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JAX-RS 2.0: New and Noteworthy in RESTful Web Services API Arun Gupta Java EE & GlassFish Guy blogs.oracle.com/arungupta, @arungupta

JAX-RS 2.0: New and Noteworthy in RESTful Web services API at JAX London

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JAX-RS 2.0: New and Noteworthy in RESTful Web services API at JAX London

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Page 1: JAX-RS 2.0: New and Noteworthy in RESTful Web services API at JAX London

Copyright © 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 1

JAX-RS 2.0: New and Noteworthy in RESTful Web Services API Arun Gupta Java EE & GlassFish Guy blogs.oracle.com/arungupta, @arungupta

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Copyright © 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2

JAX-RS - Java API for RESTful Services

§  POJO-Based Resource Classes §  HTTP Centric Programming Model §  Entity Format Independence §  Container Independence §  Included in Java EE

Standard annotation-driven API that aims to help developers

build RESTful Web services and clients in Java

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Example: JAX-RS API @Path("/atm/{cardId}")public class AtmService { @GET @Path("/balance") @Produces("text/plain") public String balance(@PathParam("cardId") String card, @QueryParam("pin") String pin) { return Double.toString(getBalance(card, pin)); } …

Built-in Serialization

Resources

URI Parameter Injection

HTTP Method Binding

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Example: JAX-RS API (contd.) … @POST @Path("/withdrawal") @Consumes("text/plain") @Produces("application/json") public Money withdraw(@PathParam("card") String card, @QueryParam("pin") String pin, String amount){ return getMoney(card, pin, amount); }}

Custom Serialization

Param Binding

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Example: JAX-RS API (contd.)

Param Binding

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Example: JAX-RS API (contd.)

Param Binding

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JSR-339 a.k.a. JAX-RS 2.0

§ Expert Group formed in February, 2011 –  Lead by Oracle

§  Marek Potociar, Santiago Pericas-Geertsen –  13 Group members

§  Jan Algermissen, Florent Benoit (OW2), Sergey Beryozkin (Talend/CXF), Adam Bien, Bill Burke (RedHat), Clinton L Combs, Bill De Hora, Markus Karg, Sastry Mallady (eBay), Wendy Raschke (IBM), Julian Reschke, Guilherme Silveira, Dionysios Synodinos

§ Public Review Draft published on Sep 28, 2012 –  See JSR-339 JCP site jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=339

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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Client API

§ HTTP client libraries too low level § Leveraging providers and concepts from the JAX-RS 1.x API

–  E.g., MBRs and MBWs § Proprietary APIs introduced by major JAX-RS 1.x implementations

–  Need for a standard

Motivation

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Client API

// Get instance of Client Client client = ClientFactory.newClient(); // Get account balance String bal = client.target("http://.../atm/{cardId}/balance") .resolveTemplate("cardId", "111122223333") .queryParam("pin", "9876") .request("text/plain").get(String.class);

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Client API

// Withdraw some money Money mon = client.target("http://.../atm/{cardId}/withdrawal") .resolveTemplate("cardId", "111122223333") .queryParam("pin", "9876") .request("application/json") .post(text("50.0"), Money.class);

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Client API

Invocation inv1 = client.target("http://.../atm/{cardId}/balance")… .request(“text/plain”).buildGet(); Invocation inv2 = client.target("http://.../atm/{cardId}/withdraw")… .request("application/json") .buildPost(text("50.0"));

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Client API

Collection<Invocation> invocations = Arrays.asList(inv1, inv2); Collection<Response> responses = Collections.transform( invocations, new F<Invocation, Response>() { public Response apply(Invocation inv) { return inv.invoke(); } });

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Client API

// Create client and register MyProvider1 Client client = ClientFactory.newClient(); client.configuration().register(MyProvider1.class); // Create atm target; inherits MyProvider1 WebTarget atm = client.target("http://.../atm"); // Register MyProvider2 atm.configuration().register(MyProvider2.class); // Create balance target; inherits MyProvider1, MyProvider2 WebTarget balance = atm.path(”{cardId}/balance"); // Register MyProvider3 balance.configuration().register(MyProvider3.class);

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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Common configuration - motivation

client.configuration() .register(JsonMessageBodyReader.class) .register(JsonMessageBodyWriter.class) .register(JsonpInterceptor.class) .setProperty(“jsonp.callback.name”, “callback”) .setProperty(“jsonp.callback.queryParam”, “true”) ...

