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Investigatory Project Proposal in Integrated Science 1

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Investigatory Project Proposal in Integrated Science 1Prepared by: PESTAO, Camille (25) PON-AN, Charlene Joyce (26) NIO, Maureen Emily (23) I- RUBY

Can Water Harness Be Determined through Soap Bubbles?Purpose: To see if it is possible to estimate the hardness of a variety of waters from various wells and public water supply sources solely by their bubble activity after being mixed with soap and shaken.

PROBLEMvCan water hardness be determined through soap bubbles?

HYPOTHESIS We think that if we will test the amount of bubbles produced when a mixture of a water sample and soap is shaken then we can determine the hardness of water.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Controlled Variables Amount of water Amount of soap Amount of Calcium Chloride Manipulated Variables Amount of bubbles Responding Variable Water Hardness

5 1-liter containers 5 liters distilled water Calcium Chloride (Magnesium chloride can be substituted) Test tubes ( one for each benchmark solution and one for each water sample tested) Pipettes Liquid hand soap Stoppers for the test tubes Black marking pen Test tube racks Tap water from various locations that could include either a well or a public water supply Hard water test kit (drop titration kit)


1) Prepare 1 liter of each of the hard and soft water benchmark solutions. The benchmark solutions will be of 5 different grades of distilled water containing the calcium chloride-a soft water solution (containing 0-17.1 mg/L), a slightly hard water solution (17.1-60 mg/L),a moderately hard water solution(60-120 mg/L), a hard water solution(120-180 mg/L), and a very hard water solution(180+ mg/L).


2) Pour each solution into a separate test tube, filling it 1/3 of the way up. 3) Drop 1 drop of liquid hand soap into each test tube with the pipette. Cap the tubes with the stoppers and shake vigorously for 10 seconds each. Then use a black marking pen to indicate the highest point on the test tube that the bubbles reached. These will become your benchmark samples. Place them in a test tube rack.

4) Take the first sample of tap water to be tested and pour 1/3 of the way up in a test tube. Drop 1 drop of liquid hand soap into the test tube and shake vigorously for 10 seconds. Then, with the black marking pen, indicate the highest point on the test tube that the bubbles reached. Repeat this step for each water sample.

5) Once all your water samples are tested, compare the amount of bubbles generated in each sample test tube with those of the benchmark test tubes and match the sample results with similar results obtained from the benchmark group. Record your observations. For example, if one water sample produced the same amount of bubbles as a benchmark tube that contains minerals that are between 120-180mg/L, then record this observation with your estimate that the water in your sample is probably hard water.

6) Once you have compared all of your water samples, perform the actual hard water test on each sample with the test kit. There are various test kits on the market for this procedure. Probably, the easiest one to use is a drop titration kit. Follow the directions for testing hard water that comes with the test kit. Record your results. 7) Now, compare the actual results with the results you obtained from the bubble test and note your results. 8) Graph the data.


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