Introduction to Humanities ComputingSpring 1999Lecture Six
Passport to Tour
What is the importantConcept from Computer Confluence Chapter 6 Devoted to spread sheetsWhich is transferable to The world of text analysis?
Dartmouth Dante Database Project DDP is still best accessed via Telnet. The address remains:
at the prompt type
What is an electronic text?Can you provide examples?
What type of electronic text will survive?
What is a electronic text?Any string of charactersAny file or document that can be readA word processing fileA text file
Types of Electronic Texts
Literary textLinguistic corpusHypermedia work
A variety of formsWWW site (Hypermedia)
Myst, Macbeth (Software, Text, and Media)
MS Word formatted file (Wordprocessing)
ASCII Text file (aka Flat File)
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange0 Null3 EOT (end of text)13 CR (carriage return) 32 SP (space) 48 0 49 1 65 A97 a, 98 b, 99 c ...
Coding StandardsASCII = 7 bits per character128 characters - 7 bits per character32 Reserved for printing infoRest for printing charactersExtended ASCII = 8 bits or 1 byte, 256 characters, upper ASCII characters used for special characters, characters with diacritical marks & ligaturesUNICODE = 16 bit character set65,000 characters - most known languages
Why?Cross-PlatformLong-term survival of dataYou can use it to encode more complex documents using markup (SGML)
ASCII Text + Markup = Electronic Representation of Literary Text
WelcomeWelcome to 3F03This is the home page for 3F03Quantitative Methods in the Humanities Franais
In HTML all formatting provided by codes using ASCII characters
Limits of HTMLNo codes for many of the features: Character, Author, Text type, Sonnet, Lines
Text analysis software cant handle it
Languages other than English
COCOA MarkupContinuous TagsDo note require closing - change valueFormat: (angled brackets < > are delimiters)Example
THE MISUNDERSTANDINGA PLAY IN THREE ACTSTo my friends of the THEATRE DE L'EQUIPECHARACTERS IN THE PLAY:THE OLD MANSERVANT ...MARIALE MALENTENDU (THE MISUNDERSTANDING) was presented for the first time at the Theatre des Mathurins, Paris, in 1944
Noon. The clean, brightly lit public room of an inn. Everything is very spick and span.
He'll come back.Did he tell you so?
Brief HistoryText Analysis ToolsText-analysis tools grew out of concordances:1247, Concordance to the Vulgate Bible, Paris1949, Father Busa Index Thomisticus1970s, Batch Concordancers like OCP1989, TACT - Interactive Concordancers1990s, Textual Visualization
What can be done...Text-analysis tools provide SpeedComplex SearchesReconfigured ViewsStatistics Researchers can generate custom concordances interactively
Concordances and InterpretationConcordances provide an alternative arrangement of the text that brings passages together into a concordantia.Interpretative strategy where answers are drawn from the text by assembling passages on the subject in question and reading this rearranged text as a meaningful whole.Concordance facilitates this rearrangement providing alternative views.
Types of Text-AnalysisStylisticDescribing authors style and comparing itAuthorship studiesLinguisticCreate representative corpusDescribe linguistic use (diachronic or synchronic)Thematic Finding patterns (words & phrases) in a textFollowing themes through a workComparing themesDemands a reiterative reading
Problematic equationsThat a theme is the passages where a set of words appearCan themes be identified by key words?What about ambiguous words?That concording passages into a new text is an acceptable interpretative strategyWhere does the passage start and end around a word?Is reading a rearranged text appropriate?That the distribution of words indicates the progress of a themeDo the number of hits indicate intensity of theme?
Whats the connectionInterpretation (Understanding)Surface Measurement (Quantification)
Two ViewsText-analysis is about proving things about texts
Stylistic analysis provides reproducible descriptions of authors style
Measurement of surface features allows us to prove more interesting points
Reaction to impressionistic reader oriented literary theory
Text-analysis is the rereading a text in ways that help one better understand it
Text-analysis is only one of many strategies
Text-analysis reveals anomalies to be researched
Text-analysis is useful precisely because the computer cant do well what human readers do well, and can do other things well
E-Text Research ProjectPlanningPrototypingScanningor BuyingProofingTraditionalResearchMarkupInteractive StudyPlanning PhaseImplementation PhaseResearch PhasePublication
Obtaining an E-textAcquire one from someone else.Oxford Text ArchiveSearch the Internet using WWWCommercial VendorsCreate it yourselfScan it using OCR softwareOCR = Optical Character RecognitionType it in or hire services for inputMarkupValidate
Quick Q&A Have they done evening classes before?Spring Session?Group work?