Client-side

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Common configuration - motivation

public class MyApp extends javax.ws.rs.core.Application { public Set<Class<?>> getClasses() { Set<Class<?>> classes = new HashSet<…>(); … classes.add(JsonMessageBodyReader.class); classes.add(JsonMessageBodyWriter.class); classes.add(JsonpInterceptor.class); … return classes; } }

Server-side

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Common configuration - solution

client.configuration() .register(JsonMessageBodyReader.class) .register(JsonMessageBodyWriter.class) .register(JsonpInterceptor.class) .setProperty(“jsonp.callback.name”, “callback”) .setProperty(“jsonp.callback.queryParam”, “true”) ... JsonFeature jf = new JsonFeature().enableCallbackQueryParam(); Client.configuration().register(jf);

Client-side

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Common configuration - solution

public Set<Class<?>> getClasses() { … classes.add(JsonMessageBodyReader.class); classes.add(JsonMessageBodyWriter.class); classes.add(JsonpInterceptor.class); … } public Set<Class<?>> getClasses() { … classes.add(JsonFeature.class); … }

Server-side

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Common configuration

public interface Configurable { Map<String, Object> getProperties(); Object getProperty(String name); Configurable setProperties(Map<String, ?> properties); Configurable setProperty(String name, Object value); Collection<Feature> getFeatures(); Set<Class<?>> getProviderClasses(); Set<Object> getProviderInstances(); Configurable register(...); ... }

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Common configuration

public interface Feature { boolean configure(Configurable configurable); }

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A Feature example

public void JsonFeature implements Feature { public boolean configure(Configurable config) { config.register(JsonMessageBodyReader.class) .register(JsonMessageBodyWriter.class) .register(JsonpInterceptor.class) .setProperty(CALLBACK_NAME, calbackName) .setProperty(USE_QUERY_PARAM, useQueryParam); return true; } }

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Dynamic Feature

public interface DynamicFeature { void configure(ResourceInfo ri, Configurable configurable); } public interface ResourceInfo { Method getResourceMethod(); Class<?> getResourceClass(); }

Server-side only

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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Async Processing

§  Server API support –  Off-load I/O container threads

§  Long-running operations –  Efficient asynchronous event processing

§  Suspend while waiting for an event §  Resume when event arrives

–  Leverage Servlet 3.x async support (if available)

§  Client API support –  Asynchronous request invocation API

§  Future<RESPONSE>, InvocationCallback<RESPONSE>  

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Async Processing: Server-side

@Path("/async/longRunning") public class MyResource { @GET public void longRunningOp(@Suspended AsyncResponse ar) { ar.setTimeoutHandler(new MyTimoutHandler()); ar.setTimeout(15, SECONDS); Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor().submit(new Runnable() { public void run() { … ar.resume(result); } }); } }

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Async Processing: Server-side

public interface AsyncResponse { public void resume(Object/Throwable response); public void cancel(); public void cancel(int/Date retryAfter); public boolean isSuspended(); public boolean isCancelled(); public boolean isDone(); public void setTimeout(long time, TimeUnit unit); public void setTimeoutHandler(TimeoutHandler handler); public boolean register(Class<?> callback); public boolean[] register(Class<?> callback, Class<?>... callbacks); public boolean register(Object callback); public boolean[] register(Object callback, Object... callbacks); }

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Async Processing: Server-side

@Target({ElementType.PARAMETER}) @Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME) @Documented public @interface Suspended { } public interface TimeoutHandler { void handleTimeout(AsyncResponse asyncResponse); }

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Async Processing: Server-side

public interface ResumeCallback { public void onResume(AsyncResponse resuming, Response response); public void onResume(AsyncResponse resuming, Throwable error); } public interface CompletionCallback { public void onComplete(); public void onError(Throwable throwable); } public interface ConnectionCallback { public void onDisconnect(AsyncResponse disconnected); }

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Async Processing: Client-side

WebTarget target = client.target("http://.../balance”)… // Start async call and register callback Future<?> handle = target.request().async().get( new InvocationCallback<String>() { void complete(String balance) { … } void failed(InvocationException e) { … } }); // After waiting for too long… if (!handle.isDone()) handle.cancel(true);

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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Filters & Interceptors

§ Customize JAX-RS request/response processing –  Use Cases: Logging, Compression, Security, Etc.

