Jump Training: Why and How?: an Exhaustive Review .Jump Training in Explosive Sports. 33 athletes

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Text of Jump Training: Why and How?: an Exhaustive Review .Jump Training in Explosive Sports. 33 athletes

  • Rodrigo Ramrez-Campillo

    Department of Physical Activity Sciences

    Research Nucleus in Health, Physical Activity and Sport

    Laboratory of Measurement and Assessment in Sports (LabMED)

    University of Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile

    Jump Training: Why and How?:

    an Exhaustive Review

    Jump Training in Explosive Sports

  • 33 athletes (swimmers, SPRINTERS, rugbiers)

    Regional level

    8-wk PT (JT) lower and upper-body

    3 groups:

    Control vs. Jump Squats vs. Squat and DJs

    2 sessions/wk

    Progressive overload

    (DJs from 20 to 60 cm; sets from 1 to 3)

    Lyttle AD, et al. Enhancing performance: maximal power versus combined weights and PT. J Strength Cond Res 10(3): 173-179, 1996.

  • Lyttle AD, et al. Enhancing performance: maximal power versus combined weights and PT. J Strength Cond Res 10(3): 173-179, 1996.

    Squat + DJs GROUP

    Squat Jumps GROUP

  • Both groups achieved similar improvements in:

    1RM squat (and BP)

    Shot put and medicine ball trowing

    Power in push-up with SSC and without SSC (concentric-only)

    SJ

    CMJ

    Abalakov with run-up

    Work in 6-s cycle-ergometer test

    No changes in 20-40-m sprint

    Lyttle AD, et al. Enhancing performance: maximal power versus combined weights and PT. J Strength Cond Res 10(3): 173-179, 1996.

    Maybe because horizontal drills were

    not included

  • Ebben, W. P., & Blackard, D. O. (2001). Strength and conditioning practices of national football league strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(1), 48-58 .

    26 strength and conditioning coaches.Professional football teams.

    94% used PT (JT)

    QuestionaryFootball

    Although a team sport, competitive actions are mainly supported by explosive muscle actions

  • Ebben, W. P., Hintz, M. J., & Simenz, C. J. (2005). Strength and conditioning practices of major league baseball strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

    95% used PT (JT)

    QuestionaryBaseball

    21 strength and conditioning coaches.Professional baseball teams.

    Although a team sport, competitive actions are mainly supported by explosive muscle actions

  • 40 males and females college athletes (baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastic, track)

    12-wk JT + RT

    vs.

    JT VertiMax + RT

    >Improvements in CMJ with VertiMax

    Rhea MR, Peterson MD, Oliverson JR, Aylln FN, Potenziano BJ. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 May;22(3):735-40.

    Effects induced

    by added jumps

    of vertimax?

  • >Sprint 4-m, lateral and frontal

    Force and power

    >DJ performance

    Salonikidis, K., Zafeiridis, A. The effects of plyometric, tennis-drills, and combined training on reaction, lateral and linear speed, power, and strength in novice tennis players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research , 2008; 22(1):182-91.

    64 tennis playersAge = 21 y

    9-wk (3 sessions/wk)

    4 exercises/session

    2 sets/exercise

    3-4 min of rest between sets

  • Swinton, P. A., Lloyd, R., Agouris, I., & Stewart, A. (2009). Contemporary training practices in elite British powerlifters: Survey results from an international competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(2), 380-384

    32 powerliftersInternational category

    Upper-body PT (14%)

    Lower-body JP (18%; including DJ)

    QuestionaryPowerlifters

  • Winwood PW et al. The strength and conditioning practices of strongman competitors. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Nov;25(11):3118-28.

    29% used PT for upper body

    54% used JT for lower-body

    40 jumps/session

    QuestionaryStrongman Competitors

  • Taube W., et al. The drop height determines neuromuscular adaptations and changes in jump performance in stretch-shortening cycle training. Scan J Med Sci Sports, 2011.

    33 males and females

    Age = 24 y

    Recreationally athletes

    Control group vs.

    BDJ 30-cm vs.

    BDJ 30-50-75-cm

  • 12-wk (3 sessions/wk; 45-60 min/session)

    10-min warm-up (jogging; mobility; hopping)

    1 or 3 exercises/session (according to experimental group)

    BDJ 30 vs. BDJ 30-50-75 (random order of heights)

    1 or 3 set/exercise (according to experimental group)

    12 rep/set

    Volume was equated for both groups(in DJ75, 6, 8 and 10 rep/set were completed during wk 1, 2 and 3, respectively; then 12 rep/set were completed in wk 4-12)

    (to equate volume, the group than only performed BDJ30 used 6, 8 and 10 rep/set for the third set during wk 1, 2 and 3, and then 12 rep7set for wk 4-12)

    Maximal intensity

    10 s or inter-rep rest

    10-min inter-set rest (or every 12 jumps)

    Taube W., et al. The drop height determines neuromuscular adaptations and changes in jump performance in stretch-shortening cycle training. Scan J Med Sci Sports, 2011.

