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Judaism and the Persian Empire

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Judaism and the Persian Empire. 1. Early Hebrews. Writings Much of what we know comes from their own writings Contained their history, law and requirements for their religion First 5 books form the Torah, the most sacred text of Judaism. b. Founding Fathers Abraham - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Judaism and the Persian Empire

Judaism and the Persian Empire

Judaism and the Persian Empire1. Early HebrewsWritingsMuch of what we know comes from their own writingsContained their history, law and requirements for their religionFirst 5 books form the Torah, the most sacred text of Judaismb. Founding FathersAbrahamLived in Ur and was told to leave by GodGod established a covenant with himPromised to lead him to the Promised Land and make his descendents a mighty peopleii. JacobGrandson of AbrahamHad 12 sons and would form the twelve tribes of IsraelHis name will be changed to Israeliii. MosesBorn an Israelite but raised in the pharaohs palaceDemanded the Israelites freedomLead the people out of Egypt after the pharaoh gave permission to leavec. The ExodusIt is a major eventPassoverAfter the Exodus the Israelites will wander in the wilderness for 40 years10 Commandments will be given during this time to Moses on Mt. Sinaid. The Promise LandIsrael had to fight the people that lived there to gain itHad a time of prophets and judges who were believed to carry messages from Gode. Kings of IsraelSaulIsraels 1st kingChosen for his military leadershipDescribed as jealous and a troubled rulerii. DavidIsraels 2nd kingWell loved and united the peopleStrong king and military leaderGifted poet and musicianCapital was Jerusalemiii. SolomonSon of DavidIsraels 3rd kingIsrael reached its height under himPraised for his wisdomBuilt a magnificent temple in Jerusalemf. Division and ConquestDivided KingdomKingdom was split into 2 after Solomons death10 tribes formed the Northern Kingdom called Israel2 tribes formed the Southern Kingdom called Judahii. FallIsrael fell to the Assyrians in 772 B.C.Judah fell to the Chaldeans in 586 B.C.The temple of Jerusalem was destroyedThousands of Jews were brought to Babylon as slavesPeriod is known as the Babylonian Captivity and lasted 50 yearsMarked the DiasporaThe scattering of the Jews outside of JudahPersians will let the Jews return to Jerusalem and they will rebuild the templeg. Teachings of JudaismMonotheismBelieved there is only one GodThis set them apart from the other people in the regionii. Justice and RighteousnessBeing just meant treating other people with kindness and fairnessBeing righteous referred to doing what was right and proper even if others do notThis led to their creation of a strong code of ethicsWill be carried into Christianityiii. Obedience to the law10 CommandmentsMost important lawsMosaic LawGoverns how people prayWhen they worshipDietary LawWhat they could eat

iv. Sacred TextMost sacred was the TorahTalmudContains explanations and interpretations of the other sacred texts2. Persian EmpirePersian LeaderCyrus IIHe united the Persians and the MedesHe allowed conquered people to retain their own customsHe freed the Jewish people and allowed them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the templeBecame known as Cyrus the Greatii. Darius IPut down a rebellion during his first year as kingHe reorganized and strengthened his armyCreated a permanent armyHe paid themThe Ten Thousand ImmortalsGroup within the army that served as the kings bodyguards4. Surrounded the kingship with ritual and ceremony5. Called himself either the Great King or the King of Kings6. Used Satraps (governors) to help him rule his vast empire7. Strengthened the economy8. Built roads throughout the empire to help trade9. Many believed that the high point of Persian culture was reached under himiii. XerxesSon of DariusTried to invade Greece and failedLast strong ruler of ancient Persiab. ReligionZoroastrianismTaught that the world had been created by a god named Ahura MazdaTaught DualismThe belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evilBelieved people had freewillTeachings on how people should live are recorded in the Avestac. Persian AchievementsNetwork of roadsThey linked all parts of the empireLongest road was the Royal road which stretched more than 1500 milesii. Art and ArchitectureBest example is the city of PersepolisUsed animals in their art work