Text of Introduction to Realism/Naturalism/Determinism The Rise of Realism: 1860-1914
Introduction to Realism/Naturalism/Determinism The Rise of Realism: 1860-1914
I. The American Renaissance: a giant shift towards humanism after the Civil War
Deism gave rise to Realism in literature Social Darwinism Intercontinental rail system & transcontinental telegraph Influx of immigrants 1860 to 1910
A. Farmers: 1860 to 1919 1860 1919 J.P. Morgan John D. Rockefeller
B. Millionaires: from 100 to 1,000 1860 1875
C. From Debtors to a Major World Power: 1860 - 1914 1860 1914
D. Small Town Mentality Shrinks The small town comfort and security gave way to an empty city life, displayed in the current literature
II. American Authors A.Stephen Crane Red Badge of Courage The Men in the Storm Open Boat
B. Jack London, Call of the Wild, To Build a Fire "The proper function of man is to live, not to exist. I shall not waste my days in trying to prolong them. I shall use my time." - Jack London
III. Realism in literature - the harsh reality of life A. Life is Short: and then you die B. Survivors
IV. Sliding from Theism to Deism, to Romanticism/Naturalism Wm. Faulkner Ernest Hemmingway Stephen Crane John Steinbeck From Providence to Self-Reliance
We see the American understanding of God move from a personal experience to that of an impersonal force, to that of denial of the existence of God.
V. Frontier Humor and Regionalism Began in the 1830s: Casey Jones railway engineer Paul Bunyan giant logger Kit Carson Indian fighter Davy Crockett the scout
A. Local Colorists 1.Mark Twain Samuel Clemens 1835-1910
2. Bret Harte 1839-1902
VI. Naturalism/Realism/Determinism - Common Themes Found in Literary Plots a.The universe is unpredictable, spontaneous, and discontinuous. b.Our fate is determined by our environment, heredity, and chance. c.Free will is an illusion d.Life is a cruel joke
VII. More Realism Authors - Crane, London, and Henry James A philosophy of naturalism A literary expression of determinism
A. Stephen Crane (1871-1900) 1.Maggie: A Girl of the Streets A literary milestone in 1893
A. Stephen Crane (1871-1900) 2. The Red Badge of Courage
A. Stephen Crane (1871-1900) 3. Cranes Poetry A man said to the universe: "Sir, I exist!" "However," replied the universe, "The fact has not created in me A sense of obligation."
A. Stephen Crane (1871-1900) 4. The Open Boat based on a true experience from 1896
4. The Open Boat Like Romanticism, naturalism/realism first appeared in Europe. It daringly opened up the worst of society with such topics as divorce, sex, adultery, poverty, and crime.
B. Samuel Clemens, Mark Twain (1835-1910), journalist, author, satirist All modern literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. Ernest Hemmingway
1. His Style of Humor Deadpan humor Cigar White suit
2. His Life and the Time he lived in The real West
3. Vernacular and Tall Tales The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) Huckleberry Finn (1885)
4. The motifs that are predictable in Twains writing are as follows; A.Vernacular B.Exaggeration C.Humor D.Deadpan narrator E.Unexplained appearance of a mysterious stranger.
5. Mark Twain and God I am plenty safe enough in his hands; I am not in any danger from that kind of a Diety. The one that I want to keep out of the reach of, is the caricature of him which one finds in the Bible. We (that one and I) could never respect each other, never get along together. I have met his superior a hundred times-- in fact I amount to that myself. - Letter to Olivia Clemens, 7/17/1889