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June 2009
PROJEKT: IVJETI NERETVU (LIVING NERETVA), K EU STANDARDIMA U SLIVU NERETVE, BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA FAZA III Radna grupa za ekološki prihvatlji protok PROCJENA EKOLOŠKI PRIHVATLJIVOG PROTOKA ZA RIJEKE TREBIAT I VRBANJA Financirano od: Norveško ministarstvo vanjskih poslova Projekt izvodi: WWF Mediterranean Programme Office u suradnji sa WWF Norway. Project leader, Living Neretva: Branko Vuijak, Ph.D. Expert leader, WFD-WG1: Nataša Smolar-vanut, Ph.D. EKSPERTNA GRUPA:
• Anelka Mijatovi • Dragana oki • Esena Kupusovi • Irena Zari • Nijaz Zerem • Sabina Hadiahmetovi • Sneana Winterfeld • Zlatko Grizelj
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the direct follow up of the second phase of the Living Neretva project and embodies the work of a group of national experts led by an expert in environmental flow. To provide the necessary expertise for environmental flow calculation, two groups of experts: BiH and R Srbska were selected, both including experts in hydrology, hydromorphology and hydrogeology, biology and chemistry. The main aims of this project were:
• to test the selected 4 different methodologies for the calculation of the environmental flow (EF) in a selected pilot area of Neretva, the river Trebiat and in the selected pilot area the river Vrbanja;.
• to increase the capacity of a selected number of experts on environmental flow assessment;
• to collect data on river hydromorphology, ecology, river use, and river pollution;
• to develop recommendations for the preparation of relevant sub-laws on environmental flow, as required by BiH Water Laws (art. 62 Water Law FBiH, art. 65 Water Law RS.
The team used procedures for determining environmental flow on a section of the river, that consists of the following steps: - Collection of data on river (pressures and influences, identification and assessment of river and of appropriate eco system); - Establishing EF goal; - Evaluation of EF by the different methods; - Identification of critical parameters; - Identification of the value of the river to preserve; For assessing the environmental flow, in addition to methods used in BiH practice (minimum mean monthly flow of 95% of probability appear QEF, 95%), methods that are used in practice in neighboring countries were selected, too. Thus, the selected method of mean minimum flow QEF, MNQ (MNQ method, used in Croatia), and the guaranteed environmental flow QEF, GEP (GEP method, present in Serbia). Proposal of Slovenian method QEF, SLO was chosen as a method from the nearest EU country, and, finally, Matthey method of determining QEF, MAT, was selected as one of the "fast" method. All of these belong to the so-called hydrological methods. For all methods gaps, advantages and disadvantages are presented. Chosen research area is a part of the complex river Tihaljina- Mlade -Trebizat, that represents one of the few surface karst river in western Herzegovina. Complexity of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow in karst, expressed artificial influences, as well as expressed the natural beauty of this region, are the basic reasons for the choice of investigative areas in the basin Trebizat. After touring the Trebizat catchment and in accordance with available data, in the previous phase of the project, this river was selected for assessing environmentally acceptable flow. Selected part of the river is from the source Tihaljina (gauging station Pec Mlini upstream-source) to the Grabovo vrelo (gaugin station Grabovo
vrelo, river Mlade). Total length of the section is about 16 km, with difference in altitude between the stations about 44 m. Data on average daily flows at four gauge stations (HS Pec Mlini upstream / source and HS Pec Mlini downstream on the river Tihaljina and HS Klobuk and HS Grabovo vrelo on the Mlade), taken from the hydrological study Tihaljina-Mlade-Trebizat, were used as a basis for calculation of hydrological parameters needed. In order to compare results, we adopted the common period of 1975-1987 was adopted for all calculations. After the obtained results, comparison is done. Taking into account that all the selected methods for the EPP assessment are based only on hydrological parameters, critical parameters in relation to habitat requests have been adopted, too: minimum flow at which the requirements in relation to the minimum speed required (vmean = 0.3 m / s) and mean depth (hmean= 0.2 m) are met in the profile with the requirement in relation to the depth and demand in relation to the speed may be critical parameters for the preservation of habitat for numerous fish species. In the period from 15th April 2009 to 14th May 2009 three series of hydrometric measurement were done at cross sections of four mentioned stations along the river Tihaljina –Mlade – Trebizat. The aim was also to investigate the relationships between the parameters: water depth and flow, and water velocity and flow at the cross sections. Field work obtained geodetic measurement of the river cross sections, too, as well as the analysis of substrates, etc. Additional criteria have an important role in the holistic approach to establish the EPP and that was the basis for a decision on the collection of additional biological and physico-chemical parameters in the researched section of the river Trebizat.
Field biological research were made during 2008 (August) and 2009 (April) at four sites close to the above mentioned hydrological gauging stations. Macrophyte and phytobentos were determined using standard keys and icons for determination.
