Introduction to Smart Meters

  • View
    222

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Introduction to Smart Meters

  • 8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters

    1/15

    Centre for Distributed Generation and Sustainable

    Electrical Energy

    Development of Technical Concepts of DSPinto Smart Meters

    K. Samarakoon, J.Ekanayake, N.Jenkins

    December 2008

  • 8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters

    2/15

    Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives

    Pages 1 of 14

    Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into

    Smart Meters

    Introduction and world-wide initiatives

    ContentsContents ........................................................................................................................... 1

    Introduction...................................................................................................................... 2

    Smart Meter [6][7] ........................................................................................................... 2

    Initiatives in the UK to deploy smart meters ................................................................... 4

    Worldwide initiatives and policies to deploy smart meters ............................................. 5

    Italy [7][19].................................................................................................................. 5

    United States [2][7][39] ............................................................................................... 6

    Sweden [1][7][23]........................................................................................................ 6

    Canada [7][20][21][22]............................................................................................... 7

    Northern Ireland [1][7][23].......................................................................................... 7

    Netherlands [1][7]........................................................................................................ 7Australia (Victoria) [1][7] [23].................................................................................... 8

    Smart meter technologies and demand side participation (DSP)..................................... 8

    Retrofitting existing meters.......................................................................................... 8

    AMR with usage information through the Internet...................................................... 9

    Use of AMR Interval maters with AMI expansion capabilities .................................. 9

    AMR Interval meters with wireless smart displays ................................................... 10

    Smart meter with embedded intelligence [29]........................................................... 10

    PriceLight [30] ...................................................................................................... 10

    DSP through demand response management [DRM].................................................... 10

    Demand response [DR] through peak load reduction programs................................ 10

    DRM through management companies ..................................................................... 11

    Smart devices for DRM ............................................................................................. 11

    Standardisation of smart meters functionality for DSP................................................ 11

    ERAs Supplier Requirements for Smart Metering (SRSM) Project ........................ 12

    References...................................................................................................................... 13

  • 8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters

    3/15

    Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives

    Pages 2 of 14

    Introduction

    The interest for demand side participation (DSP) through efficient use of energy has

    recently increased as an attempt to reduce green house gas emissions and to reduce the

    increasing dependence of imported fossil fuels. However the presently installed electro-mechanical meters, particularly at the household consumer premises, do not support

    DSP initiatives. As a solution, the benefits of installing smart meters have been

    discussed in various forums. The provisions to install smart meters are mandated at

    legislative levels in Sweden [1], USA [2], Canada [3] and European Union (EU) [4]. In

    the UK, pilot programs and a series of policy initiatives are taking place. In some other

    countries pilot programs have been started.

    The DSP through smart meters is expected in three ways.

    Consumer behaviour changes through feedback [5] of accurate information ofenergy consumption with flexible tariffs schemes (Time of the Day, Time of Use

    etc.) thus allowing efficient use of energy.

    Demand control during critical peak events.

    Consumer participation in energy supply through domestic micro-generation.

    In addition, suppliers can use accurate online information obtained through smart

    meters for better network planning, operation and management.

    In order to provide these facilities, a smart meter system should have a two-way

    communication preferably with higher data rate and associated functionalities. If such a

    communication network is available, additional facilities and services can be provided

    to the consumers as well as suppliers.

    Smart Meter [6][7]

    Although currently there is no universal definition for a smart meter, a meter that can

    perform additional duties other than accurately measuring consumption and displaying

    the consumption can be considered as a smart meter.

    Smart meter technology can be broadly categorised in the increasing order of

    sophistication as follows:

    Automated Meter Reading (AMR)

    Automated Meter Management (AMM)

    Interval metering with Automated Meter Management (AMM)

    Prepayment Meters (PPM) Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)

    Commercially available meters have overlapping functionalities, but in general, the

    functionalities can be broadly grouped as given below.

  • 8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters

    4/15

    Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives

    Pages 3 of 14

    Functions AMR AMM

    Intervalmetering with

    AMM PPM AMI

    Has a communication link from meter to supplier toread meter remotely

    Has a communication link from supplier to meter Network operator can remotely limit energy supply anddisconnect if required

    Tariffs could be changed remotely

    Real time data can be displayed to user

    Fraud and temper protection Measure energy consumption and more information atshorter intervals (half hourly or less) and store and sendto the supplier

    Can have multiple tariffs structures (Time-of-use tariffs) Supplier can switch the meter between credit or

    prepayment

    Remote calibration facility Can provide detailed information such as historic costand credit remaining

    Allow to change the tenancy

    Credit entry through keypad

    Can add credit remotely

    Can control appliances remotely Provide facilities for network design, operation,management

    Table1. Comparison of functions of different smart meter technology

    Benefits AMR AMM

    Intervalmetering

    withAMM PPM AMI

    Manual meter reading is not required hence reduce thecost and practical difficulties of meter reading Allow to produce bills on actual readings rather thaninaccurate estimated bills Customer can change the supplier quickly as accuratemeter readings are available

    Detect and notify fraud when a meter has beentampered with Visits and manual re-setting of meter is not necessarywhen price and tariff changes Make customer energy, cost and efficient aware so thatconsumption is adjusted to reduce the cost

    Improved facilities for pre-paid customers Could help to avert large scale black-outs throughcontrolled load shedding during critical peak events

    Table2. Comparison of benefits of different smart meter technology

  • 8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters

    5/15

    Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives

    Pages 4 of 14

    Initiatives in the UK to deploy smart meters

    History and Progress:o The UK has thirty years of advanced metering history. This started in the

    mid 1980s. However, with the energy-industry re-structuring and the

    introduction of retail competition of meter development, no significant

    progress had been taken place from 1990-98 except for a few attempts[6].

    o From 2000 onwards, four significant policy reports were produced.Despite the efforts, consultations, reviews and policy initiatives, the

    policy-push on smart meters stalled [6].

    o In December 2005, the European Parliament issued a directive [4] onenergy end-user efficiency improvement. It requires member countries

    to provide meters that give actual energy consumption and actual time of

    use to improve the efficiency of demand side.

    o Between 2005 to 2007 Energy Watch proposed to introduce smartmeters to benefit energy suppliers, consumers, energy distributors and

    finally the environment. From the consumers, it is expected to have a

    behavioural change using the updated information provided via a smart

    meter [8][9]. Also it analysed the cost benefits of smart meters [10].

    o In February 2006, Ofgem issued a consultancy [7] to find out theactions to be taken to introduce smart meters in the context of the UKs

    competitive domestic metering