Interfaces of language use, multilingualism and identity ... and identity: school and family ... Different features of grammar, vocabulary, mechnics, ... Interfaces of language use, multilingualism and identity:

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  • Interfaces of language use,

    multilingualism and identity:

    school and family in the

    intergration process

    Maisa Martin

    University of Jyvskyl

    FLIN 16.11.2016

  • Jyvskyl Language Campus

    http://kielikampus.jyu.fi/choose-language/pa-svenska/

  • Theme

    How to support the identity of recently arrived school-aged children?

    What is the relationship between learning the language and the identity of the

    child?

    What goes on in language acquisition in the first year or so?

    What can school do?

    What about the parents? Siblings?

    The role of the immigrant community?

    I ask questions and provide background with research results, you think of answers.

  • Topics

    Language and identity

    Language system, language use

    Language learning

    Multilingualism theory and practice

    Language at school

    Language at home

    Language at the immigrant community

    Examples

  • Language and identity

    Identity only partly stable, changes across the lifespan but also by situation

    and context

    Important to some, not to everyone

    Much dependent on language and the level of language skills (but not

    entirely)

    Lots of research on its composition and dynamic aspects, not reviewed

    here

    Position in the family, gender issues

    The role of the home language(s) and the school language(s)

    Recently arrived children in a fluctuating phase, SLA crucial

  • Stuck by your tongue

  • Language system, language use

    The way we imagine language and language learning influence greatly

    our decisions.

    Language as a stable abstract system, rule-based, vocabulary, grammar

    and meaning separate entities, clear boundaries between languages

    Language as usage-based, concrete chunks which can be modified,

    constantly changing, situated, embodied, vocabulary, grammar and

    meaning all intertwined, no discrete boundaries between languages

    The latter view better suited to multilingual classrooms

  • Dynamic systems theory (DST) (Tilma 2013)

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  • Language learning

    Based on beliefs about language

    Foreign vs. second language distinction disappearing (internet,

    multilingualism)

    Rule-based starting point works better in teacher-controlled situations

    In SLA learning paths are automatically individual as language contacts

    vary. SLA teaching has two goals:

    Provide tools for noticing and learning from environment

    Make sense of chaos

  • Clip Art survey (1)

    Langauge learning as a

    personal activity

  • Clip Art survey (2)

    Language learning as an

    interactive effort

  • Stages of language acquisition

    Step by step Taking turns

  • or

    Spiraling Multidirectional

  • Very comprehensive / wide (overall) scales are

    problematic both in LT and SLA

    C2

    C1

    B2

    B1

    A2

    A1

    C2

    C1

    B2

    B1

    A2

    A1

    At which

    level

    should we

    place this

    learner or

    piece of

    writing?

    Writing

    Different features of grammar,

    vocabulary, mechnics,

    cohesion, sociolinguistic

    appropriatenes, content.

  • Linear scale vs. non-linear learning?

    C2

    C1

    B2

    B1

    A2

    A1

    ? ?

    Does a scale

    such as CEFR

    imply that

    learning is

    linear?

    Whereas in reality, learning is usually

    non-linear

    = view of learning in SLA

    Assessment is often

    a snapshot of

    somebodys

    proficiency at a

    certain point in

    time. It does not

    often contain any

    information about

    how the learner got

    where he/she is

    now.

  • CEFLING PROJECT http://www.jyu.fi/cefling

    The linguistic basis of the Common

    European Framework levels:

    Combining second language

    acquisition and language testing

    research

  • Results on a variety of constructions

    PhD studies:

    Indirect references (passive, you, one etc.) (Seilonen 2013)

    Existential sentences (Kajander 2013)

    Local case expressions (concrete vs. abstract uses) (Mustonen 2015)

    Transitive constructions (Reiman, in progress, also 2011)

    Syntactic complexity (Myllri, in progress)

    MA studies:

    Time expressions, noun phrases, verb chains, negation, possessive expressions, personal pronouns, government

    Other: conjunctions, clauses and sentence borders

    Vocabulary (overall, common verbs, derivation)

  • Overall results

    Idiomatic use by young learners from A1 but with very limited number of

    words

    More variability among adults

    Occurrance of abstract entities in the constructions grows A>B>C but much

    task-related, development of complexity qualitative

    Accuracy reached earlier by young writers

    Frequency of use grows sharply between A2 and B1 (or B1 to B2 with less

    frequently occurring constructions)

    Accuracy grows sharply between B1 and B2 (or B2 and C1)

  • Implications for theory and teaching

    Frequency of use precedes accuracy: proof for usage-based approaches

    (as opposed to rule-based)

    Construction-based approach: still in its infancy but promising, can show

    the development from many angles simultaneously

    Teaching: Practising until (near) perfection less useful than extensive use

    and opportunities to expand the constructions

  • Tools for learning

    Mobile phones bring all languages into the classroom and language

    learning tools out of the classroom > learner agency, unlimited affordances,

    situated learning

    Games and virtual worlds

    Motivation

    Provides or simulates new ways to use languages

    Makes room for individual learning paths

    Do the skills transfer to other domains of language use?

  • Multilingualism

    Related to social equality (vs. discrimination) and inclusion (vs. exclusion)

    Nearly all classrooms are multilingual

    Monolingual habitus of the educational system (Hlot, Bordieau)

    Multilingualism as a starting point is difficult to imagine

  • Translanguaging

    How to do it in practice: Christine Hlot, Ofelia Garca

    An example: A classroom book of languages

    New curricula in Finland:

    Language aware school

    All teachers are language teachers

  • Finnish across the lifespan

    In-service training project by Jyvskyl Language Campus 2011 2013, financed by the Ministry of Education

    Goal: to involve people in and out of school system to help families as a whole

    Directed to all groups working with immigrants in a given community

    Hard to recruit people other than teachers

    Six modules with 2 3 days in Jyvskyl and one day working visits to he work sites of the participants between the modules, pre- and intermediatetasks, developing project as the final product, dissemination via publications

    Work place visits a success, enlargened to target audience, made people talk to each other

  • Back to the theme

    How to support the identity of recently arrived school-aged children?

    What is the relationship between learning the language and the identity of the

    child? Does the identity change when the child is moved from the entrance class

    to the ordinary class?

    What goes on in language acquisition in the first year or so? Learning skills,

    phonological awareness, speech patterns, school language

    What can school do? Inclusion.

    What about the parents? Siblings? Involvement.

    The role of the immigrant community? Support or hindrance?

    I ask questions and provide background with research results, you think of answers.