Introduction to Smart Meters

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<ul><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 1/15</p><p>Centre for Distributed Generation and Sustainable</p><p>Electrical Energy</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSPinto Smart Meters</p><p>K. Samarakoon, J.Ekanayake, N.Jenkins</p><p>December 2008</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 2/15</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>Pages 1 of 14</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into</p><p>Smart Meters</p><p>Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>ContentsContents ........................................................................................................................... 1</p><p>Introduction...................................................................................................................... 2</p><p>Smart Meter [6][7] ........................................................................................................... 2</p><p>Initiatives in the UK to deploy smart meters ................................................................... 4</p><p>Worldwide initiatives and policies to deploy smart meters ............................................. 5</p><p>Italy [7][19].................................................................................................................. 5</p><p>United States [2][7][39] ............................................................................................... 6</p><p>Sweden [1][7][23]........................................................................................................ 6</p><p>Canada [7][20][21][22]............................................................................................... 7</p><p>Northern Ireland [1][7][23].......................................................................................... 7</p><p>Netherlands [1][7]........................................................................................................ 7Australia (Victoria) [1][7] [23].................................................................................... 8</p><p>Smart meter technologies and demand side participation (DSP)..................................... 8</p><p>Retrofitting existing meters.......................................................................................... 8</p><p>AMR with usage information through the Internet...................................................... 9</p><p>Use of AMR Interval maters with AMI expansion capabilities .................................. 9</p><p>AMR Interval meters with wireless smart displays ................................................... 10</p><p>Smart meter with embedded intelligence [29]........................................................... 10</p><p>PriceLight [30] ...................................................................................................... 10</p><p>DSP through demand response management [DRM].................................................... 10</p><p>Demand response [DR] through peak load reduction programs................................ 10</p><p>DRM through management companies ..................................................................... 11</p><p>Smart devices for DRM ............................................................................................. 11</p><p>Standardisation of smart meters functionality for DSP................................................ 11</p><p>ERAs Supplier Requirements for Smart Metering (SRSM) Project ........................ 12</p><p>References...................................................................................................................... 13</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 3/15</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>Pages 2 of 14</p><p>Introduction</p><p>The interest for demand side participation (DSP) through efficient use of energy has</p><p>recently increased as an attempt to reduce green house gas emissions and to reduce the</p><p>increasing dependence of imported fossil fuels. However the presently installed electro-mechanical meters, particularly at the household consumer premises, do not support</p><p>DSP initiatives. As a solution, the benefits of installing smart meters have been</p><p>discussed in various forums. The provisions to install smart meters are mandated at</p><p>legislative levels in Sweden [1], USA [2], Canada [3] and European Union (EU) [4]. In</p><p>the UK, pilot programs and a series of policy initiatives are taking place. In some other</p><p>countries pilot programs have been started.</p><p>The DSP through smart meters is expected in three ways.</p><p> Consumer behaviour changes through feedback [5] of accurate information ofenergy consumption with flexible tariffs schemes (Time of the Day, Time of Use</p><p>etc.) thus allowing efficient use of energy.</p><p> Demand control during critical peak events.</p><p> Consumer participation in energy supply through domestic micro-generation.</p><p>In addition, suppliers can use accurate online information obtained through smart</p><p>meters for better network planning, operation and management.