Josephine Anstey

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Josephine Anstey. History of Gaming 1 Context(s). Josephine Anstey. … anthropology and its sister sciences have so far laid too little stress on the concept of play and on the supreme importance to civilisation of the play factor.” Foreward to Homo Ludens Johan Huizinga, 1938. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Josephine Anstey

  • Josephine AnsteyHistory of Gaming 1


  • Josephine Anstey anthropology and its sister sciences haveso far laid too little stress on the concept ofplay and on the supreme importance tocivilisation of the play factor.

    Foreward to Homo LudensJohan Huizinga, 1938

  • Josephine AnsteyWhat is play?

  • Josephine Anstey

    What is a game?

  • Josephine Anstey

    Why do we play?

  • Josephine AnsteySkittlesBagatellePin BallVideo Arcade GamesTools/Machines that Play 1Various Video Games Contexts

  • The Turk 1770 (a fake)

    Spore 2007Josephine AnsteyMechanical DollsAutomata AI, Intelligent Agents, Robots

    Tools/Machines that Play 2Various Video Games ContextsAlpha Wolf, Blumberg 2001

  • Josephine AnsteyRidesDisneyQuestMotion PlatformsTools/Machines that Play 3Various Video Games Contexts1939 Allen Herschell carousel

  • Josephine AnsteyGames->Video GamesVarious Video Games ContextsPong Atari 1972Madden Football PS2 2005

  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsWorld of Warcraft 2007Role Playing Games

    50sLord of the Rings 70sDungeon and DragonsText-based Adventure Games80sChat Rooms Muds and Moos2000sMMORPGs

  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsAntonin Artaud by Man RayArt and Performance 1

    Drama 30's-60's Artaud, Brecht, IonescoTheatre of CrueltyTheatre of Absurd

  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsJohn Cage, Variations V, 1965Art and Performance 2

    Happenings 1950/60sCage, Nam June Paik, Kaprow etc etc.Fluxus

  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsComputers 1


  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsComputers 2

    1960sMainframesVector Graphics realtimeLight pens for interactivityMathematics of Representing Objects

    1970sMainframes +Raster Graphics things slow downWIMPFirst Paint Program Shoup & Ray Smith

  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsComputers 31966 HMD Evans and Sutherland

    1991 CAVE, Cruz Neira, DeFanti, Sandin

  • Josephine AnsteyVarious Video Games ContextsComputers 4

    1980sWorkstations, PCGrowth of CG for special effects (Tron 1982) (Roger Rabbit 1988)Non-linear editing

    1990sUbiquitous Pcs, GamesWeb (91), Browsers (93)2000sFast PcsDwindling fortunes of high end graphic computers (SGI)Games make more money than movies

    Tron above, Sims below

  • Josephine AnsteyVideo Games/Computer GamesGames Now and Future

    Mainstream Games - faster, more realistic

    Innovation driven by VR dreams? Holodeck that supports all senses

    AI Dreams? Intelligent Agents human look, human intelligence

    Other Dreams?

    arg can be made for centrality of anything history from the POV of cod saltHuizinga - makes it for centrality of play, against those who feel play is peripheral, non-seriousdefine by what its not, not real, fun, often elements of mimesis - earliest games peekabooelements of pretending, yet there is the school of thought that, all the worlds a play, we are all playing all the timecognitive skill - representation and modeling of physical, social, psychological realities

    kinds of games, - lets see how many we can name, what is common to all these? physical sports, quizzes, crosswords, chess, games of chance, is playing house a gameset of rules, an arena of play, playing with rules - metaplay

    Again lets get suggestions? as cultural ritual, defines the heros, rehearsal, practise, as subversion, as fantasy, wish fulfillment territory of Sutton Smith - not so much why we play, as how we explain why we playContexts for the emergence of video games, many different influences - here are some possible lines of inheritancetools and machines that play1skittles ->bagatelle->pinball - which influences the design of other arcade gamesAnother important line is the interest/obsession in creating living creatures. Mechanical and clockwork figures havea very long history, one of the most notable was the Turk, an automaton who played chess (early AI), but a fake.Also note Frankenstein - Shelley (1818). Asimov SciFi etc etc. AI/Robotics as an academic discipline (50s->).What is this obsession about? mini-me,s, imaginary friends, envy, playing at God, project of self understanding, narcissism etc etc.

    Classical AI - top down, representations of knowledge. Problems/Difficulties of creating both physical and mental intelligence. Alternative AI, bottom up, model movement in insects. From AI -> Intelligent Agents. AI in gaming: Seems to behave intelligently rather than Is model of intelligence. Alpha Wolf 2001, Synthetic Characters Lab at MIT.

    Rides as one antecedent, carousels, roller-coasters, Disney role-playing rides -> DisneyQuest and other mixed reality rides (VR +)Pleasure in Thrills, Simulated Danger, (Real) Fear, being taken out of self, out of normPhyscial Experience. Ride creators practical experimenters into human perception, trick perceptions.Games, both physical and mental translated into computerized medium. Lets do another naming binge!What issues here - graphics sophisication, physics models - what is a model?AI reprise, Madden footballers have to behave right, John Madden was disgusted withearly games, but felt the 2005 game got the feel of football about 85%. At the programming level big diffbetween the graphics and the AI, at the player level, combination that leads to believability.

    Here I am following Celia Pearces description of RPGs etc p148(Check on how familiar people are with this history, ask for definitions from floor etc)Strand 1 FantasyTolkiens Lord of the Rings (54,55), paradigmatic exemplar of a fantasy world, through which a narrative path is created, but which invites exploration.RPGs seem quite wedded to recurrent fantasy elements, elves, magic, monsters, heroic warfare, but also relate back to simple kidsgames, playing house, playing cowboys and indians etc.Pen and Paper Game - Dungeons and Dragons- Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson 1974, Dungeon Master as storyteller and refereeStrand 2 Text-based adventure games from 76, Adventure, Zork etcStrand 2 Networking - date academic and military networks by 70s, early chat rooms CompuServe, Prodigy etc, in 80s, but public html-based internet from early 90s - publically released browser Mosaic 93Early computer networks, fostered growth of chat rooms and then of muds and moos, which were networked text-based adventure games,but because people could interact they could develop roles, personalities etc. EverQuest 1999 Ultima Online - you name em

    Breaking of conventions between performers and artists stress on interactivity, engagement, confrontation, awareness,use of media, technologyrejection of Aristotelian dramatic paradigmswe will talk more about this Artaud 1896-1948, Brecht 1898-1956, Eugene Ionesco, 1909 1994Breaking of conventions between performers and artists stress on interactivity, engagement, confrontation, awareness,use of media, technologymixed media, televisions, random operations, subversive, ephemeral, extremeboundary breaking -> todays pervasive games in this tradition?nb Elliot

    What are the implications of a universal machine which has these qualities?non linear editingdigitilization -> word processing, editing -> sampling -> recombination ->procedural recombinationnetworking -> expanded external memory

    Remember creation of graphics on computers is not simple - years of innovation all the things we take for granted now as just the way it is had to be invented, are they the best way to use computers?world of research in here, the inventors, the mass producersWIMP window, icon, menu, pointing device Computer Graphics was/is an intense area of researchVirtual Reality, 3D Graphics, Realistic Realtime Graphics,Depend on many algorithms for modeling objects, color, light, shadow, movement Remember how recent the mass marketing of so much we take for granted