§  Introduced for client and server APIs § Replace existing proprietary support

–  Provided by most JAX-RS 1.x implementations §  All using slightly different types or semantics

Motivation

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Filters & Interceptors

§ Non-wrapping filter chain

–  Filters do not invoke next filter in the chain directly

–  managed by the JAX-RS runtime § Each filter decides to proceed or

break the chain

Filter each incoming/outgoing message

§ Request è Request –  ContainerRequestFilter,  ClientRequestFilter  

§ Response è Response –  ContainerResponseFilter,  ClientResponseFilter

§ Server-side specialties –  @PreMatching,  DynamicFeature

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Filters & Interceptors

public class RequestLoggingFilter implements ContainerRequestFilter { @Override public void filter(ContainerRequestContext requestContext) { log(requestContext); // non-wrapping => returns without invoking the next filter } ... }

A Logging Filter Example

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Filters & Interceptors

§  Invoked ONLY when/if entity processing occurs

–  Performance boost

§ Wrapping interceptor chain –  Each interceptor invokes the next

one in the chain via context.proceed()  

Intercept entity providers

§ MessageBodyReader interceptor –  ReaderInterceptor interface

§ MessageBodyWriter interceptor –  WriterInterceptor interface

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Filters & Interceptors

public class GzipInterceptor implements ReaderInterceptor { @Override Object aroundReadFrom(ReaderInterceptorContext ctx) { InputStream old = ctx.getInputStream(); ctx.setInputStream(new GZIPInputStream(old)); // wrapping => invokes the next interceptor Object entity = ctx.proceed(); ctx.setInputStream(old); return entity; } }

A GZip Reader Interceptor Example

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Application

Filters & Interceptors

Request Filter Filter Network Transport

… … Response Filter Filter

write(…)

Writer Interceptor

… MBW

read(…) - optional

… MBR

Writer Interceptor

Reader Interceptor

Reader Interceptor

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Response

Application

Filters & Interceptors

Filter Filter Network

… Response Filter Filter

write(…)

… MBW Writer Interceptor

Writer Interceptor

Filter Filter … Request Request

read(…) - optional

Reader Interceptor

… MBR Reader Interceptor

Filter Filter

Resource Matching

@PreMatching

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Bindings & Priorities §  Binding

–  Associating filters and interceptors with resource methods –  Server-side concept

§  Priority –  Declaring relative position in the execution chain –  @BindingPriority(int  priority)  

§  Shared concept by filters and interceptors

Scoped Binding Global Binding

Static @NameBinding (@Qualifier?) Default

@PreMatching

Dynamic DynamicFeature N/A

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Bindings

@NameBinding // or @Qualifier ? @Target({ElementType.TYPE, ElementType.METHOD}) @Retention(value = RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME) public @interface Logged {} @Provider @Logged @BindingPriority(USER) public class LoggingFilter implements ContainerRequestFilter, ContainerResponseFilter { … }

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Bindings

@Path("/greet/{name}") @Produces("text/plain") public class MyResourceClass { @Logged @GET public String hello(@PathParam("name") String name) { return "Hello " + name; } }

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A DynamicFeature example

public void SecurityFeature implements DynamicFeature { public boolean configure(ResourceInfo ri, Configurable config) { String[] roles = getRolesAllowed(ri); if (roles != null) { config.register(new RolesAllowedFilter(roles)); } } … }

Server-side only

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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Hypermedia

§ REST principles –  Identifiers and Links –  HATEOAS (Hypermedia As The Engine Of App State)

§ Link types:

–  Structural Links –  Transitional Links

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Hypermedia

Link: <http://.../orders/1/ship>; rel=ship, <http://.../orders/1/cancel>; rel=cancel ... <order id="1"> <customer>http://.../customers/11</customer> <address>http://.../customers/11/address/1</address> <items> <item> <product>http://.../products/111</product> <quantity>2</quantity> </item> <items> ... </order>

