Jerusalem the Contested City

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Text of Jerusalem the Contested City

JERUSALEMTHE CONTESTED CITY

M E N A C H E M KLEIN

JERUSALEMThe Contested CityT R A N S L A T E D BY H A I M W A T Z M A N

HURST & COMPANY, L O N D O Nin association w i t h the J e r u s a l e m I n s t i t u t e f o r Israel Studies

the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 2001 A l l rights reserved First published in the United Kingdom by C . Hurst & C o . (Publishers) Ltd., 38 King Street, London W C 2 E 8JZ Typeset in Bembo by Bookcraft Ltd, Stroud, Gloucestershire Printed in England The right o f Menachem Klein to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. ISBNs 1-85065-575-8 1 -85065-576-6 casebound paperback

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

M a n y fine people have assisted me i n preparing this book for p u b l i cation and all deserve m y heartfelt thanks. O r a A h i m e i r , director o f the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, initiated the project and followed its progress both closely and from a distance. She is to be thanked together w i t h the entire staff o f the Institute, led by Prof. Avraham (Rami) Friedman, head o f the Institute, Prof. S h l o m o Hasson, Yisrael (Lulik) K i m c h i , D r . M a y a Choshen, and Reuven Merchav. I also received m u c h assistance from D r . R o n P u n d i k o f the Economic Cooperation Foundation ( E C F ) ; attorney Dani Seideman; C o l . (ret.) Shalom Goldstein, political adviser to the mayor o f Jerusalem; Yaffa Rosenberg o f the American Cultural Center i n Jerusalem; D r . Gershon Baskin o f the Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information ( I P C R I ) ; and from M u h m a d al-Nakhal. I owe special thanks to D r . Riad a l - M a l k i o f the Panorama organization; to R a m i Nassarallah o f the International Peace and C o o p e r ation Center; and to the staff o f Orient House, especially D r . Khalil al-Tafugji, director o f the M a p p i n g D i v i s i o n o f the Arab Studies Society, and to the staff o f the Orient H o u s e library and document center. T h e chapter on the political profile o f East Jerusalem's inhabitants could not have been written without the assistance o f the Center for Palestine Research and Studies under the directorship o f D r . Khalil al-Shikaki. T h e director o f the Center's survey unit, D r . Nader Said, and M r s . Raja Taher, were kind enough to make available to me findings that were not included i n the survey papers they published. I received similar help from Jamil Rabah, w h o is responsible for surveys at the Jerusalem M e d i a and C o m m u n i c a t i o n Center ( J M C C ) , w h i c h is headed by Ghassan al-Khatib. T h i s book was translated into E n g l i s h by H a i m W a t z m a n , whose contribution can be felt i n every w o r d . O f course, none o f these helpful people bears any responsibility for the contents o f the book. T h e analysis o f events, the interpretation o f survey findings, and the errors are all mine. Jerusalem January 2001 v M.K.

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements Maps Introduction Transliteration and terminology 1. T h e Arena: a Frontier C i t y F r o n t i e r cities a n d m u l t i c u l t u r a l cities Soft, f l e x i b l e a n d p e r m e a b l e borders J e r u s a l e m versus T e m p l e M o u n t A city u n i t e d i n theory a n d d i v i d e d i n p r a c t i c e 2.

between

page v pages 8-9 1 6 9 9 18 57 65 85 85 90 94 101 104 104 107 118 129 152 158 159 159

T h e C u r t a i n Rises: Jerusalem i n the Israeli-Egyptian Peace Negotiations T o Sinai via Jerusalem The C a m p D a v i d conference: peace despite J e r u s a l e m J e r u s a l e m a n d the a u t o n o m y negotiations: a dialogue i n t w o languages The C a m p D a v i d m o d e l : t h e i n d i r e c t approach a n d its limitations T h e P L O - from the W i n g s to Center Stage The P L O : p o l i t i c s stops a t t h e gates of J e r u s a l e m D e t o u r i n g a r o u n d Jerusalem a n d the P L O A consensual l i e : t h e P L O does n o tf u n c t i o n i n J e r u s a l e m F r o m J e r u s a l e m to T u n i s , M a d r i d , W a s h i n g t o n , O s l o and Back The I s r a e l i - P a l e s t i n i a n D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s T h e Choruses: the Arab League and the O I C The A r a b s u m m i t conferences A n old refrain i n a new song

3.

