Introduction: An intelligent building is one that provides a productive and cost effective environment through optimization of its 4 basic components and interrelation b/w them: Structure Systems Services and Management
It is also possible to convert an existing building into an intelligent building by installing integrated systems. An intelligent building helps an organization to fulfill its objectives by facilitating the management of these resources and thereby increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.
DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS: The Intelligent Building Design has eight different aspects. Every aspect is important for the making a building efficient. The following are the aspects: 1) Energy efficient Building services with proper selection of equipment 2) Building Automation system 3) Information management 4) System integration 5) Communication wiring system and network design 6) Facility management 7) Technology Maintenance 8) Intelligent Building technology and design
People began talking about intelligent buildings' in the early 1980s. The need for a more efficient and integrated control of the systems within a building began to be felt as workplaces began to be increasingly computerized. An intelligent building was described as one which `combines innovations, technological or not, with skilful management, to maximizes return on investment.
Another definition of intelligent building solution is that An intelligent building provides these benefits through automated control systems such as: heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning; fire-safety, security, and energy/lighting management.'
Need of Intelligent Buildings: With the increase in world population and the realization of how we pollute the environment with waste products, as well as increasing wealth encouraging the individual to consume more non- renewable resources, concern is now felt for our failure to appreciate the finite and finely balanced nature of the biosphere. Developers, designers and contractors are responsible for the resource demands of the environment they create, whereas owners and occupants are responsible for the waste products they produce. Everyone has to contribute towards evolving a sustainable workplace. Intelligent buildings must stem from a belief in sustainability and the need for social responsibility.
To reduce cost of the building
How technology helped provide energy efficiency and a superior environment :
FEATURE Dimmable fluorescent lighting integrated with sun blind control
BENEFIT Optimal lighting level and quality can be determined by the occupants.
Lighting control with motion sensors integrated with security Natural and displacement ventilation.
Only provide lighting as needed. Reduces energy use and increases security. More efficient and effective distribution of ventilation. Energy efficiency. Improved comfort is shown to improve productivity. Improved comfort, reduced energy use. Improved energy efficiency and sustainability.Improved security while reducing energy use.
Use of economizers for free cooling. Individual temperature and lighting control. Radiant heating and cooling. Combined heat and power plants. After hours control of lights and HVAC integrated with security.
TCIL BHAWAN-NEW DELHI (Case study)Telecommunications Consultants India Limited TClL did the architectural design & engineering, and constructed two twin towers for creating ultramodern office infrastructure for TClL and VSNL, in an area of 100,000 square ft. The TCIL Bhawan building is designed and equipped as an Intelligent Building, to take into account the requirements of a modern corporate office of a multinational company. An Intelligent Building provides a productive, cost effective environment through optimization of structure, systems, services and management as well as inter-relationship between them.
The following are the main subsystems of the intelligent building provided in the TClL Bhawan: Access Control System Building Management System Closed Circuit Television Fire Alarm System Public Address system Uninterrupted Power Supply Communication and IT Network Rain Water Harvesting
ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM Access Control System is for Management & Control of the staff and visitors to the building, Monitoring entry and exit timings and Attendance record of the employees thus relating it with leave record of employees, which in turn help in automating the preparation of salary. Access Control is provided with Access Control Cards with photo identity for higher security. All employees of TClL have been provided with the Access Control Cards. The visitors are also provided the access control Cards during their visit to TCIL.
Study intelligent building systems with respect to Access control and security systems:Life Safety and Security Systems Access Control System Surveillance Intrusion Detection Fire Detection Burglar Alarm System
Access Control System A) Smart card identification system B) integrated smart card and biometric system. C) Biometric identification systems.
Smart card identification system: Smart card contains a computer chip programmed with personal information about the card holder and the access point the individual is allowed to enter.
Smart cards can be divided into 3 categories Contact cards are the kinds dominating at the present. They have to be moved past a reader. Contactless cards need only to come into close proximity of the reader. Combi cards could be used in both situations. Their main attraction is that one card could fill many purposes, such as credit card, bank card, membership card, ID-card, etc, all in the same card.
Contactless cards can be used for various applications: Biometrics Time and Attendance Secure Authentication Guard Tour Information Health Records Equipment and Material Check-out Transit Passes Loyalty and Membership Programs Digital Cash Lighting and HVAC Control and Billing
Biometric Identification Biometric refers to the automatic identification or authorization of a living person based on his unique physiological and behavioral characteristics. The Biometric Identification System Comprise Of a) Hand print and finger print: The unique biometric data in the employees fingerprint is recorded along with their personnel number and stored in finger print reader terminals, And when an employee gives his/her fingerprint for identification, the reader scans it and then allows authorized personnel access
b) Combination of finger print and card identification: In a finger print sensor, the finger under investigation is usually pressed against a flat surface, such as side of a glass plate. The ridge and valley pattern of the finger tip is sensed by a sensing mean such as interrogating light beam. In order to capture an image of a fingerprint, a system is prompted through user entry that a finger tip is in place for image capture.
c) Iris identification Iris scan biometrics employs the unique characteristics and features of the human iris in order to verify the identity of an individual.
d) Facial recognition Facial recognition analyses facial characteristics. It requires a digital camera to develop a facial image of the user for authentification. e) Voice identification Voice identification device measure the imaged spectrum of the voice over time. Changes in sound frequency are measured. Surveillance Video surveillance enables you to: Capture images of unauthorized facility access (great for collocation buildings) Visually confirm who is at a door before giving them access to the facility. Visually confirm critical environmental conditions Assist technicians at remote facilities Check the weather status of remote sites (This can be crucial-imagine flying a technician to the top of a mountain only to find out it's snowed in)
Intrusion Detection With all security applications working together, incidents are instantly detected, identified, reported, and acted on. Automated Locks Automated locking system converts the mechanical lock into an automatic access control system.
Security lights: Motion sensor lights are the favorite of many buildings, we can install them in the outdoor and when it detects movement that is within its coverage or range then it will automatically lit up that specific area. Burglar Alarm System It basically is just a simple electrical burglar alarm that is built right into a home or business entry. These alarms go off when they detect some kind of foreign intrusion. Closed Circuit Television Closed Circuit Television is provided for surveillance through outdoor/ indoor cameras at different locations inside and outside the buildings. These typically include Building entry, Main gate, Power station, Parking area, Reception area and Lift lobby. The cameras are equipped with Pan, Tilt, Zoom facility as well as continuous recording facility. Inputs from all cameras are fed to a Multiplexer through which the output of each camera can be viewed on CCTV monitor in defined interval.
Security doors Taking steps to protect and prevent assaults, illegal invasions, thefts and other unlawful actions by intruders. Styles are available for the business, residential, urban, country or beach get-a-way. Steel security doors generally come in two finishes, MDF and laminate also called transfer printing. The MDF consists of steel and wood materials. This makes the door more resistant to damage caused by moisture and mechanical effects.