Transitional Links

Structural Links

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Hypermedia

§ Link and LinkBuilder classes –  RFC 5988: Web Linking

§ Support for Link in ResponseBuilder and filters  –  Transitional links (headers)

§ Support for manual structural links –  Via Link.JaxbAdapter & Link.JaxbLink

§ Create a resource target from a Link in Client API

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Hypermedia

// Producer API (server-side) Link self = Link.fromResourceMethod(MyResource.class, ”handleGet”) .build(); Link update = Link.fromResourceMethod(MyResource.class, “handlePost”) .rel(”update”) .build(); ... Response res = Response.ok(order) .link("http://.../orders/1/ship", "ship") .links(self, update) .build();

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Hypermedia

Response order = client.target(…).request("application/xml").get(); // Consumer API (client-side) Link shipmentLink = order.getLink(“ship”); if (shipmentLink != null) { Response shipment = client.target(shipmentLink).post(null); … }

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ Client API § Common configuration § Asynchronous processing § Filters § Interceptors § Hypermedia support § Server-side content negotiation

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Server Side Conneg

GET http://.../widgets2 Accept: text/*; q=1 … Path("widgets2") public class WidgetsResource2 { @GET @Produces("text/plain", "text/html") public Widgets getWidget() {...} }

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Server Side Conneg

GET http://.../widgets2 Accept: text/*; q=1 … Path("widgets2") public class WidgetsResource2 { @GET @Produces("text/plain; qs=0.5", "text/html; qs=0.75") public Widgets getWidget() {...} }

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JAX-RS 2.0 Summary

§ Major new features –  Client API, Filters & Interceptors, Asynchronous Resources, Hypermedia

§ Many minor API improvements and extensions –  Request / Response, URI builder, String Converters, @BeanParam, MultivaluedHashMap, GenericType, …

§  Improved TCK coverage = improved portability –  ~350 tests in JAX-RS 1.x, ~1700 tests in JAX-RS 2.0

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<a href=“…” >JAX-RS 2.0</a>

§ Project web site jax-rs-spec.java.net § Users mailing list [email protected] §  JSR-339 site jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=339

–  Latest specification text draft §  java.net/projects/jax-rs-spec/sources/git/content/spec/spec.pdf

–  Latest API snapshot §  jax-rs-spec.java.net/nonav/2.0-SNAPSHOT/apidocs/index.html

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<a href=“…” >Jersey 2.0</a>

§ Project web site jersey.java.net § Users mailing list [email protected]

–  Latest users guide §  http://jersey.java.net/nonav/documentation/snapshot/index.html

–  Latest API documentation §  http://jersey.java.net/nonav/apidocs/snapshot/jersey/index.html

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JAX-RS 2.0

§ DI (JSR-330) Integration § Bean Validation § Improved Java EE Security Support § Presentation Layer § High-level Client API

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Dependency Injection Integration

§  Support Java Dependency Injection API (JSR-330) –  Support  @Inject  and  @Qualifier ? –  @Qualifier  as a replacement for  @NamedBinding  ? –  Provider vs.  ContextResolver ? –  Support DI (JSR-330) or CDI (JSR-299)?

§  Issues –  Interference with CDI providers –  EG does not see enough added value for DI

§  DI-style injection support deferred

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Dependency Injection Integration

§  Java EE Deployments –  Tight CDI integration makes sense (unification of Java EE component

model) §  Java SE Deployments

–  DI provides all the required features –  CDI is too heavy-weight

§  Many redundant features –  method interceptors, decorators, stereotypes …

§  Additional limitations put on managed components

Support DI (JSR-330) or CDI (JSR-299)?

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Bean Validation

§ Dropped from JAX-RS 2.0 Public Review –  Difficulty aligning schedules

§ Still supported via CDI 1.1 –  JAX-RS resource class must be CDI bean –  BV 1.1 now supports method validation

§ May revisit current plan post Java EE 7

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More Topics…

§  Improved Java EE security support

–  @RolesAllowed, … –  SecurityContext.authenticate(…)

§ Pluggable Views –  Completes the MVC pattern

§ High-level client API –  Hard to design it to be RESTful –  Jersey 2 provides an

experimental support –  Don’t want to end-up with an

RPC-style API