Josephine AnsteyVideo Games/Computer GamesGames Now and Future
Mainstream Games - faster, more realistic
Innovation driven by VR dreams? Holodeck that supports all senses
AI Dreams? Intelligent Agents human look, human intelligence
arg can be made for centrality of anything history from the POV of cod saltHuizinga - makes it for centrality of play, against those who feel play is peripheral, non-seriousdefine by what its not, not real, fun, often elements of mimesis - earliest games peekabooelements of pretending, yet there is the school of thought that, all the worlds a play, we are all playing all the timecognitive skill - representation and modeling of physical, social, psychological realities
kinds of games, - lets see how many we can name, what is common to all these? physical sports, quizzes, crosswords, chess, games of chance, is playing house a gameset of rules, an arena of play, playing with rules - metaplay
Again lets get suggestions? as cultural ritual, defines the heros, rehearsal, practise, as subversion, as fantasy, wish fulfillment territory of Sutton Smith - not so much why we play, as how we explain why we playContexts for the emergence of video games, many different influences - here are some possible lines of inheritancetools and machines that play1skittles ->bagatelle->pinball - which influences the design of other arcade gamesAnother important line is the interest/obsession in creating living creatures. Mechanical and clockwork figures havea very long history, one of the most notable was the Turk, an automaton who played chess (early AI), but a fake.Also note Frankenstein - Shelley (1818). Asimov SciFi etc etc. AI/Robotics as an academic discipline (50s->).What is this obsession about? mini-me,s, imaginary friends, envy, playing at God, project of self understanding, narcissism etc etc.
Classical AI - top down, representations of knowledge. Problems/Difficulties of creating both physical and mental intelligence. Alternative AI, bottom up, model movement in insects. From AI -> Intelligent Agents. AI in gaming: Seems to behave intelligently rather than Is model of intelligence. Alpha Wolf 2001, Synthetic Characters Lab at MIT.
Rides as one antecedent, carousels, roller-coasters, Disney role-playing rides -> DisneyQuest and other mixed reality rides (VR +)Pleasure in Thrills, Simulated Danger, (Real) Fear, being taken out of self, out of normPhyscial Experience. Ride creators practical experimenters into human perception, trick perceptions.Games, both physical and mental translated into computerized medium. Lets do another naming binge!What issues here - graphics sophisication, physics models - what is a model?AI reprise, Madden footballers have to behave right, John Madden was disgusted withearly games, but felt the 2005 game got the feel of football about 85%. At the programming level big diffbetween the graphics and the AI, at the player level, combination that leads to believability.
Here I am following Celia Pearces description of RPGs etc p148(Check on how familiar people are with this history, ask for definitions from floor etc)Strand 1 FantasyTolkiens Lord of the Rings (54,55), paradigmatic exemplar of a fantasy world, through which a narrative path is created, but which invites exploration.RPGs seem quite wedded to recurrent fantasy elements, elves, magic, monsters, heroic warfare, but also relate back to simple kidsgames, playing house, playing cowboys and indians etc.Pen and Paper Game - Dungeons and Dragons- Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson 1974, Dungeon Master as storyteller and refereeStrand 2 Text-based adventure games from 76, Adventure, Zork etcStrand 2 Networking - date academic and military networks by 70s, early chat rooms CompuServe, Prodigy etc, in 80s, but public html-based internet from early 90s - publically released browser Mosaic 93Early computer networks, fostered growth of chat rooms and then of muds and moos, which were networked text-based adventure games,but because people could interact they could develop roles, personalities etc. EverQuest 1999 Ultima Online - you name em
Breaking of conventions between performers and artists stress on interactivity, engagement, confrontation, awareness,use of media, technologyrejection of Aristotelian dramatic paradigmswe will talk more about this Artaud 1896-1948, Brecht 1898-1956, Eugene Ionesco, 1909 1994Breaking of conventions between performers and artists stress on interactivity, engagement, confrontation, awareness,use of media, technologymixed media, televisions, random operations, subversive, ephemeral, extremeboundary breaking -> todays pervasive games in this tradition?nb Elliot
What are the implications of a universal machine which has these qualities?non linear editingdigitilization -> word processing, editing -> sampling -> recombination ->procedural recombinationnetworking -> expanded external memory
Remember creation of graphics on computers is not simple - years of innovation all the things we take for granted now as just the way it is had to be invented, are they the best way to use computers?world of research in here, the inventors, the mass producersWIMP window, icon, menu, pointing device Computer Graphics was/is an intense area of researchVirtual Reality, 3D Graphics, Realistic Realtime Graphics,Depend on many algorithms for modeling objects, color, light, shadow, movement Remember how recent the mass marketing of so much we take for granted