</p><p>In order to provide these facilities, a smart meter system should have a two-way</p><p>communication preferably with higher data rate and associated functionalities. If such a</p><p>communication network is available, additional facilities and services can be provided</p><p>to the consumers as well as suppliers.</p><p>Smart Meter [6][7]</p><p>Although currently there is no universal definition for a smart meter, a meter that can</p><p>perform additional duties other than accurately measuring consumption and displaying</p><p>the consumption can be considered as a smart meter.</p><p>Smart meter technology can be broadly categorised in the increasing order of</p><p>sophistication as follows:</p><p> Automated Meter Reading (AMR)</p><p> Automated Meter Management (AMM)</p><p> Interval metering with Automated Meter Management (AMM)</p><p> Prepayment Meters (PPM) Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)</p><p>Commercially available meters have overlapping functionalities, but in general, the</p><p>functionalities can be broadly grouped as given below.</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 4/15</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>Pages 3 of 14</p><p>Functions AMR AMM</p><p>Intervalmetering with</p><p>AMM PPM AMI</p><p>Has a communication link from meter to supplier toread meter remotely </p><p>Has a communication link from supplier to meter Network operator can remotely limit energy supply anddisconnect if required </p><p>Tariffs could be changed remotely </p><p>Real time data can be displayed to user </p><p>Fraud and temper protection Measure energy consumption and more information atshorter intervals (half hourly or less) and store and sendto the supplier</p><p>Can have multiple tariffs structures (Time-of-use tariffs) Supplier can switch the meter between credit or</p><p>prepayment </p><p>Remote calibration facility Can provide detailed information such as historic costand credit remaining </p><p>Allow to change the tenancy </p><p>Credit entry through keypad </p><p>Can add credit remotely </p><p>Can control appliances remotely Provide facilities for network design, operation,management </p><p>Table1. Comparison of functions of different smart meter technology</p><p>Benefits AMR AMM</p><p>Intervalmetering</p><p>withAMM PPM AMI</p><p>Manual meter reading is not required hence reduce thecost and practical difficulties of meter reading Allow to produce bills on actual readings rather thaninaccurate estimated bills Customer can change the supplier quickly as accuratemeter readings are available </p><p>Detect and notify fraud when a meter has beentampered with Visits and manual re-setting of meter is not necessarywhen price and tariff changes Make customer energy, cost and efficient aware so thatconsumption is adjusted to reduce the cost </p><p>Improved facilities for pre-paid customers Could help to avert large scale black-outs throughcontrolled load shedding during critical peak events </p><p>Table2. Comparison of benefits of different smart meter technology</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 5/15</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>Pages 4 of 14</p><p>Initiatives in the UK to deploy smart meters</p><p> History and Progress:o The UK has thirty years of advanced metering history. This started in the</p><p>mid 1980s. However, with the energy-industry re-structuring and the</p><p>introduction of retail competition of meter development, no significant</p><p>progress had been taken place from 1990-98 except for a few attempts[6].</p><p>o From 2000 onwards, four significant policy reports were produced.Despite the efforts, consultations, reviews and policy initiatives, the</p><p>policy-push on smart meters stalled [6].</p><p>o In December 2005, the European Parliament issued a directive [4] onenergy end-user efficiency improvement. It requires member countries</p><p>to provide meters that give actual energy consumption and actual time of</p><p>use to improve the efficiency of demand side.</p><p>o Between 2005 to 2007 Energy Watch proposed to introduce smartmeters to benefit energy suppliers, consumers, energy distributors and</p><p>finally the environment. From the consumers, it is expected to have a</p><p>behavioural change using the updated information provided via a smart</p><p>meter [8][9]. Also it analysed the cost benefits of smart meters [10].</p><p>o In February 2006, Ofgem issued a consultancy [7] to find out theactions to be taken to introduce smart meters in the context of the UKs</p><p>competitive domestic metering services market and also to realise the</p><p>benefits of smart meters.</p><p>o In November 2006, the DTI issued the energy review consultation [11]to mandate and consult the provisions on detailed bills and smart meters.</p><p>The response was issued in July 2007.</p><p>o In April 2007, the BERR issued a report [12] on the costs and benefits ofroll out options of smart meter and discussed various technology options</p><p>of meters, displays, communications and roll out scenarios.o In May 2007, the DTI issued the White Paper on Energy [13] which</p><p>expected to introduce smart meters for saving energy within the next</p><p>decade. In August 2007 BERR issued a consultation [14] on policies</p><p>presented in the White Paper and in April 2008 issued the Government</p><p>response to the consultation.