At the same time sampling and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of the listed sites were done. Analysis were also done for Tihaljina river immediately after inflow of water from sources Modro oko, because of high concentration of sulphates.
Results / conclusions of the assessment and field measurement / sampling are as follows:
The assessment of EPP by selected methods, based on the hydrological
parameters estimation for the four hydrological gauging stations (period 1975- 1987) were made as well as comparison of obtained results / values. Among the tested methods, the maximum value obtained with the method in which the EPP is defined through the mean flow, at least by Matthey method. GEP method involves a probability estimation, which as a rule gives the results of more value, depending on the number of distributions that are used. For shorter ranges testing adjustment is difficult. In relation to the foregoing, MNQ method gave the best results / assessment EPP;
Three series of measurements that were made in this phase of the project were
carried out in a period of rather high water, because of weather conditions and the dynamics of the project. Unfortunately, despite stopping work HP Pec Mlini during measurements, the results do not give low flow values and can not be used to define the required dependencies for the evaluation of EPP in relation to the critical value;
Although there have been many negative impacts in recent years on the
Trebiat river, the analyses of aquatic organisms showed their high diversity.
According to the existing regulation on classification of waters and coastal sea waters of Yugoslavia within the borders of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette SR BiH No. 19/80) which will be valid until the new bylaw regulation (by the Water Law, Article 123), waters of the river Tihaljina – Mlade Trebizat are in the II (second) class of quality;
In the future, the sampling invertebrata and fish should be executed on the
river Trebizat. Monitoring subject of biological diversity can be for example: o protected and endangered species / habitats / areas o indicators of general state of ecosystems o changes in nature caused directly or indirectly to human activity o representative sampling sites selection of taking hydro-morphological,
biological, and physical - chemical parameters;
Although the main goal of this study was not the identification of ecological values, the attempt of its evaluation was made in line with the existing data and results of sampling;
The need of adequate monitoring of EPP from the standpoint of quantity
(quantity od water immediately downstream of the water intake) is stressed. The factors to take into account to ensure relevant and reliable data are defined.
Finally, on the basis of results of the investigations on the river Tihaljina – Mlade (Trebizat), the recommendations / elements of the draft act in FBiH (under Article 62nd FBiH Water Law, which refers to the environmentally acceptable flow), have been made and presented. A large number of small hydro power plants are foreseen to be built at Vrbanja River, which is located in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. By damming the river course for purposes of forming reservoirs or providing intake for a derivational hydro power plant, the water regime downstream from a weir construction is significantly changed. These changes also reflect on the aquatic eco- system of the river. Due to these reasons, Vrbanja River has been chosen as a river at which methodology of defining environmental flow (EF) would be tested. Vrbanja River is a right tributary of Vrbas River. Its length is about 95 km. Its spring is located below the slope of Vlasic Mountain and has the total elevation difference of
about 1400 m. The River basin belongs to the moderate continental climate. Vrbanja River has a quite developed net of tributaries, among which the largest ones are Crvcka, Jakotina and Josavka. According to maps of eco-regions for rivers and lakes, WFD (Annex XI), Vrbanja river basin belongs to the region of Dinaric West Balkans. Three sampling sites at Vrbanja River were chosen: Siprage, at the most upstream part of Vrbanja river course; Donji Obodnik, at the central part of Vrbanja river course and Vrbanja, which is located at downstream part of Vrbanja river course. Since the hydrologic analyses exist only for wb Vrbanja, which has had relatively long periods of observations, measuring and processing of data by a unique methodology, hydrological data were taken over (with appropriate additional analyses) from Water Management Data Base for Vrbas river basin from 1989, which was conducted by Institute for Water Management and Energoinvest – Sarajevo. All analyses were carried out and given for the period from 1926 to 1985. Results / conclusions of the assessment and field measurement / sampling are as follows:
The lowest value of environmental flow was obtained by Matthey method and values obtained by Slovenian method were significantly higher in comparison to the other methods. Obtained results by GEP and MNQ methods are the closest to values which are taken as the estimated in present legal regulations.
In the period from the end of March until the beginning of May 2009, three
samplings were carried out on sites: V1 – Vrbanja Siprage, V2 – Vrbanja Donji Obodnik and V3 – Vrbanja at the settlement of Vrbanja.
Out of the total number of analysed quality parametres on all three mentioned
sampling sites, 88% of values are in accordance with the values, which are, by the Act, prescribed for the first and second class of water courses, whilst 12% do not meet the prescribed values. Parametres which have the biggest deviation from the prescribed values for the first and second class of water courses are: total phosphor, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Based on the results of analyses carried out in the period from 2000 to 2008, it can be seen that the water temperature and total phosphor are parametres with the most negative influence on the quality of Vrbanja River.
