IRPP Study - A New Pension Plan for Canadians

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  • 8/6/2019 IRPP Study - A New Pension Plan for Canadians


    A New Pension Plan for


    Assessing the Options

    Keith Horner

    No. 18, July 2011



    When the features and effects of various pension reform options are

    compared, a new, national, mandatory, defined-benefit plan, such as an

    enrichment of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans, would provide the

    greatest benefits to plan participants and the economy.

    Lanalyse comparative de trois options de rforme du systme de pension

    rvle que cest la mise en uvre dun rgime national obligatoire

    prestations dtermines (en largissant, par exemple, le Rgime de pensions

    du Canada et le Rgime de rentes du Qubec) qui assurerait un meilleur

    revenu de retraite aux adhrents et serait le plus avantageux pour lconomie.


    Since 19

  • 8/6/2019 IRPP Study - A New Pension Plan for Canadians



    Summary 1

    Rsum 2

    The Current Retirement Income System 4

    The Case for Reform 5

    Reform Options 13

    Assessing the Options 18

    Conclusion 27

    Appendix A: Modelling the Future Effects of TFSAs 30

    Appendix B: Data for Contribution Flow Estimates 35

    Acknowledgements 37

    Notes 37

    References 39

    About This Study 41

    The opinions expressed in this study are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the IRPPor its Board of Directors.

    IRPP Study is a refereed monographic series that is published irregularly throughout the year. Each study issubject to rigorous internal and external peer review for academic soundness and policy relevance.

    IRPP Study replaces IRPP Choices and IRPP Policy Matters. IRPP publications are available for download

    If you have questions about our publications, please contact If you would like to subscribe to ournewsletter, Thinking Ahead, please go to our Web site, at

    ISSN 1920-9436 (Online) ISSN 1920-9428 (Print)

    ISBN 978-0-88645-253-7 (Online) ISBN 978-0-88645-254-4 (Print)

  • 8/6/2019 IRPP Study - A New Pension Plan for Canadians


    IRPP Study, No. 18, July 2011 1


    Over the past 40 years, Canadas retirement income system has provided satisfactory pension

    incomes for growing numbers of retirees and dramatically reduced poverty among seniors.

    Despite this performance, however, pressure is increasing for reform. As many as 25 to 30 per-

    cent of todays modest- and middle-income workers are not saving enough to avoid a signifi-cant drop in their living standards at retirement. And current trends increasing longevity

    and an aging population, lower expected rates of return on investment, declining coverage of

    employer-sponsored registered pension plans (RPPs) and weaknesses in RRSP saving are

    expected to exacerbate these shortfalls.

    In response to these trends, diverse groups have proposed introducing some form of new

    government-sponsored pension plan to strengthen the system. In this study Keith Horner

    assesses some of these proposals. He first examines plan design issues that would arise depend-

    ing on the type of plan selected. He then sets out three illustrative pension plans with the

    same contribution structures and compares their net effect on retirement saving and futureretirement income, their labour market implications and their interaction with existing pen-

    sion and savings plans, in particular, the recently introduced tax-free savings accounts.

    The options examined are a mandatory defined-benefit (DB) plan and two defined-

    contribution (DC) savings plans, one mandatory and the other voluntary. Horners proposed

    DB plan entails a modest expansion of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans that would raise

    the benefit rate from 25 to 40 percent of earnings up to $48,300, and from 0 to 25 percent of

    earnings between $48,300 and $96,600. Combined employer/employee contribution rates

    would be 3.6 percent of earnings below $48,300 and 6 percent above.

    Based on his comparative analysis, Horner concludes that the DB option would provide some-

    what higher benefits per dollar of contribution than would the DC options. Because DB plans

    enable risk pooling among age cohorts, they can achieve higher investment returns through

    longer investment horizons and slightly greater exposure to risk. A DB structure would also

    provide participants with more secure and predictable benefits than would the DC plans.

    The author also points out that a mandatory, government-sponsored plan of either type (DB

    or DC) would be better than single-employer RPPs, as it would not hamper labour mobility or

    encourage early retirement. These positive effects would be greater under a DB plan that

    would likely replace existing single-employer RPPs.

    The main concern with mandatory plans is that the contributions required could have nega-

    tive employment effects, particularly among lower-income earners. This is why Horner pro-

    poses a plan of modest scale. He also suggests measures to limit the contribution rate increases

    for lower-income workers.