</p><p>o The Energy Demand Research Project (EDRP) managed by Ofgemhas been conducting trials since 2007 and is expected to be completed in</p><p>2010. Out of four trials, two are being conducted by installing visual</p><p>displays for 8,500 households and smart meters for 18,000 households</p><p>[15].</p><p>o The Government has decided to roll out smart meters from January</p><p>2009 for the large scale non-half hourly metered customers whoseannual consumption is above 732 MWh and is expected to complete</p><p>installation by 2013 [16]. The BERR issued the final consultation on the</p><p>above in January 2008[17].</p><p>o The BERR issued a consultation on smart meters for medium scalecustomers in July 2008. Decisions will be made after the second report</p><p>from EDRP which is due in November 2008 [18].</p><p>o Even though the White Paper expected to mandate the real-timeelectricity display devices to all new and replacement electricity meters,</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 6/15</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>Pages 5 of 14</p><p>after the consultation on policies of the White Paper [14], the</p><p>Government has decided not to proceed with the mandated requirements,</p><p>but intend to work with suppliers to reach a volunteer agreement to</p><p>provide displays in short and medium terms [16].</p><p> Motivators:</p><p>o CO2 emission reduction and to meet 20% energy saving expected in2020.</p><p>o Energy saving by providing information through accurate bills and realtime displays.</p><p> Technology:o The reports imply that the meters to be installed will be AMM Interval</p><p>meter. The White Paper wants to have import-export tariffs and EDRP</p><p>trails are using combined electricity and gas meters.</p><p>Worldwide initiatives and policies to deploy smart meters</p><p>Italy [7][19]</p><p> History and Progress:o From early 1990s Enel had AMR and AMM for energy intensive</p><p>customers.</p><p>o A pilot of 70,000 installations confirmed the technical viability ofDistributed Line Carries on low voltage grid, and also confirmed that the</p><p>retrofitted meters are not cost effective.</p><p>o In 2001 the replacement of electromechanical meters with AMM metersstarted. By 2005, 27 million meters had been replaced.</p><p>o In 2006, the Italian regulatory authority (AEEG) has mandated the fullintroduction of smart meters for all the consumers by 2011</p><p>o The Italian governments timetable is for 65% of customers to be onsmart meters by 2009, 90% by 2010 and 95% by 2011</p><p> Motivators:o They have a large number of visits to consumer premises per year as a</p><p>result of fraud, theft and changing power entitlements. Bad debts were</p><p>difficult to collect due to a number of no go areas which necessitate</p><p>AMR technology.</p><p>o They faced blackouts due to insufficient generation and expectedefficiency improvement through smart meters to alleviate the situation.</p><p> Technology: (See section 0 for details)o AMM Interval Metero Use PLC between meters and transformers and then GSM/fixed lines to</p><p>data centreso Improvements to make AMI is in progress</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Introduction to Smart Meters</p><p> 7/15</p><p>Development of Technical Concepts of DSP into Smart Meters Introduction and world-wide initiatives</p><p>Pages 6 of 14</p><p>United States [2][7][39]</p><p> History and Progress:o USA consumers have been using AMRs for quite sometimeo The Energy Policy Act of 2005 need to offer AMM Interval meters to</p><p>customer who want such meters to be installed within 18 months to</p><p>provide time-of-day-tariff.</p><p>o The act allows specifying three tariffs namely time-of-use prices that isallowed to change twice a year, critical-peak-prices as exception to time-</p><p>of-use price (for certain days) and real time prices that can be changed in</p><p>every hour.</p><p>o Present penetration of smart meters in different states varying from 1%to 53%. The states such as Pennsylvania (53%) and Wisconsin (40%)</p><p>have higher penetration.</p><p>o The states with low penetration such as California (0.3%), Tennessee(0%), Illinois (1.5%), New Jersey (0.4%), and Washington DC (1.4%)</p><p>have taken steps and in the forefront of smart meter (AMI) initiative.</p><p>o The California Public Utilities Commission recently approved theSouthern California Edisons request to replace 5.3 million meters,</p><p>virtually all existing meters, by smart electricity meters in houses andsmall-business sites from 2009 until 2012.</p><p>o At present 6% US customers have Smart Meters and it is projected thatit will rise to 89% by 2012. One study estimates that U.S utilities will</p><p>install 30 million smart meters within next three to four years, a quarter</p><p>of all U.S meters.</p><p> Motivators:o It is challenging to ensure reliable supply during summer peak demand</p><p>periods (due to air conditioners).</p><p> Technology:o AMR Interval Meter and AMIo</p><p>Most of the technologies use radio signals as the communicationmedium</p><p>o All utilities aiming AMI</p><p>Sweden [1][7][23]</p><p> History and Progress:o Studies were started in 2001o In 2003 a bill was passed to mandate new metering regulation requiring</p><p>all energy meters to be read monthly by July 2009 which indirectly</p><p>mandated the introduction of smart meters.</p><p>o Meter installa...</p></li></ul>