4.

vi

Contents The O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e I s l a m i c Conference (OIC) The W a s h i n g t o n D e c l a r a t i o n a n d t h e peace agreement between J o r d a n a n d Israel The O I C : December 1994-January 1995 The A g r e e m e n t between t h e P a l e s t i n i a n A u t h o r i t y and Jordan The I s l a m i c holy places - a p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m 5. T h e P L O and the Palestinian Identity of East Jerusalem B o y c o t t s of i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d p o l i t i c a l processes B u i l d i n g counter institutions J e r u s a l e m versus G a z a A n East Jerusalem Political Profile Public Opinion Political support: organizations a n d parties Support f o r presidential candidates Candidates f o r vice-president P o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s as o n g o i n g issues E v a l u a t i o n of t h e P a l e s t i n i a n A u t h o r i t y A r m e d a c t i o n s by t h e I s l a m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s "Soft" p r o t e s t i n J e r u s a l e m P o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r : t h e elections to t h e P a l e s t i n i a n A u t h o r i t y ' s Legislative C o u n c i l a n d Presidency W i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n elections E l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , slates of c a n d i d a t e s , p r e p a r a t i o n s and propaganda The elections The w i n n e r s The c o n t o u r s of P a l e s t i n i a n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n 7. Israeli Policy i n East Jerusalem Keeping Palestinians i n line The J e r u s a l e m m u n i c i p a l i t y versus t h e I s r a e l i g o v e r n m e n t J e r u s a l e m : escape hatches f r o m t h e O s l o accords The contest f o r A r a b space Israel challenges the demographic balance Construction against O s l o H a r H o m a : a n obstacle to t h e O s l o accords

vii 162 162 170 172 174 183 186 188 194 205 205 206 208 211 211 212 212 213 214 216 218 234 237 242 247 247 255 260 261 266 271 278

6.

Vlll

Contents C o n c l u s i o n : Bridges over a D i v i d e d C i t y The b e g i n n i n g of t h e p e r m a n e n t status n e g o t i a t i o n s The B e i l i n / A b u - M a z e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s A r e a s of f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n between fews ands A r a b s The s p a t i a l i d e n t i t y of t h e residents of E a s t J e r u s a l e m Israel's possession of t h e official symbols of i d e n t i t y , affiliation a n d sovereignty I n s t i t u t i o n s a n d services I s l a m i c holy sites a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s S h a r i a courts A l - H a r a m al-Sharif A r e a s of l o w - l e v e l c o m p e t i t i o n L a w a n d order The a u t o n o m y of t h e local P a l e s t i n i a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t P o l i t i c a l ties a n d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n A r e a s of h i g h - l e v e l c o m p e t i t i o n P l a n n i n g a n d construction P o p u l a t i o n a n d demographic balance Peace i n s m a l l doses 294 294 301 310 310 311 312 315 315 316 317 317 318 320 322 322 324 327 336 351

8.

Bibliography Index

INTRODUCTION

Jerusalem is hardly just another city and is far from being a local urban phenomenon. N o r is it just one more national capital. It is also more than just the most political city i n Israel and the West Bank. T h e cliche is that Jerusalem is a mosaic o f sparkling gemstones, a splendid city whose inhabitants live side by side i n harmony. T h e reality, as everyone knows, is far less idyllic. A l l the fault lines that cut through Israeli society intersect i n Jerusalem, and as i f that were not enough, the city lies o n the front line o f the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians. It is the capital o f Israel, but East Jerusalem is the future Palestinian state's capitalin-the-making. M o s t Palestinians feel a personal relationship w i t h Jerusalem even i f they have not visited it for years (Segal & Sa'id, 1997). T h i s is m u c h the same as Jews feel about the city. Q u o t i n g the Jewish poet Zelda, M e r o n Benvenisti called the city "a place o f fire" (Benvenisti, 1996). T h e front lines i n Jerusalem are not only national and ethnic. T h e city's holiness to Jews, M u s l i m s , and Christians adds a religious dimension to its tangle o f conflicting and contradictory identities, making the city a focus o f w o r l d w i d e interest. T h e city's holiness to the monotheistic religions is often inseparable from its national sanctity, and these two forms o f the sacred feed each other's flames. Jerusalem is also saturated w i t h historical memories, w i t h existential anxieties and Utopian hopes, all b u b bling together i n a steaming stewpot. Jerusalem is a frontier city, even though it has not been thought o f as such since 1967. T h e physical barrier, the fence that divided Israeli and Jordanian Jerusalem over w h i c h Israeli and Jordanian army outposts faced each other, no longer exists. B u t the city's national and ethnic barriers have remained i n place, and have become even more impervious since 1967. T h e confrontation, w h i c h was intercommunal between 1917 and 1948, became international between 1948 and 1967. D u r i n g these years Jerusalem was a frontier city divided between two countries. In many ways, 1

2

J e r u s a l e m : the Contested C i t y

the confrontation between Israel and the Palestinians has returned since 1967 to its previo