Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Reaction Data for ... Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Reaction

  • View
    2

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Reaction Data for ... Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear...

  • 1944-17

    Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Nuclear Reaction Data for Advanced Reactor Technologies

    J.M. Kendall

    19 - 30 May 2008

    Global Virtual LLC Prescot t

    U S A

    Critical Experiments and Reactor Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors.

  • IAEA TECDOC 1249 (advance electronic version)

    Critical Experiments and Reactor

    Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors

  • The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was:

    Nuclear Power Technology Development Section International Atomic Energy Agency

    Wagramer Strasse 5 P.O.Box 100

    A-1400 Vienna, Austria

    Critical Experiments and Reactor Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors

    IAEA, Vienna, 2001 IAEA-TECDOC--1249

    advance electronic copy © IAEA, 2001

  • FOREWORD

    An important function of the International Atomic Energy Agency is to "foster the exchange of

    scientific and technical information" and to "encourage and assist research on, and development

    and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world". For

    innovative advanced nuclear reactor concepts, IAEA Member States in many cases find it

    attractive to cooperate internationally in technology development. The IAEA's gas-cooled

    reactor technology development activities, which are conducted within its Nuclear Power

    Program, encourage international cooperation through technical information exchange and

    cooperative research.

    Advanced gas cooled reactor designs currently under development are predicted to achieve a

    high degree of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. The IAEA's

    activities in this field during the 1990’s focused on three technical areas that are essential to

    providing this high degree of safety, but which must be proven. These technical areas are:

    (a) the neutron physics behavior of the reactor core

    (b) the ability of ceramic coated fuel particles to retain the fission products, even under extreme

    accident conditions

    (c) the ability of the designs to dissipate decay heat by natural transport mechanisms

    To enhance confidence in predictions of neutron physics behavior, the IAEA established a

    Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for

    Low Enriched HTGRs. Countries participating in this CRP include China, France, Japan,

    Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, the USA and the Russian Federation. Its objective was

    to fill gaps in validation data for physics methods used for core design of gas-cooled reactors

    fueled with low enriched uranium. Within this CRP, an international team of researchers was

    assembled at the PROTEUS critical experiment facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen,

    Switzerland, to plan, conduct and analyze a new series of critical experiments focused on the

    needs of participating countries. In this CRP, experience from critical experiment programs in

    the Russian Federation and Japan was also utilized.

    The following institutes participated in this CRP:

    Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland

    Institute for Nuclear Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

    Forschungzentrum Jülich (FZJ), Jülich, Germany

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Tokai-mura, Japan

    Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University, Delft, the Netherlands

    Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache (CEA), St. Paul les Durance-Cedex, France

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, USA

    Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI), Moscow, Russia

    Energy Research Center, Petten, the Netherlands

    General Atomics (GA), San Diego, USA

    Experimental Machine Building Design Bureau (OKBM), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

    This report was edited by T. Williams and M. Rosselet (formerly PSI), and W. Scherer (FZJ) .

    The IAEA project officers for the CRP were J. Cleveland and H. Brey, and the officer

    responsible for this publication was J. Kendall. Additional CRPs addressing technical areas (b)

    and (c) were conducted in parallel, with results documented in IAEA TECDOCs 978 and 1163.

  • CONTENTS

    1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................. 1

    2. SAFETY RELATED PHYSICS VALIDATION DATA AND NEEDS FOR

    ADVANCED GAS-COOLED REACTOR DESIGNS................................................... 2

    2.1 PHYSICS VALIDATION DATA NEEDS FOR ADVANCED GCRS............................. 2 2.2 SUMMARY OF VALIDATION DATA BASE (PRIOR TO CRP)................................... 7 2.3 PLANNING OF PROTEUS EXPERIMENTS TO PROVIDE VALIDATION DATA..13

    3. EARLY PROBLEM ANALYSIS................................................................................... 17

    3.1 PROTEUS..................................................................................................................... 17 3.2 VHTRC..........................................................................................................................30

    4. PROTEUS CRITICAL EXPERIMENT FACILITY................................................... 46

    4.1 HISTORY OF THE FACILITY AND RECONFIGURATION FOR THE HTR EXPERIMENTS........................................................................................................... 46

    4.2 HTR-PROTEUS FACILITY DESCRIPTION.............................................................. 47

    5. PROTEUS EXPERIMENT PLANS...............................................................................58

    6. PROTEUS MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES............................................................ 63

    6.1 CRITICAL LOADINGS............................................................................................... 63 6.2 REACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS..............................................................................65 6.3 KINETIC PARAMETER (β/Λ).................................................................................... 86 6.4 REACTION-RATE MEASUREMENTS......................................................................90 6.5 GRAPHITE ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS........................................................99

    7. PROTEUS EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS.................................................................. 105

    7.1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 105 7.2 CRITICAL BALANCE............................................................................................... 106 7.3 INTEGRAL AND DIFFERENTIAL CONTROL ROD WORTHS........................... 127 7.4 SHUTDOWN ROD WORTHS................................................................................... 133 7.5 KINETIC PARAMETER (βeff/Λ)............................................................................... 137 7.6 OTHER INTEGRAL PARAMETERS....................................................................... 143

    8. COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS WITH CALCULATIONS.......................145

    8.1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 145 8.2 CRITICAL BALANCES INCLUDING STREAMING............................................. 145 8.3 REACTION RATE RATIOS AND DISTRIBUTIONS............................................. 151 8.4 CONTROL ROD WORTHS....................................................................................... 154 8.5 WATER INGRESS EFFECTS....................................................................................162 8.6 REACTIVITY OF SMALL SAMPLES......................................................................168 8.7 KINETIC PARAMETER............................................................................................ 181

    9. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................………189

    9.1 LEU-HTR PROTEUS PROGRAM. ..............…........................................................ 189 9.2 BENCHMARK CALCULATIONS............................................................................ 190 9.3 PROTEUS EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES...................................................…..191 9.4 COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS WITH CALCULATIONS........................ 194

  • APPENDIX A. ASSIGNMENT OF RESEARCHERS FROM PARTICIPATING

    INSTITUTES TO THE PROTEUS TEAM.............................................. 197

    APPENDIX B. EXTERNAL PUBLICATIONS MADE IN CONNECTION WITH

    HTR PROTEUS........................................................................................ 200

    APPENDIX C. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE HTR-PROTEUS EXPERIMENTS.................................................................203

  • 1

    1. INTRODUCTION

    On the recommendation of the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors, the IAEA established a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) in 1990. The objective of the CRP was to provide safety-related physics data for low-enriched uranium (LEU) fueled HTGRs for use