Introduction to Industrial Ergonomics BMFP 3553 Industrial Ergonomics Slide 2 BMFP 3553 Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course the student should be able to: Describe human physical abilities and limitations; Apply ergonomics principles to create safe, healthy, efficient and effective activities in the workplace; Evaluate the effectiveness of the work system that they have designed; Design a work system by taken into consideration human capabilities and limitations. Slide 3 Todays objective: Understand the concept of ergonomics Be able to describe ergonomic risk factors Slide 4 Ergonomics Defined Early 1700s, Ramazzinis study of ill-effects of poor posture & poorly designed tools on the health of workers Greek Words Ergon = work, Nomikos = law Ergonomics Study of Work Laws Slide 5 What Is Ergonomics? Modern Definition Science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population Slide 6 Brief History of Ergonomics Ramazzini (1700) - Ramazzini realized that a variety of common workers diseases appeared to be caused by prolonged irregular motions and postures Occupational injury and disease has existed since the beginnings of work. Around 1914-1918, institutions were founded in Britain foroccupational medicine Slide 7 Brief History of Ergonomics 1857 Jastrzebowski from Poland treatise on An outline of ergonomics or Science of Work 1949 the term Ergonomics was coined by Murrell in USA. In USA, the field is known as human factors. Slide 8 What Is Ergonomics? Ergon work Nomos laws of Ergonomics is the laws of work that define the limits to human capability. Slide 9 What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is the science of improving employee performance and well-being in relation to the job tasks, equipment, and the environment. Ergonomics is a continuous improvement effort to design the workplace for what people do well, and design against what people dont do well. Slide 10 What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is fitting the job to the person. Slide 11 Applying Ergonomics 1.Study, research, & experimentation Evaluate human traits/characteristics we need to know for engineering design 2.Application & engineering Design tools, machines, shelter, environment, work tasks, and job procedures to fit and accommodate the human Slide 12 Ergonomics Human Machine Work Environment Utmost Goal:Humanization of Work Design with E & E: Ease and Efficiency Slide 13 Slide 14 The Basics of Ergonomics Slide 15 INDUSTRIAL ATHLETE SKILL WILL COACHING GREAT EQUIPMENT Slide 16 Slide 17 Applications of Ergonomics Anatomy Orthopedics Physiology Medicine Psychology Sociology Industrial Engineering Bio-Engineering Systems Engineering Safety Engineering Military Engineering Computer-Aided Design Anthropometry Biomechanics Work Physiology Industrial Hygiene Management Labor Relations Slide 18 Human Machine Systems Slide 19 Ergonomic Risk Factors Repetition Awkward postures Excessive force/Forceful exertions Vibration Static postures Contact stress Extreme temperatures Slide 20 Ergonomic Risk Factors Repetition Ex: Assembly Line work Doing the same thing over and over again Thousands of keystrokes typing Hours of filing, day after day Stamping dozens of papers Frequent lifting Repeated motions with computer mouse Slide 21 Ergonomic Risk Factors Forceful exertions Lifting heavy weights Exerting too much force to operate something Slide 22 Ergonomic Risk Factors Awkward postures refer to positions of the body (limbs, joints, back) that deviate significantly from the neutral position while job tasks are being Slide 23 Ergonomic Risk Factors Contact Stress : results from occasional, repeated or continuous contact between sensitive body tissue and a hard or sharp object. Slide 24 Static postures Static postures (or "static loading") refer to physical exertion in which the same posture or position is held throughout the exertion. Why are static postures bad? Static postures will impede the flow of blood that is needed to bring nutrients to the muscles and to carry away the waste products of muscle metabolism. Slide 25 TEMPERATURE Cold environments impair sensory and motor function, reduced manual dexterity and accentuates symptoms Hot environments promote fatigue, overwhelms the bodys ability to deal with heat. Slide 26 VIBRATION Contributes to circulatory, skeletal, and neurological impairment and fatigue Can be local, such as: Use of hand tools Can be whole body, such as: Riding in truck Operating jackhammer, floor buffers...etc Slide 27 FORCE + REPETITION Slide 28 + POSTURE + NO REST = Slide 29 ADD IT ALL UP --- CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS!! Slide 30 MECHANISMS OF INJURY DEVELOPMENT Increased tendon length Inflammation and pain Tissue remodeling and scarring Decreased structural integrity Soft tissue and bone destruction Sustained muscle contraction Repetitive motions Awkward postures Neurovascular disorders Compression of nerves and arteries on hard surfaces Vibration Sustained muscle contraction, repetitive motion and awkward postures Slide 31 Summary Define ergonomics according to your understanding. What is awkward posture? List down THREE of the ergonomic risk factors. Slide 32 THE END!!