  • 8/6/2019 IRPP Study - A New Pension Plan for Canadians


    IRPP Study, No. 18, July 20112


    Le systme de revenu de retraite du Canada a procur depuis 40 ans un revenu de pension satis-

    faisant un nombre croissant de retraits tout en rduisant considrablement la pauvret chez

    les personnes ges. Mais il nen est pas moins urgent de le rformer. Car lheure actuelle,

    25 30 p. 100 des travailleurs revenu faible et moyen pargnent trop peu pour viter ds leur

    retraite un recul significatif de leur niveau de vie. Et ce manque gagner devrait saggraver sous

    leffet de plusieurs tendances : longvit accrue, vieillissement dmographique, taux de rende-

    ment des investissements infrieurs aux prvisions, moindre couverture des rgimes de pension

    agrs (RPA) demployeur et maigres cotisations aux REER.

    Pour faire face ces tendances, diffrents groupes recommandent aux gouvernements de ren-

    forcer le systme en crant, sous une forme ou une autre, un nouveau rgime de pension.

    Keith Horner analyse ici certaines de ces propositions, cernant tout dabord leurs problmes de

    conception. Puis, il labore trois rgimes types ayant la mme structure de cotisation, et com-

    pare leur effet net sur lpargne-retraite et le futur revenu de retraite, leur incidence sur lemarch du travail et leur interaction avec les rgimes de retraite et dpargne existants, notam-

    ment les nouveaux comptes dpargne libres dimpt.

    Les trois options values consistent en un rgime de retraite prestations dtermines (PD)

    obligatoire et deux rgimes cotisations dtermines (CD), lun obligatoire, lautre facultatif.

    Le rgime PD que lauteur propose ncessiterait une lgre expansion du Rgime de pensions

    du Canada et du Rgime de rentes du Qubec en vue daugmenter le taux de prestation de

    25 40 p. 100 pour les revenus infrieurs 48 300 dollars et de 0 25 p. 100 pour les revenus

    de 48 300 96 600 dollars. Les taux de cotisation combins employeur-employ slveraient

    3,6 p. 100 des revenus de moins de 48 300 dollars et 6 p. 100 des revenus suprieurs.

    Selon cette analyse comparative, le rgime PD offrirait des prestations un peu plus leves

    par dollar de cotisation que les deux rgimes CD. Parce quils permettent la mise en com-

    mun des risques entre cohortes dge, les rgimes PD assureraient un meilleur rendement en

    favorisant des horizons dinvestissement plus longs et un niveau dexposition au risque un

    peu plus lev. De plus, ils offriraient leurs adhrents des prestations plus sres et plus

    prvisibles quun rgime CD.

    Keith Horner estime aussi quun rgime obligatoire mis en place par les gouvernements, quil

    soit PD ou CD, serait prfrable un RPA employeur unique puisquil nentraverait pas la

    mobilit de la main-duvre et ninciterait pas les travailleurs prendre une retraite anticipe.

    Ces deux avantages seraient plus importants sous un rgime PD, qui pourrait remplacer les

    RPA employeur unique existants.

    La principale crainte lie aux rgimes obligatoires concerne les possibles effets ngatifs quau-

    raient les cotisations requises sur lemploi, surtout chez les travailleurs faible revenu. Cest

    pourquoi lauteur propose un rgime dchelle modeste et des mesures limitant laugmenta-

    tion des taux de cotisation pour ces travailleurs.

  • 8/6/2019 IRPP Study - A New Pension Plan for Canadians


    3IRPP Study, No. 18, July 2011

    A New Pension Plan for Canadians: Assessing the Options

    Keith Horner

    Despite the strong performance of Canadas retirement income system over recent

    decades, pressure is increasing for its reform. Canadas system relies more heavily

    than most on saving in private pension and savings plans, and many observers have con-

    cerns about the continuing adequacy and effectiveness of this saving. Private pension

    coverage has been in steady decline; long-standing pension plans are threatened by slow

    growth in contributions, fast growth in benefits and a decline in investment returns; and

    voluntary saving in individual plans is showing increasing weakness as an alternative.

    Commissions in four provinces have called not only for improvements to the regulatory

    framework for private pension plans but also for governments to initiate the development

    of new large-scale, low-cost pension plans.1 Groups includ