During the summer period, a high temperature of Vrbanja River has been recorded. The period of high temperatures lasts for about four months, from June till September and the water temperature exceeds 20ºC in that period. Also, high values of COD, phosphor and percentages of oxygen saturation have been recorded in that period. Hot water stimulates development of micro organisms and increases odour. At increased temperature, velocity of unwanted reactions, for example development of dangerous and harmful gasses, is increased. Increased temperature is dangerous for fish because of increased oxygen demand due to faster decay of present organic substances.
During the summer period and with lower flow, it is noticed that concentration of certain quality parametres is increased. Lowering of flow has had the biggest influence on increase of concentration of total phosphor. In most cases, the phosphor concentration exceeds the value prescribed by the Act on Classification of Waters and Categorisation of Water Courses (RS Official Gazette, No. 42, dated 31.08.2001, pages 857 – 865) for the first and second class of water courses. The excess of phosphor may cause eutrophication of water courses, especially in presence of large quantities of nourishing substances.
Microbiology – Sampling for purposes of determining microbiological quality
of sampling sites has been carried out in three series. Sampling, transport and handling the samples were carried out in accordance with series of standards ISO 5667 – 2, 346 and ISO 19 458 – sampling for microbiological analyses.
Total coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria of faecal origin were analysed.
Macroinvertebrate – Sampling of macroinvertebrate was carried out in
accordance with ISO 7828: 1985 – Sampling of macroinvertebrate using hand net. Upon arrival to the laboratory, the sample is immediately sorted and processed in accordance with requirements of methods for macroinvertebrata analyses (Standard methods 21th edition, 2005, 10500A, C and D, APHA – WEF – AWWA). The taxa identification is carried out by available keys for determination.
Macroinvertebrate present: Mollusca (Gastropoda - Bythinia tentaculata,
Amphimelania hollandri), Annelida (Oligochaeta - Eiseniella tetraedra, Hirudinea - Erpobdella octoculata), Arthropoda (Crustacea (Gammarus species), Insecta (Trichoptera – Hydropsichae species, Ephemeroptera – Baetis species, Rhitrogena species, Plecoptera (Perla species Perla bipunctata), Odonata (genus Gomphus, Coleoptera, Diptera – Chironomus species).
Based on calculated values for saprobity index “S” (Pantle – Buck (1955),
Vrbanja River at the sampling sites (April – May 2009) is defined within the II class of water quality.
Fish: In relation to salmon kinds, there is trout (Sallmo trutta m. fario), whilst
cyprinid kinds are: coattail (Cottus gobio), skobalj fish (Chondrostoma nasus), dace (Leuciscus cephalus), barbell (Barbus barbus barbus) and redeye (Rutilus pigus virgo).
According to the data, there is a significant influence of low water on the
water quality from the aspect of microbiologic parameters. In 2007 and 2008, the Site V-3 by all its parameters and cycles of testing was in a bad IV, i.e., V category. This must be taken into account since large quantities of municipal waters from households are discharged into Vrbanja River. Critical parameters of water quality are: temperature, dissolved gasses, acidity, pH, presence of nutritients (P, N), and heavy metals.
The comparison of the Environmental flow obtained values for Vrbanja and Trebiat rivers indicates the following:
• EF maximum values were obtained by Slovenian method • EF values by MNQ method and EF values by method as small monthly water
with 95% insured are nearest • EF values by GEP method and MNQ method for both river have the smallest
difference • EF estimate by four selected methods for two pilot areas was shown large
differences on the same cross-section - per exaple EF by Slovenian method is twenty time bigger then EF by Matthey method for Vrbanja River and Trebiat River, too. This large difference was the cause of the elimination of these methods for EF estimation.
It is important to emphasize - Four selected methods for EF estimation based on hydrological data. In these methods were not incorporated other impacts like physico- chemical parameters of water quality on the cross-sections, biological parameters, Geometry of the cross-section etc. For this reason, it is necessary EF obtained values by selected method to modificate in accordance with critical parameters that are identified and defined for Vrbanja and Trebiat River. Considering the previous analysis, particular recommendations for EF estimate are proposed, but MNQ method with certain modifications is recommended for EF estimate.
