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question to be studied from a new point of view. Micro-
scopical investigations have shown the parasite actuallyentering the lymphatic channels, the lymph glands in con-nexion with them, the interstices of the surrounding con-
nective tissue, and the blood capillaries. Each of thesemethods of entry produces a corresponding chain of sym-ptoms. Local treatment of the primary lesion, providedthat it be undertaken early, is able to attenuate in markeddegree the virulence of the infecting agent and so to retardand diminish the secondary symptoms and even obviate theirappearance altogether. M. Hallopeau recommends atoxylfor this purpose ; it may be applied to the primary sore
either as a powder, which is often ill-borne, or as a 10 percent. paste. It should be persisted in until the inflamedglands have subsided and should be supplemented by largeinjections into the buttocks. If a good preparation, suchas crystallised atoxyl or acetotoxyl, be employed the ocularsymptoms which have been attributed to this remedy arecompletely avoided. M. Hallopeau thinks that the day willcome when this method will have been made so perfect asto prevent completely the development of constitutional
syphilis.Arsenic in Wine.
At the same meeting M. Cazeneuve called the attention ofthe Academy to the danger which may result from the prac-tice. of treating vines with compounds of arsenic. He hascollected the analyses of a series of wines coming fromAlgeria, some of which came from vines treated with arsenicand others from vines not so treated. The former set showedthe presence of arsenic in amounts varying from one-tenthof a milligramme per litre to a trace. In one case where the
consumption of the wine had led to serious results theanalysis showed that eight milligrammes of the poison perlitre were present, but it is reasonable to suppose in thisinstance that its source was in some substance with whichthe wine was adulterated. Dried lees of wine gave one-tenthof a milligramme per 100 grammes. This question deservescareful attention, for the Academy might suggest what pre-cautions are necessary to keep the wine coming from"treated" vines free from arsenic.
Tke International Congress on Lo7v Temperatures.This congress will be held in Paris between Oct. 5th
and 10th of this year. It will meet in six sections whichwill consider: 1. Low Temperatures and their GeneralEffects. 2. Methods of Producing Low Temperatures. 3.The Application of Low Temperatures to the Food Supply.4. Their Application to other Industries. 5. Their Applica-tion to Commerce and Transport. 6. Legislation. Eachsection will be subdivided into several sub-sections ; the
presidents of the respective sections in the order in which wehave named them will be : M. d’Arsonval, M. Leante, M.A. Gautier, M. E. Tisseraud, M. Levasseur, and M. Cruppi.August llth.
ITALY.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
The Health of Florence.OF all the Italian cities Our Lady of Flowers " is the
most attractive to the English-speaking world, not only forthe temporary sojourner but for the visitor who "has come tostay." Indeed, the resident population in Florence of British,colonial, or American origin outnumbers by some thousandsthat of the English-speaking colony in other Italian centres-the preference thus shown being in no need of explana-tion to those who are familiar with the art treasures ofFlorence, her associations, historical, scientific, and literary,her beautiful situation and surroundings and the advantagesshe holds out to English-speaking parents for the educa-tion of their families-the daughters particularly. In asanitary point of view Florence is coming up to theBritish standard of cleanliness and salubrity, and herdeath-rate, according to the returns of the last halfyear, is no higher than 21’ 6 per 1000. This may inpart be attributed to the mildness of last winter, whichwas in favourable contrast to the winter of the yearpreceding. The mortality of the first half year of 1908was 2509, while that of the same period of 1907 was 2990.Each successive month, with the exception of June,
for which the figures were almost identical, contributed tothe diminution indicated-notably that of February whichin the 29 days of 1908 recorded 467 deaths instead of 624in the 28 days of 1907. Other statistical returns have asignificance of their own. During the first half of thetwelvemonth now in progress there were well-nigh 200 birthsin excess of those of the corresponding period of 1907, thefigures for the former being 2562, as against 2375 for thelatter. The number of marriages was almost identical forthe two periods-to wit, 762 for the first six months of 1908and 766 for that of 1907. The immigrant population for thefirst half of the twelvemonth now running amounted to3719, as against 3979 in the corresponding months of 1907,while the emigrant population reached 2786, as against 2562.The increase in the construction of dwelling-houses is alsomaintained-the ensemble of the statistics issued under theauthority of the syndic pointing to the yearly augmentingattraction held out by Florence not only to the Italian but tothe outlying (mainly English-speaking) world.
