Introduction to Cisco IOS XR Cisco Next-Generation ... to Cisco IOS XR Cisco Next-Generation Operating System ... Config Management using ... ‒No process memory protection IOS XR started in 1997 as

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  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Introduction to Cisco IOS XR Cisco Next-Generation Operating System

    Jorge Alonso Ayala CCIE SP # 28.145

    BRKARC-3980

    jorayala@cisco.com

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Agenda

    IOS-XR Architecture and Feature Overview Modularity, Distributed Architecture, HA, Security, Manageability, SDRs

    IOS-XR Boot images and Installation Config Management using CLI Protocol Configuration and Verification

    RPL, OSPF, Static, BGP IOS XR Operation and Monitoring Tools

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Acronyms

    SDR Secure Domain Router RPL Route Policy Language SMU Software Maintenance Unit LPTS Local Packet Transport Protocol IMDB In Memory Data Base DRP Distributed Route Processor AIB Adjacency Information Base IDB Interface Data base ISSU In Service Software Upgrade

    IFIB Internal Forwarding Information Base

    pIFIB- Pre-IFIB

    PIE Package Installation Envelope

    IPFRR - IP Fast Reroute

    LFA Loop Free Alternate

    NSF Non- Stop Forwarding

    BCDL- Bulk Content Downloader

    dSDRSC Designated SDR Shelf Controller

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    History of IOS XR

    IOS originally optimized for slow CPUs (1987) CPUs performing all switching operations No pre-emptive multitasking No process memory protection

    IOS XR started in 1997 as IOS NG Engineering-initiated clean up project Initially focused on 7200

    Called ENA in 2000 focused on GSR 2001 refocused on CRS-1 2004 Official release on CRS-1 (version 2.0) 2005 Released on 12000 (version 3.0) 2009 Released on ASR 9000

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Router OS Evolution

    Control Plane Applications

    Forwarding Plane Applications

    Network Stack

    System Infrastructure

    Forward Infrastructure

    OS Scheduler Man

    agem

    ent P

    lane

    App

    licat

    ions

    HA

    Infr

    astr

    uctu

    re

    Control Plane Data Plane Management Plane

    Control Plane Data Plane Management Plane

    Control Plane Data Plane Management Plane

    BG

    B

    RIP

    ISIS

    OSP

    F

    Rou

    ting

    PIM

    IGM

    P

    RIB

    L2 D

    river

    s

    AC

    L

    FIB

    QoS

    LPTS

    Hos

    t Ser

    vice

    PFI

    Inte

    rfac

    e

    CLI

    SNM

    P

    XML

    Net

    flow

    Ala

    rm

    Per.f

    Mgm

    t

    SSH

    SSH

    SSH

    Checkpoint DB Multicast IPC System DB

    Distributed Infrastructure

    Memory Mgmt IPC Mech Synch. Services Scheduler

    Kernel System Services

    Monolithic Kernel Centralized Infrastructure Integrated Network stack Centralized applications

    Micro Kernel Distributed Infrastructure Independent Network stack Distributed applications

    2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential BRKARC-3980 5

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    IOS XR Modular Packaged Software

    Upgrade specific packages/Composites Across Entire system

    Useful once a feature is qualified and you want to roll it without lot of cmd Targeted Install to specific cards

    Useful while a feature is being qualified Reduces churn in the system to card boundary

    Point Fix for software faults

    DRP LC RP

    SC

    Manage- ability Security

    GMPLS Multi-cast

    Optl

    Mandatory

    Optl

    Mand

    Optl

    Mand

    Mand

    Mand

    RPL BGP

    ISIS OSPF

    Forwarding

    Base

    Admin

    OS

    Base

    OS

    Forwarding

    Forwarding

    Manage- ability Security

    GMPLS Multi-cast

    RPL BGP

    ISIS OSPF Base

    OS

    Line Card

    GMPLS Multi-cast

    Base

    Admin

    OS

    2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential BRKARC-3980 6

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Distributed Control Plane

    Routing protocols and signaling protocols can run in one or more (D)RP

    Each (D)RP can have redundancy support with standby (D)RP

    Out of resources handling for proactive planning

    RP2 RP3 RP4 RPn RP1

    RESILLIENT SYSTEM PROCESS DISTRIBUTION

    BGP IS-IS MPLS Multi-cast BGP

    2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential BRKARC-3980 7

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Distributed Forwarding Infrastructure

