Introduction to Aluminum Use in Automotive1pp2jy1h0dtm6dg8i11qjfb1- 2014 F150 (kg) Aluminum 2015 F150

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  • Introduction to Aluminum Use in

    Automotive The Aluminum Transportation Group

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Russ Long

    Arconic

    Chief Engineer – Ground Transportation Products

    Presenter

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 1 Agenda – Introduction

    • Value of lightweighting

    • Common automotive aluminum uses

    • Potential weight savings

    • CAFE overview

    • Current BIW and closure applications

    • Alloy and temper designations

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 1 Agenda – Aluminum Sheet Use

    • Aluminum sheet production –

    flowpath

    • Aluminum alloys commonly used for

    BIW and closures

    • Sheet properties

    • Yield, ultimate and elongations as

    received

    • Properties after paint bake

    • Natural aging

    • Formability measures

    • Joining – spot welding, SPR,

    adhesives, flow drill screws, etc.

    • Design example – aluminum hood,

    aluminum door

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 1 Agenda – Extrusion Use

    • Extrusion process

    • Common auto applications

    • BIW components

    • Bumpers, crash boxes

    • Extrusion alloy properties

    • T4 versus T6 temper

    • Specialty alloys – crush, high

    strength for bumpers

    • Geometric limitations and guidelines

    for extrusion design

    • Design example – bumper

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 2 Agenda – Extrusion Fabrication • Extrusion process (review)

    • What is post-extrusion processing?

    • Machining

    • Joining

    • Bending

    • Coating

    • Summary

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 2 Agenda – Casting Applications

    • Foundry processes and castings evolution​

    • Casting alloys and designation system

    • Foundry metallurgy essentials (101)

    • Permanent mold and die casting alloys

    • 356.2 series, 354, 355, 357, 359, 413

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 2 Agenda – Casting Applications • High integrity aluminum structural die casting​

    o Conventional vs. high pressure vacuum die castings​

    o Case study​

    o Requirements and factors affecting thin wall structural casting​

    o Properties and tempers F-T4-T5-T6-T7

    • Joining​

    • Modeling​

    • Stress-engineering strain curves

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Day 2 Agenda – Corrosion and Repair • Introduction

    • Objective

    • Importance of aluminum surface technologies

    • Impact of corrosion in automotive

    • Surface influence on several automotive applications and in-service performances

    • Factors determining rate of corrosion

    • Typical forms of corrosion in automotive body sheets

    • Sources of oxidation in aluminum processing

    • Methods to control and improve surface quality of aluminum

    • Influence of pretreatment on adhesive bonding in automotive joints

    • Repair of aluminum panels and BIW parts

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Aluminum Use in Automobiles Aluminum use is growing both in total

    weight per vehicle and as a % of curb

    weight

    Includes all aluminum use (powertrain, BIW,

    closures and suspension aluminum)

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Common Uses of Aluminum

    Suspension components

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group 12

    BIW and Closures

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Aluminum BIW and closure use increasing and as engines get smaller,

    engine block/transmission weight is reduced.

    BIW and Closures

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Dramatic Weight Reduction Across All Applications

    Potential weight savings with aluminum

    D-class vehicle

    • 10% reduction in curb weight gives a 6% improvement in fuel economy

    • Initial OEM focus is on closure panels

    • OEMs are developing future aluminum intensive body structures due to greater mass savings potential

    • Secondary weight savings are reductions associated with subsystems driven by curb weight (for pass cars — often 25% of primary savings)

    • The savings shown will result in a 10-14% curb weight reduction (for ICE vehicles)

    Steel (1)

    (kg)

    Aluminum

    (kg)

    Typical Wt.

    Saving (kg)

    %

    saving

    Hood 16 8 8 50

    Fenders 7 3.5 3.5 50

    Deck lid 17 9 8 47

    Doors 73 43 30 41

    BIW 328 209 119 36

    Total 441 272.5 168.5 44.870

    50 kg

    saved

    Percentage of BIW + closure weight

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Weight and Size History

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Fuel Economy Regulations – Worldwide

    Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Fleet Average Passenger Vehicle GHG Emissions Fleet

    Average

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

    EU

    Japan

    South Korea

    China

    US

    Solid Lines = Actual Std.

    Dotted Lines = Estimated Std.

    Conversion factor between fuel economy and CO2 emissions:

    • 8887 g CO2 per gallon of gasoline

    • 10180 g CO2 per gallon of diesel

    M P

    G (C

    A F

    E T

    e s t C

    y c le

    N o rm

    a liz

    e d )

    70

    90

    110

    130

    150

    170

    190

    210

    230

    250

    270

    2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

    Solid Lines = Actual Std.

    Dotted Lines = Estimated Std.

    G -C

    O 2 /k

    m (N

    E D

    C T

    e s t C

    y c le

    N o rm

    a liz

    e d )

    Regulations only get tougher moving forward

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    US CAFE Standards are Size Based

    How can auto OEMs get to 50 to 60 MPG? I don’t get near this fuel economy with my car!

    20.0

    25.0

    30.0

    35.0

    40.0

    45.0

    50.0

    55.0

    60.0

    65.0

    35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0

    T

    a

    r

    g

    e

    t

    M

    P

    G

    Footprint (square feet)

    CAFE Targets for Passenger Cars

    2012 Car target

    2016 Car target

    2017 Car target

    2018 Car target

    2019 car target

    2020 Car target

    2025 Café Target

    Chrysler 300MalibuCruzeFiesta

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    US CAFE – Light Truck Targets

    What is a light truck?

    20.0

    25.0

    30.0

    35.0

    40.0

    45.0

    50.0

    55.0

    30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

    T

    a

    r

    g

    e

    t

    m

    p

    g

    Footprint (sq ft)

    Truck CAFE targets

    2012 Truck target

    2016 truck target

    2017 Truck target

    2018 Truck Target

    2019 truck target

    2020 truck target

    2025 truck target

    F150 DurangoGrand

    Cherokee

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    Low Friction Lubricants

    Engine Friction Reduction

    VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP)

    Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL) on OHV

    Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)

    Combustion Restart

    Turbocharging and Downsizing

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Boost

    6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans with Improved Internals

    Dual Clutch or Automated Manual Transmission

    Electric Power Steering

    Improved Accessories

    Belt mounted Integrated Starter Generator

    Mass Reduction (1.5% of Curb Weight)

    Mass Reduction (3.5 to 8.5% of Curb Weight)

    Low Rolling Resistance Tires

    Low Drag Brakes

    Aero Drag Reduction

    % Improvement in Fuel Economy

    3.5 – 6%

    Ref: Corporate Average Fuel Economy for MY2012-MY2016 Passenger Cars

    and Light Trucks – Final Regulatory Impact Analysis, NHTSA, March 2010

    14 – 25%

    5.5 – 9.5%

    Drivetrain Alone Cannot Provide the Fuel Savings Required by 2020

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    M P

    G R

    e q u ir e m

    e n ts

    Multi-material

    High Volume Auto Body Evolution

    Steel & Aluminum Hybrid (High scrap utilization, Steel to aluminum joining)

    Tailoring Products

    Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (Strength & ductility for safety, Robust joining)

    Aluminum Closures (Increased formability for design/styling)

    Evolution of auto design scenarios

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Aluminum BIW are Not New

    1922 Ford Model T

  • 2019 Aluminum Transportation Group

    Grumman LLV

    US Postal delivery trucks began production in 1987

    Vehicle design life was 24 years and

    was extended to 30 years in 2009

  • 2019 Aluminum