’’ " Monstra Natantia " in the Adriatic.In his purview of the terrors confronting the first mariner
Horace, strangely enough, omits to notice the mal de mer,but, on the other hand, he is quite cognisant of the " floatingmonsters" which seem to have haunted the Mediterraneanfrom the days of Jonah down to those now passing. Of late
years these monstra natantia," in the form of the pescicaneor shark, have multiplied, mainly, it is said, since the Suezcanal was opened some 60 years ago. Following the linersfrom the Indian Ocean they have penetrated to both the maresuperum and the mare inferum, haunting the neighbourhoodof the sea-bathing resorts, and, chiefly in the former, orAdriatic, proving a strong deterrent to the venturesomeswimmer. Some years ago a huge female shark had beencleverly noosed, captured, and slain by Venetian fishermenwho presently found themselves dogged by the male, pre-sumably the forlorn husband of their victim. For weeksthis " Cœlebs in search of a wife" made his presenceunpleasantly known to the bathing public at such places asSinigaglia and Rimini, insomuch that these resorts lostmuch of their usual el,ientele. They had well-nighregained it, when a few days ago they learnedwith dismay that on the Dalmatian coast two enormouspescicani were on the prowl. Off the fishing station ofMeleda two girls had ventured out in a boat to enjoy a runbefore the wind. When some distance from the shore theysaw quite close to them two sharks of portentous size, notless, it is said, than six metres each in length, coming, more-over, so ominously near that one of the girls seized an ironbar and brandished it by way of scaring them off. She losther balance and fell overboard, when, quick as lightning, oneof the sharks turned upon her and " amputated" her leg justabove the knee. The cries of her companion brought somefishing-boats to the spot and the poor girl was brought ashorehorribly mutilated. " Si dnbita che possa sopravvivere
" (it isdoubtful if she can survive) is the concluding statement ofmy correspondent.Torricelli: Celebration of the Third Anniversary of His Birth.To have demonstrated the leading properties of the
common centre of gravity of a system of connected bodiesand to have discovered the law of the flow of fluids out oforifices, thus laying the foundation of the whole science ofhydraulics, are among the many contributions of Torricellito physics which inspire his native Faenza to celebrate onOct. 24th and 25th next the 300th anniversary of his birth.Add to these his discovery of the area of the cycloid and,above all, his invention of the barometer-the so-called"Torricellian vacuum " applied to the space above the
mercury-and we can understand how the Italian Associa-tion for the Promotion of Science, at its second meet-
ing in the third week of October next in Florence,has made a "combinazione" to share with Faenza thehonour of commemorating the great mathematician and
physicist. Facilities will be provided for members, Italianand non-Italian, of the above association to intervene at theFaenza celebration, at which the orator of the occasion willbe the distinguished savant, the Senator Angelo Battelli.During the latter half of September and all through Octoberthere will be on view at Faenza an Exposition of the Artsand Industries which have added to the fame of Torricelli’s
birthplace. This will be open to all members, Italians andnon-Italians, of the association referred to as well as to all
the representatives of the universities and scientific institu-tions invited to the commemoration by the municipality ofFaenza.August 5th.
Centenary of the Birth of Professor Oppolzer.THE hundredth anniversary of the birth’ of the famous
clinician Johann Ritter von Oppolzer was celebrated in a veryimpressive manner by the Vienna medical faculty and themedical corporations on August 4th. The importance of hiscontributions to science had been recognised during his life-time, and his merits had been rewarded not only by his
distinguished success as a practitioner and consultingphysician but also by the devoted affection of his friendsand students. The statue of Oppolzer placed in the aula ofthe Vienna University bears this brief and eloquent legendbelow his name and title: "Medicus." He was reallvthe medicus at a period when Skoda’s and Rokitansky’sand Virchow’s discoveries seemed to show that organicpathological changes could not be influenced by humanintervention. Therapeutic nihilism was then at its
highest and the object of the physician at that timeseemed to be nothing else but the fixation of a definite
diagnosis, or rather of a certain anatomic lesion. Oppolzer’stherapeutic endeavours were sneered at by "those who ’,knew," but his all-embracing knowledge of the physio-logical effects of drugs and remedies, his marvellous
gift of observation, coupled with an abundant sympathyfor the sufferings of his fellows, combined to makehim the therapeutist of the Faculty. He held the balancebetween sheer strict science and the necessities of
practical life and he became an artist in medicine. Afew sentences quoted from the introductory address to hislectures on medicine illustrate well his trend of mind."It is a complete mistake to consider a man a moderndoctor because he examines his patients with the utmostexactness and remains satisfied if he find his diagnosiscorroborated by the autopsy. Such a doctor has failed toappreciate the true aim of medicine, which is to cure the
patient." "Therapeutic intervention must be the result ofa rational pathology." " Empiric remedies must be employedif their action is proved to be beneficial." "Change of dietand hygienic precautions are very often the only remediesrequired." Oppolzer’s death was no less remarkable thanhad been his career. He fell a victim to blackwater fever,which he himself diagnosed and upheld his opinion in
opposition to that of Skoda. His delirious utterances con-sisted of medical lectures and one of his last utterances wasthis, ’’ The drugs will help, if one only knows where andwhen to use them." The centenary was celebrated at thegrave of the professor. The president of the Vienna MedicalSociety, Professor Chrobak, the rector of the university, themembers of the Oppolzer family, and many eminent menwere present. Professor Chrobak said that the presentposition of therapeutics, sero-therapy, and the large numbersof specific drugs at the disposal of the physician bore outfully the correctness of Oppolzer’s ideas, whilst it was nowfully recognised that cure" " was the highest aim of themedical man. The statue of the professor was decorated andseveral other speeches were delivered on this occasion.
