A N C H

    U N I V E R S I T Y O F C O L O G N EI N S T I T U T E O F P R E H I S T O R I C A R C H A E O L O G Y

    Palaeolithic Sites of Crimea,Vol. 1

    KABAZI II :LAST INTERGLACIAL OCCUPATION,

    ENVIRONMENT & SUBSISTENCE

    Edited byVictor Chabai, Jrgen Richter and Thorsten Uthmeier

    Simferopol Cologne 2005

  • -

    , 1

    II :

    :. . , . , .

    2005

  • Table of Contents

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI

    Chapter 1 Kabazi II: Stratigraphy and Archaeological Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Victor P. Chabai

    Chapter 2 Vegetation Evolution of the Kabazi II Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Natalia Gerasimenko

    Chapter 3 Small Mammals from the Palaeolithic Site of Kabazi II, Western Crimea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Anastasia K. Markova

    Chapter 4 Snail Fauna from Kabazi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Constantine Mikhailesku

    Chapter 5 Analyses Archozoologiques des Units V et VI de Kabazi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Marylne Patou-Mathis

    Chapter 6 Kabazi II, Units V and VI: Artefacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99Victor P. Chabai

    Chapter 7 Saving the Stock to be Prepared for the Unexpected. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133Transformation of Raw Material at the Middle Paleolithic Site of Kabazi II, Level V/1Thorsten Uthmeier

    Chapter 8 Transformation Analysis at Kabazi II, Levels V/2 and V/2A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155Thorsten Uthmeier

    Chapter 9 Carefully Planned or Confronted with the Unknown? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165Transformation of Raw Material at the Middle Palaeolithic Site of Kabazi II, Level V/3Thorsten Uthmeier

    VII

  • Chapter 10 Kabazi II, Unit V, Lower Levels: Lithics from the Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181Jrgen Richter

    Chapter 11 Consumption and Production: Transformational Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191in the upper Levels of Kabazi II, Unit VIJrgen Richter

    Chapter 12 Consumption of Imported Tools and Cores at Kabazi II, Levels VI/7 & VI/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 209Martin Kurbjuhn

    Chapter 13 Meat and Stones: Kabazi II, Levels VI/9 to VI/10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219Jrgen Richter

    Chapter 14 Transformation Analysis at Kabazi II, Levels VI/11-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Thorsten Uthmeier and Jrgen Richter

    Chapter 15 Operational Sequences of Bifacial Production in Kabazi II, Units V and VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257Martin Kurbjuhn

    Chapter 16 Hasty Foragers: The Crimea Island and Europe during the Last Interglacial . . . . . . . . . . . . 275Jrgen Richter

    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

    Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

    VIII

  • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII

    1 II: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .

    2 II: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. .

    3 II, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. .

    4 II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67.

    5 II, - V VI: . . . . . . . 77. -

    6 II, - V VI: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99. .

    7 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 II, V/1.

    8 II, V/2 V/2A: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.

    9 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 II, V/3.

    IX

  • 10 II, - V, : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 .

    11 II: VI/1 VI/6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.

    12 II, . . . . . . . . 209 VI/ VI/8.

    13 : II, VI/9 VI/10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219.

    14 II, VI/11-14: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227. , .

    15 II, - V VI: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257.

    16 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 .

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

    X

  • 51

    Small Mammals from the Palaeolithic Site of Kabazi II, Western Crimea

    Chapter

    Anastasia K. Markova

    The unique multi-layered open Middle Palaeolithic site Kabazi II is situated on the Second (Internal) Ridge of the Crimean Mountains (44 50 N; 34 02 E), on the right bank of the Alma River, in a belt of low moun-tain forest-steppe. Dr. Victor Chabai investigated the archaeology of the site, and has organised the complex study of the deposits, which include six archaeological units with numerous levels (Chabai 2003b; 2004c; Chabai et al., 2002; 2004.). Furthermore, the investigations at Kabazi II have incorporated several palaeon-tological methods, including palaeobotanical, malacological and theriological studies (Gerasimenko 1999; Patou-Mathis 1999; Mikhailesku 1999). The results from environmental studies, and the results obtained from a number of dating methods (AMS, U-series and ESR) have shown that humans occupied the site over an extremely long period of time, which stretches from the Mikulino / Eemian Interglacial until the second part of the Valdai Glaciation. Thus, the duration of human occupation encompasses about 90,000 years (5 3 MIS stages), and covers periods with varying climatic conditions (Mikulino interglacial, Valdai glaciation, and dif-ferent Stadials and Interstadials of the Last Glaciation).

    In the upper part of the stratigraphical sequence at Kabazi II, small mammal bones were very rare. Only a few remains were recovered from the ster-ile strata between Units III and IV, and included only one species, northern mole-vole Ellobius (El-lobius) talpinus (Markova 1999).

    However, during the campaigns undertaken in 2000/2001, new rich materials were collected, and small mammal remains were recovered from the archaeological Units VI, V, IV and III. These

    M

    archaeological units comprise a number of sepa-rate levels. This stratigraphical subdivision forms the basis for this study of the micro-mammalian material (see Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4).

    Generally speaking, the bone material from the site is well preserved. Teeth were oen com-plete and undamaged, and several mandibles with teeth were recovered. Whereas some of the mam-mal bones were deposited directly (possibly in borrows), others show traces of digestion, which

    3

  • Anastasia K. Markova

    52

    indicates that the material was deposited by pred-ators (birds and animals). The majority of bones are of a light yellow or orange colour.

    The saturation of bones in the deposits is rather high. About two thousand bones were re-covered, of which 911 were identified on the species level (Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-5).

    The richest material was found in the levels of Unit VI. From this unit, more than five hundred (518) bones were identified on the species taxo-nomical level. This was also achieved for a further 159 bones from Unit V, for 195 bones from Unit

    Table 3-1 Kabazi II, Unit VI: species composition of small mammals, by level.

    IV, and for 39 bones from Unit III (Level III/8E). Naturally, these results also reflect the quantity and quality of material collected from the differ-ent layers.

    According to the results from the complex archaeological, palynological and geochronologi-cal studies, the small mammal assemblages from Units VI to IV must correspond to the different stages of the Mikulino Interglacial. On the other hand, the material from Unit III would appear to correspond to one of early interstadials of the Valdai Glaciation (Chabai et al. 1999; 2004).

    Small mammals were collected from 16 levels of Unit VI (Table 3-1). The 518 identified bones from this unit comprise twelve different species of small mammals, these include one insectivore (Insectivora) and eleven rodents (Rodentia). The obscurus vole Microtus obscurus is dominant in all levels (Fig. 3-1; 3-4,