  • Taube W., et al. The drop height determines neuromuscular adaptations and changes in jump performance in stretch-shortening cycle training. Scan J Med Sci Sports, 2011.

    Both training strategies improved reactive strength, although trough different

    mechanisms:

    The combined group achieved an improvement trough an increase in jump height and

    increased EMG activity (soleus and rectus femoris) in the late part of the ground contact

    phase.

    The specific group increased trough a reduced contact time and increased EMG activity

    (soleus) in the early part of the ground contact phase.

    Interpretation:

    Jump training may consider the inclusion of combined heights, with an

    emphasis on one particular height in cases of specific neuromuscular

    adaptations needs.

  • Martnez-Lpez EJ, et al. Effects of electrostimulation and plyometric training program combination on jump height in teenage athletes. J ournal of Sports Sciences and Medicine, 2012, 11, 727-735.

    98 sprinters (males and females)

    8-wk (2 sessions/wk)

    Traditional JT vs. JT with Electro-stimulation

    Off-session

    JT

    SJ = 9%

    CMJ = 7%

    DJ = 10%

    JT with Electro-stimulation

    36%

    19%

    13%

  • Staub, JN, Kraemer, WJ, Pandit, AL, Haug, WB, Comstock, BA, Dunn-Lewis, C, Hooper, DR, Maresh, CM, Volek, JS, and Hakkinen, K. Positive effects of augmented verbal feedback on power production inNCAADivision I collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 20672072, 2013

    Cross-sectional

    9 males and 5 females

    College athletes (track; pole vault; long ump; javelin)

    3 sets of 5 CMJ

    Feed-back vs. No Feed-back(maximal power value achieved after each jump repetition)

  • Staub, JN, Kraemer, WJ, Pandit, AL, Haug, WB, Comstock, BA, Dunn-Lewis, C, Hooper, DR, Maresh, CM, Volek, JS, and Hakkinen, K. Positive effects of augmented verbal feedback on power production inNCAADivision I collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 20672072, 2013

    Greater power values with feedback..

    ..especially in the last set..

  • Height BDJ = 12%

    RSI = 16%

    Peak power = 7%

    Alkjaer et al. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes. Physiological reports, 2013, 1(5): e00099.

    9 jumpers and sprinters

    4-wk of JT (3 sessions/wk)

    Wk 1-2 = 3 x 8 BDJ

    Wk 3-4 = 4 x 8 BDJ

    (drops from 30-40 cm)

    Feedback was provided

    Assessments at wk 1, 2, 3 and 4

    Improvement was due to improved jump height, not improved (reduced) time contact

    Typographic mistake

  • Tnnessen, E, Haugen, T, and Shalfawi, SAI. Reaction time aspects of elite sprinters in athletic world championships. J Strength Cond Res 27(4): 885892, 2013.

    Reaction times of sprinters in world championships

    Reaction times of FINALIST sprinters in world championships

    Reaction times of sprinters in world championships, according to age

    Effects of JT in reaction times?

  • 12 fencers (national level)

    Age = 24 y

    12-wk JT

    (6-wk RT + 6-wk RT plus JT)

    2 sessions/wk

    Redondo JC, et al. Effects of a 12-week strength training program on experimented fencers' movement time. J Strength Cond Res. 2014

  • > Maximal Force

    >Jumping

  • Park GD et al. The effect of low extremity PT on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26(1):161-4.

    10 throwers (amateurs; age = 18 y)

    Control vs. JT

    12-wk (3 sessions/wk; progressive overload)

    Body mass-only jumps (+ sprints)

    Replacement of some general physical preparation drills

  • Park GD et al. The effect of low extremity PT on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26(1):161-4.

    Control group reduced maximal strenght from trink flexors and extensors...

    JT induced an increase..

  • Brumitt J, Heiderscheit BC, Manske RC, Niemuth PE, Rauh MJ. Off-season training habits and preseason functional test measures of divisionIII collegiate athletes: a descriptive report. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2014 Aug;9(4):447-55.

    193 college athletes (males and females)(volleyball, wrestling, womens lacrosse, baseball, softball; womens and mens tennis, track

    and field, cross-country, soccer, and basketball)

    Description of training habits in the off-season (6-wk before preparation period)

  • Brumitt J, Heiderscheit BC, Manske RC, Niemuth PE, Rauh MJ. Off-season training

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