Unveiling of a Statue of Professor Dittel.A statue in memory of the late Professor Dittel, the
founder of modern urology, was unveiled recently in the hallof the Vienna University in the presence of many medicalmen and representatives of medical corporations. Dittel’wasfamous for the quickness and correctness of his diagnosisand his witty remarks often helped to cheer up his patients.The inscription on the statue says, " Qui suam artem moriensdestituit emendare. "
The Examination oj’the litnetions of the Infantile Stomach.Docent Dr. Schiitz recently read, before the Society of
Paediatrics a paper on a new method of examining infantilegastric digestion. The normal stomach is empty after 1hours if human milk is ingested, and three hours after cow’smilk has been drunk. The author gives the child- a testmeal consisting of some tea and toast, and three hours later
three ounces (100 grammes) of cow’s milk or human milk.After one hour he introduces a doubled-windowed catheterinto the stomach, the contents are obtained, and the quantitymeasured. If more than from 45 to 50 per cent. of the ingestabe recovered the function is abnormal. Chemical examinationis not trustworthy in infants, as the acidity of the stomachdepends at this age partly on the derivates of lacto-albumin,hydrochloric and lactic acid, and the products of fat splitting.It is not likely that fat can have been split up or lactic acidformed in any considerable quantity one hour after drinking100 grammes of milk. If the stomach contents show thesetwo products within an hour then we must assume that theyare either derived from the test meal or from the meal takenfour hours before. In the latter case the muscular functionmust be impaired. As the two bodies in question can beextracted by ether their presence is easily detected. In thenormal stomach the acidity of the ethereal stomach extractis nil.
Docent Dr. Strasser, in a communication to the MedicalSociety, explained his experiments with water charged withemanations of radium. He used "radiogen," a substancewhich gives off emanation and can thus charge distilledwater. The emanation is a gas which blackens photographicfilms and, ionises the air. The quantity of the emanation inthe water has been measured by a gold leaf electroscope. Dr.Strasser has used the water both for drinking and for bath-ing. He has found that the emanation enters the body, not.through the skin, but by inhalation. Persons inhaling largequantities of the emanation show it both in the urine and theexpired air. For the drinking cure it is better to take
artificially prepared waters than the natural radio-activewaters, as the former can be charged much more highly thanthe latter ever can be ; even the small quantities of emana-tion in the Gastein water are sufficient to produce ’’ bathintoxication," increase of symptoms, vertigo, and disturbancesof the circulation. Some authors have reported that ingestionof 10,000 to 15,000 volt units are sufficient to cause thesesymptoms; some have seen albuminuria and others hæmat-emesis in consequence of the reaction, but Dr. Strasser has*not met with such violent consequences. He used from
50,000 to 100,000 volt units, giving it to 30 cases ofsciatica, tabes, chronic and subacute rheumatoid arthritis." In 20 cases he has seen a reaction : increase of pain andrecrudescence of inflammatory joint disease. It came on
mostly between the third and sixth day and disappearedafter from two to three days. He has cured nine cases (fiveof sciatica and four of arthritis). Improvement does notdepend upon the dose used nor upon the reaction. No othertreatment was allowed during the observations. It wasfound that the peptic power of the stomach was consider-ably increased by moderate doses. Dysmenorrhoeio sym-ptoms were made worse and neuralgic pains were benefited.The duration of the treatment was from 10 to 60’ days. In-halation of the emanation itself did not seem to have mucheffect on a series of patients, whilst in some cases thenatural emanation seems to act favourably through thelungs. The method is worthy of further experiments inorder to elucidate its mode of action and to fix theindications for the future. Such experiments may wellbe forthcoming, for the Royal Academy of Science has beeninformed by a benefactor, who wishes to remain anonymous,that he has placed at its disposal a sum of 500,000 crowns(.620,000) for the purpose of endowing a " radium institute
in Vienna. The purpose of the donation is to enable a
thoroughly scientific research into the nature of the puzzlingelement to be made. Not only the chemical and physicalproperties but also the physiological effects of radium are tobe studied by competent scientists at the institute, which,although it will be in close connexion with the existinginstitute for physics, will have an independent existence.As there is a comparatively large quantity of pure radium(about 46 grammes) at present in the hands of the Academy,and as the chief place at which it is found is Joachimsthalin Austria, the thorough research made possible by the
ample means at disposal will help to make Vienna a centreof what may be strictly termed "radiology." The donor hasmade provisions that not only Austrians but students from allcountries may work in the laboratory free of cost. It is tobe hoped that medical knowledge will reap a fair share ofthe fruits of this generous gift to science.August 6th.