Jaap van Ginkel - os3.nl Enigma One of many rotor machines Well known from WWII Extensively documented

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  • Security of Systems and Networks

    November 1, 2012 Part 2 Enigma

    Jaap van Ginkel

  • Enigma

     One of many rotor machines  Well known from WWII  Extensively documented many anecdotes  Others:  Sigaba (United States)  Typex (Great Britain)  Lorenz SZ 40/42 (Germany)  Siemens and Halske T52 (Germany)  Fialka M-125 (Soviet)

  • Enigma

  • 1919 Patent  Theo A. van Hengel  R.P.C Spengler  Patented by Koch  Sold to Scherbius

  • 1928 Patent  Arthur Scherbius

  • Enigma

     Poly alphabetic substitution cipher  3 wheels + reflector  Long “period” 26 × 25 × 26 =16900  Roughly 3 * 10^114 possibilities  Exhaustive search impossible  Safe if principle and wiring would be known

     At least that was intended...

  • Enigma in Action

  • Use the paper Enigma

    OXJOI UGBFW SOGJR WFYTH PRTZJ BWHEM LQXYC QLCRL WZ

    Startposition MCK

  • Only 26 characters X = Period

    Y = Comma

    UD = Question Mark

    XX = Colon

    YY = Dash/Hyphen/Slant

    KK*****KK = Parenthesis

    J*****J = Stress Mark

    Numbers are written out as words

    The Wehrmacht used other abbreviations:

    KLAM = Parenthesis

    ZZ = Comma

    X = Full stop (end of sentence)

    YY = Point or dot

    X****X = Inverted commas

    Question mark ( Fragezeichen in German) is usually abbreviated to one of the three following forms:

    FRAGE, FRAGEZ or FRAQ

    Foreign names, places etc. twice delimited by "X", e.g. XPARISXPARISX

    The letters CH is written as Q, e.g. ACHT was written as AQT, RICHTUNG as RIQTUNG

    It was prohibited to encipher the word "null" several times in succession. For several nulls these

    abbreviations are used:

    00 = CENTA

    000 = MILLE

    0000 = MYRIA

    Examples: 200 = ZWO CENTA, 00780 = CENTA SIEBEN AQT NULL

  • Enigma Software Emulator 6.1

    http://users.telenet.be/d.rijmenants/en/enigmasim.ht m

  • Double stepping

     Example QDV start setting

    http://enigmaco.de/enigma/enigma.html

  • Codebook SNE UvA GEHEIM! SNE2012 NOVEMBER 2012 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |Tag | Walzenlage |Ringstellung| Steckerverbindungen | Kenngruppen | -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | 30 | III I IV | 17 15 13 | AE CT DR GU IK JS MW OQ PX YZ | YLC YVU EPK VCZ | | 29 | I IV III | 18 20 15 | AK BS CT EI GQ HW JZ MX NR PY | TOJ WJF XUF EAU | | 28 | III I IV | 16 05 14 | AR BW CG EK FM JQ OX PU SY TV | BWV QKB UNU XJO | | 27 | III II IV | 23 09 26 | AW BT GR HK IP JY LX MN OV QS | HIC HUO LPB NOD | | 26 | IV III II | 09 01 22 | CR DO ES GJ HP IZ KM QU TX VW | AFK SQX WYD YKP | | 25 | III IV I | 17 24 23 | AN BC DK EX FP GU LZ MY OV SW | KKN GNJ BQT TYH | | 24 | I IV III | 06 07 09 | AJ BR CL DH EI MY NS OZ QT VW | PVC GXT DBT NGM | | 23 | II III I | 10 09 22 | AE BY DM GW IP JK NS OZ QV TX | EZF IRS OYC AMY | | 22 | V III IV | 24 19 03 | AC DR ES FJ HL IM KP NT OV WY | BBS ART GQI CEC | | 21 | III II I | 15 24 21 | AF BH CK DJ LZ MW NQ OY PS RT | AOD AAW UTH BLI | | 20 | I IV V | 18 23 23 | AD CE FW GQ IK JX LP MS NT UV | XMH HDN IVV WDE | | 19 | V I III | 02 20 09 | AV CO EI GU HQ JR KM LT PX WY | KMU XTF QXP JDO | | 18 | I II III | 24 05 06 | AL BQ CT DY EM GN IO KX SZ VW | MNB MJQ NRA ZTM | | 17 | III I II | 07 18 16 | AI BG CE HJ KP LN MT RZ SW UY | MOX SKX WZL KSR | | 16 | V II III | 07 04 15 | AD BN CW EP FS GH JO MX UY VZ | WRS YMS EGX PGF | | 15 | IV III I | 21 24 03 | BW DM FK GV HI JR NZ OU QT SY | HZG VUV WWI FAX | | 14 | V I III | 12 22 25 | AD BF CZ EP HJ IL KV MO NW QR | FDW USC TZT MSJ | | 13 | II III V | 05 19 10 | AN BY CE DQ FZ HP IX JK LU OS | QXP LTH ONB GJE | | 12 | I II III | 20 11 14 | AT BC EQ GI JK LO MU PR SZ WX | GXB EHU HYW SUQ | | 11 | II IV I | 05 15 21 | AK BT CI DW HM LY NQ OR PV SU | UNY NFF KVP GTR | | 10 | IV V II | 17 03 05 | AW BS CI FN JK LT MZ OY PU VX | PTV JEM NUP ERW | | 09 | V II I | 05 13 10 | CO DT EG HM IP JV KW LU RZ XY | QKD NMP QVI XPW | | 08 | I IV II | 25 22 17 | AT CM DR EL GW IU KV NZ OP QX | WBZ EKF NQZ WQR | | 07 | I V III | 15 16 06 | AE BF CD JN LW MQ OP RZ ST XY | VRY VJM SJL LOS | | 06 | V II IV | 11 11 10 | AO BC EN GX HL JT KM PW SU YZ | ADO XTN TES YYN | | 05 | I V III | 15 11 20 | AB CH DF GJ IT LR NZ OX PY QU | TSL USD LHZ EBM | | 04 | IV V II | 22 21 06 | AE BP CH DZ FM GY IT LW NX UV | FEY HHL ZBV PNY | | 03 | V III IV | 07 22 09 | AH CI DF GW JU MT NX OV QZ RY | IDH ZTI PRZ RKU | | 02 | II III V | 05 03 24 | AM BS EH FY GT KZ LN QW RV UX | PCE FOQ QBM NFP | | 01 | III II V | 07 12 11 | AH BQ DU EL GT JR KP NY SX VW | PIT GKD VXF VVX | --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Please decode

    ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

     Tag  Walzenlage  Ringstellung     Steckerverbindungen

    (Day)  (Rotors)  (Ringsetting)      (Plug Connections)

    ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

     | 03 | C |  V    IV   II    |  05 11 15  | AW BM CJ DR EV GZ HO KU PQ TX | HID ZEC NXH HXO |

     | 02 | B |  IV   I    III   |  11 26 03  | AN BI CE DY FZ GR HT LQ SU WX | VVO GTC QPF OXT |

     | 01 | B |  IV   II   I     |  03 26 04  | AF BJ CQ DR EG IV KY LN MW UZ | JZC WLM VHM MPV |

    ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

    On day 02 the following message is intercepted:

    U6Z DE C 1510 = 44 = SIH QUJ =

    DXFEY IGHUE QYWVH OGSJQ BTYCE NUWGP LHSGP WT=

  • Biuro Szyfrów

  • Cracking Enigma  Biuro Szyfrów  Marian Rejewski

  • Zygalski sheets

  • Cracking Enigma Weaknesses

     Letter never translates to itself  Double sending of encoding settings  Chosen plaintext

     Standard message formats  CRIBS  Exhaustive search impossible  10^114 (approximately 380 bits)  with known wiring and other operational constraints,

    this is reduced to around 1023 (76 bits).[3]

  • Improvements

     From 3 wheels to choice 3 out of 5  Custom versions (different wiring)  Fourth wheel position  Steckerbrett  Procedural changes

  • Bombe  Polish: bomba kryptologiczna  Alan Turing  Read chapter from Crypto CD

  • American Bombe

  • Lorenz SZ 40 / SZ 42

  • Colossus

    Slide 1 Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27