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IPv6 and Packet Tracer. Jim Bergquist [email protected] Lakes Country Service Cooperative Karen Alderson [email protected] Networking Academy Technical Advocacy. Purpose of This Session. Scope of this session - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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IPv6 and Packet TracerJim Bergquist [email protected] Lakes Country Service CooperativeKaren Alderson [email protected] Academy Technical Advocacy

2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicIPv6 & Packet Tracer#1 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrPurpose of This SessionScope of this sessionTopics sufficient to give students and instructors a basic knowledge of how IPv6 worksDemos, with Packet Tracer files and lab activitiesLinks to resources that cover more IPv6 topicsTo provide a working knowledge to instructors and students for building and troubleshooting simple IPv6 networksIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public2The goal today is for you to feel comfortable building, configuring and troubleshooting small IPv6 networks.We will give you some Packet Tracer files that your students can useBecause a number of topics will be omitted, links to more resources are included in the slide deck.

2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scr

Visualizing the IPv6 Address SpaceIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicEarth drawing credit: http://flickr.com/photos/ontdesign/http://search.creativecommons.org/ Visualizing the IPv6 Address SpaceAssign one IPv6 address per grain of sandHow many grains of sand would be needed to use all IPv6 addresses?Fill Earth-sized containers with the sand128 bit addresses2 128 is a very large number

Fill hereHollowEarth-sizedcontainerIPv6 address2009:1:3:4EFF:2C:16BA:3D:B012/112SandGrain IPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public4If you assigned one IPv6 address to a grain of sand, how many grains of sand would be needed to use all possible IPv6 address numbers?Start by filling an Earth-sized container 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrVisualizing the IPv6 Address SpaceThe Earth-sized containers would make 20 circles around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto)

Our Solar System

Blue dots are Earth- sized containers

Based on image from public image gallery at http://www.eso.org/ IPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public5We would need enough Earth-sized containers to circle our Solar system 50 times at its outer diameter, which is Plutos orbit. If you would like to see the calculation, email [email protected] size of sand grains vary. So the calculation results in 20 to 50 times around the Earth at Plutos orbit 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scr

IPv6 Address Format and Types of AddressesMore information is available in the referenced resourcesIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicWhat IPv6 Addresses Look Like128 bits are separated into eight blocks of 16 bitsEach 16-bit block is represented in hex and delimited with colons:2001:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5AIn each 16-bit block, leading zeros may be removed:2001:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A2001:D3:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5AIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public7IPv6 addresses are 128 bits, grouped as eight blocks of 16 bits.In hex notation, it is eight groups of four digitsLeading zeros in a block can be removed, as in the third bullet point. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrZero Compression (or Shortform)Consecutive 16-bit blocks of zeroes can be replaced with a double-colon (::)FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 can be compressed to FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 The multicast address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 can be compressed to FF02::2Zero compression can only be used once in a given addressOtherwise, you could not determine the number of 0 bits represented by each double-colon instanceIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public8A further shortening can be obtained by compressing two or more blocks of zeros, and representing this with the :: symbol.This may be done only once in an address. To see why (next slide) 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrTeaching TipIf students have trouble seeing why only one double colon is allowed, give them an example of what would happen if you allowed it. The following two addresses could both be shortened to the third address, so there would be ambiguity2001:0:0:0:355:0:0:72001:0:0:355:0:0:0:72001::355::7NOT ALLOWEDIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public9If you allowed two of the :: in an address, more than one IPv6 address could be represented by that shortform.We would lose the one-to-one relationship. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrIPv6 Address Prefix LengthAn address prefix is indicated by the prefix length following a / at the end of the address. Example: 2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64The prefix length (number of upper bits) is 64This means the lower 64 bits are used for hostsIt is used the same way as CIDR in IPv4Subnet masks are not used in IPv6IPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public10IPv6 uses CIDR notation, as IPv4 does. IPv6 does NOT use subnet masks. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrTeaching TipsTo remove the mystery from numbers like B and D3ATo see why 32 hex digits represents 128 binary bitsTo understand where the network and host portion are, using a classless designation, /To understand how stateless autoconfiguration is doneWhy emphasize hexadecimal and hex-to-binary conversion?Fortunately, hex-to-binary conversion is easy

Consider having students memorize the binary equivalent of the 16 hex digitsIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public11Students should be comfortable converting hex to binary and back. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrFun Teaching FactsThe Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will allocate from 2001::/16 for the time beinghttp://www.zytrax.com/tech/protocols/ipv6.html#global Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 are non-routable and should be used in examples given in documentation for networking scenarios or tutorialshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6 Windows 7 Server, when it is released, will have powerful VPN capabilities. IPv6 needs to be deployedhttp://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9118322 IPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public12The IANA has decided to assign IPv6 addresses from the IPv6 prefix for the time being. That is equivalent to emptying one of the Earth-sized containers before starting on another one.There is a recommended prefix for use in documentation: 2001:DB8::Real-life applications of IPv6 are gradually approaching. You can read about its use in a VPN application in Windows 7 Server in the link at the bottom. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrTypes of IPv6 AddressesUnicast (one to one)Multicast (one to many)Anycast (one to nearest, according to a metric)No broadcasts in IPv6Unicast addresses will be used in this sessionSee additional resources for other definitionsSee a description of address types

IPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public13To focus on the material we need for Packet Tracer labs, we will work only with unicast addresses in this session.

Designers of IPv6 addressed known vulnerabilities of IPv4. One of those known vulnerabilities is broadcast storms. If you eliminate the use of broadcast addresses, then you eliminate the possibility of broadcast storms.

2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrUnicast IPv6 AddressesDifferentiated by their scope, as follows:Link-local addressesonly on single link, not routedFE80 prefixUnique-local addressesrouted only within private networkFC00 prefixGlobal unicast addressesglobally routable2001 prefix currently being issuedGlobal addresses use a 64 bit host portionIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public14We will point out each type of address when it occurs by noticing the prefix. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scr

IPv6 Address AssignmentIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicIPv6 Address AssignmentManually (static)Stateless auto-configurationIPv6 dhcp (Stateful autoconfiguration)Link-local addresses are configured automaticallyNo arp in IPv6. It is replaced by Neighbor Discovery (ND)Addresses can be assigned in these waysIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public16We will practice assigning addresses using the first two methods. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrIPv6 Stateless AutoconfigurationHost automatically configures its own link-local addressWith link-local address, a host discovers connected routers to obtain a global prefixA host then builds its own global unicast addressSee the provided Activity:Build an IPv6 EUI-64 address.docIPv6 & Packet Tracer# 2009 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public17This is how a host can obtain an IPv6 address automatically.Three steps are involved.Details are provided in the handout, in which you and your students can manually build an EUI address using the method of stateless autoconfiguration and compare it to the address created by a Physical host or Packet Tracer host. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPv6 & Packet Tracer.scrStateless AutoconfigurationDHCPv6 is n

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