    Single stage forwarding Single global Adjacency Information

    Base (AIB) distributed to all line cards Single global Interface Management DB

    distributed to all line cards Only Ingress FIB forces forwarding

    features to be run in RP

    Two stage forwarding Each line card has independent AIB only

    for local interfaces Each line card has independent Interface

    DB for local interfaces Both Ingress and Egress FIB allows

    forwarding features to be independently run in LCs

    LC

    RP

    LC

    FIB

    Global IDB & AIB

    CPU

    CPU

    Switching Fabric

    IP Stack IM Netflow

    PPP ARP VLAN

    Drivers

    RP

    LC LC

    CPU

    CPU Ingress FIB

    Ingress AIB & IDB

    Egress FIB

    Egress AIB & IDB

    Switching Fabric

    Global Int. Mgr.

    LC-CPU

    IM VLAN PPP

    HDLC Netflow ARP

    2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential BRKARC-3980 8

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Protected Process Memory Space

    Each process has a virtual memory space Kernel/MMU maps virtual address to physical address (at page level) Threads share the memory space

    One process cannot corrupt anothers memory Process can only access virtual space In IOS all processes shared same virtual space

    Communication between processes via controlled APIs Limited use of shared memory 0x000000

    OSPF

    1

    2

    3

    0x00000 0x10000 0x20000

    0x100000

    0x200000

    0x300000

    0x400000

    0x500000

    0x600000

    0x700000

    0x800000

    0xa00000

    0x900000

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Process Restart Microkernel Architecture Enables Restart of Most Processes

    Microkernel IOS XR

    Kernel BSD based routers

    Monolithic IOS (7200, 12k (IOS)

    Timers Scheduler Timers Scheduler Timers Scheduler

    BGP OSPF

    EIGRP ISIS

    RIP VPN

    SSH Telnet Server

    IPv4 Forwarding

    ACLs LDP

    TCP/IP Drivers

    BGP OSPF ISIS

    RIP VPN

    SSH Telnet Server

    IPv4 Forwarding

    ACLs

    LDP BGP OSPF

    EIGRP ISIS

    RIP VPN

    SSH Telnet Server

    IPv4 Forwarding

    ACLs LDP

    TCP/IP Drivers TCP/IP Drivers

    Green areas cannot restart

    Microkernel includes minimal functionality Non-kernel processes can be restarted Critical to HA, ISSU, and MDR functions Restarting many processes can be tricky

    Dependent processes may also need to restart

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    Local Packet Transport Protocol (LPTS) Interoffice Mail for Data Plane

    Enables delivery of data to distributed processes across the system hardware (RPs, DRPs) Used for for_us packet prioritization and filtering

    Sends for us packets only to the nodes that want them Uses HW policers to throttle for us traffic Applies to data plane traffic, not IPC

    Integral firewall to protects router resources - Packet forwarding executed in HW - no impact on Line Card CPU

    Dynamic adjustment - Flow types reflect both application type (OSPF, BGP, ) and trust (established, configured or unknown peer) - Additional bandwidth allowed once neighbor up

    LC

    RP DRP

    LPTS

    LC LC

    Interoffice Mail for Data Plane LC/RP CPU guard

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    IOS-XR Key Features

    Modular Runtime SW upgrade/downgrade support

    Distributed scaleable with multi chassis support Platform Independent POSIX compliant

    Management Interface Unified Data Model (SNMP/XML)

    High Availability Hot Standby and Process Restart

    Security Control, Data and Management Plane Logical Router Router Partitioning

  • 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Cisco Public

    What is a Secure Domain Router- SDR?

    Independent/isolated physical routing instance within a common (multi-) chassis

    Each RP & LC in chassis uniquely allocated to a specific LR

    Resource sharing between LRs is limited to fabric, power, cooling

    Acts as an independent router Processors not shared CPU

    resources not in contention Memory not shared Memory

    leaks can only affect that SDR Hardware Failures Isolated

    Multicast BGP/IGP Multicast

    SPA/SIP

    n

    SPA/SIP

    SPA/SIP

    Carrier Class IOS XR

    Rou

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