IZVRŠNI SAETAK Ovaj izvještaj je neposredan rezultat tree faze Living Neretva projekta i ukljuuje rad grupe nacionalnih strunjaka koju je predvodio strunjak na podruju ekološki prihvatljivog protoka. Izabrane su bile dvije grupe strunjaka iz Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine i Republike Srpske koje su sastavljali strunjaci s podruja hidrologije, hidromorfologije, hidrogeologije, biologije i kemije. Glavni ciljevi projekta su bili:
• ispitati etiri razliite izabrane metode za odreivanje ekološki prihvatljivog protoka na izabranom pilotnom podruju rijeke Trebiat i rijeke Vrbanja;
• poveati sposobnosti izabranih strunjaka na podruju ocjenjivanja ekološki prihvatljivog protoka;
• prikupiti podatke o hidromorfologiji, ekologiji, kemiji, korištenju i oneišenju rijeka;
• razviti preporuke za pripremu odgovarajuih podzakonskih akata o ekološki prihvatljivom protoku prema Zakonu o vodama u Bih (FBiH Zakon o vodama, lanak 62 i RS Zakon o vodama, lanak 65).
Procedura koju je tim koristio predstavlja proces za odreivanje ekološki prihvatljivog protoka na dionici rijeke Trebiat i Vrbanja i sastoji se od sljedeih koraka: - Prikupljanje podataka o rijeci (naini na koje se rijeka koristi – pritisci i uticaji, te
identifikacija i procjena rijeke i pripadajuih eko sistema); - Utvrivanje EPP (ekološki) cilj; - Procjena EPP razliitim metodama; - Identifikacija kritinih faktora; - Identifikacija vrijednosti rijeke koje treba sauvati. Za procjenu EPP, pored metode koja se koristi u bh. praksi (minimalni srednji mjeseni protok 95% vjerovatnoe pojave QEF,95%
1), odabrane su metode koje se koriste u praksi susjednih zemalja. Tako je odabrana metoda srednjeg minimalnog protoka QEF,MNQ (MNQ metoda, koristi se u R Hrvatskoj), te metoda garantovanog ekološkog protoka QEF,GEP (GEP metoda, prisutna u R Srbiji). Prijedlog Slovenske / Slovenake metoda QEF,SLO odabrana je kao metoda iz najblie EU zemlje, i, najzad, odabrana je i Matthey metoda odreivanja QEF,MAT, kao jedna od “brzih” metoda. Sve navedene spadaju u hidrološke metode. Za sve metode su opisani propusti, prednosti i nedostaci procjene EPP. Odabrano istrano podruje nalazi se u slivu sloenog vodotoka Tihaljina-Mlade- Trebiat, koji predstavlja jedan od rijetkih površinskih vodotoka u karstu zapadne Hercegovine. Sloenost hidrodinamikih karakteristika teenja u karstu, izraeni vještaki uticaji, ali i izrazite prirodne ljepote ovog kraja, osnovni su razlozi za izbor istranog podruja u slivu Trebiata. U prethodnoj fazi projekta je, nakon obilaska terena i u skladu sa raspoloivim podacima, za procjenu ekološki prihvatljivog protoka odabrana dionica od izvora Tihaljine (vodomjerna stanica Pe Mlini uzvodno-izvor) pa do vodomjerne stanice 1 metoda propisana FBIH Zakonom o vodama kao prelazno rješenje do usvajanja podzakonskog akta
Grabovo Vrelo (Mlade). Ukupna duina dionice iznosi oko 16 km, sa denivelacijom terena od oko 44 m.
Za proraun hidroloških parametara su korišteni podaci o srednjim dnevnim protocima na etiri vodomjerne stanice (VS Pe Mlini uzvodno / izvor i VS Pe Mlini nizvodno na rijeci Tihaljini, te VS Klobuk i VS Grabovo vrelo na rijeci Mlade), preuzeti iz Hidrološke studije Tihaljina-Mlade –Trebiat2. Radi poreenja rezultata, usvojen je period obrade 1975-1987. godina, odnosno period za koji se raspolagalo hidrološkim podacima za sve stanice. Nakon izvršenog prorauna po odabranim metodama, uraeno je poreenje dobivenih vrijednosti. Obzirom da se sve odabrane metode za proraun EPP baziraju samo na hidrološkim parametrima, usvojeni su i dodatni, kritini parametri u odnosu na zahjeve habitata, i to definirani kao minimalni protok pri kojem su zadovoljeni zahtjevi u odnosu na minimalnu potrebnu brzinu (vsr >= 0,3 m/s) i srednju dubinu (hsr >= 0,2 m) u profilu, pri emu i zahtjev u odnosu na dubinu i zahtjev u odnosu na brzinu mogu biti kritini parametri za ouvanje habitata za brojne riblje vrste. U periodu od 15.04.2009-14.05.2009.g. provedene su tri serije hidrometrijskih mjerenja na 4 profila navedenih vodomjernih stanica du toka vodotoka Tihaljina- Mlade. Cilj je takoe bio istraiti odnose izmeu parametara: dubine vode i protoka, te brzine vode i protoka za odabrane profile rijeke. Terenskim radovima je bilo obuhvaeno i snimanje poprenih profila, analiza substrata, itd. Dodatni kriteriji imaju vanu ulogu u…